Document Sample
					                                                          LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES

                                                     March 13, 2009
                                                     Dear Hagley Library Users and Friends,
                                                     Spring is just around the corner, and everything is coming up
                                                     green at the Library.
                                                     Researchers, collection development, and our digitization efforts
                                                     made for a busy few months. As you will see when you read the
                                                     articles below, Hagley has once again received some fascinating
                                                     new collections. We hope that you will visit us and enjoy these
A springtime view of the Hagley Library.             new acquisitions.

                                                     Collections Storage – Hall of Records
                                                     The Hagley Museum and Library remains committed to its
                                                     responsibility of stewardship of our nationally significant
                                                     artifacts and library research collections. Our treasures are a
                                                     legacy worthy of proper care for the benefit of future generations.
                                                     One of the institution’s most pressing needs has been to build
                                                     an environmentally controlled space in the Hall of Records for
                                                     the museum collections and our business and technological
                                                     history library. The Hall of Records, a massive 32,000 square foot
                                                     structure, which originally served as DuPont’s records center,
                                                     required considerable updating for specialized collections storage.
                                                     The necessary work was extensive and included environmental
                                                     systems and controls, interior modifications, a new roof, enhanced
                                                     security, and museum storage equipment.
                                                    After first inspecting the Hall of Records, Michael Henry, of
                                                    Watson & Henry Associates, Hagley’s consulting architect
                                                    and engineer, termed it one of the best buildings he had ever
                                                    evaluated for conversion to museum and library collections
                                                    storage. Watson & Henry Associates are regarded as the leading
                                                    firm for this preservation work, with clients all over the world.
                                                    Our construction management firm, EDiS Company, is working

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                                           with us to ensure that the design and construction specifications
                                           of Watson & Henry are met, while simultaneously keeping the
                                           project on schedule and on budget. After more than two years
                                           of planning, analysis, and work, we believe we have developed a
                                           project that meets national preservation standards. Construction
                                           began in October of 2007, and renovations are substantially
                                           completed, with only a few modest punch-list items remaining.
                                           We are grateful to the National Endowment for the Humanities for
                                           $450,000 in support of an overall project budgeted at $4.6 million.
                                           We also received extraordinary support from many individual
                                           donors to our recently concluded capital campaign. This storage
                                           project represented a significant goal of the campaign, and we
                                           extend our gratitude to each and every contributor.
                                           The improved and reorganized space guarantees that our
                                           collections will be preserved for generations to come and ensures
                                           many decades of storage room for future growth.

                                           COLLECTION HIGHLIGHTS

                                           Communication Arts
                                           In December of 2008, Robert Cipriani donated Communication
                                           Arts to the Library Imprints Department. Since 1959, the
                                           periodical has been well known for publishing the best in visual
                                           communications from around the world and for sponsoring
                                           creative competitions recognizing the finest talent in the industry.
                                           Communication Arts showcases advertising design, illustrations,
                                           photography, and interactive designs. Contact the Imprints
                                           Department for more information.

 Door knob signs for the Art with Heart
                                           Eastman Kodak Stores Inc.,
      program for hospitalized children.
                 “Illustration Annual,”
                                           Historical Data Scrapbook
Communication Arts 44, no. 3 (2002).       Hagley’s Pictorial Collections Department recently purchased a
                                           scrapbook kept by employees of the Eastman Kodak Company’s
                                           Boston branch store. The scrapbook documents over a century
                                           of history for the photographic supply firm, from 1845 to 1963.
                                           It is composed of photographs, news clippings, and ephemera,
                                           accompanied by brief journal entries describing employee
                                           news, thefts, and accidents. Of company-wide interest, the
                                           journal mentions releases of new Kodak products and details
                                                 Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 3

   Top left: After developing film dropped off
    by amateur photographers, branch stores
   of the Eastman Kodak Company returned
          photographic prints to customers in
 decorative envelopes like this one from 1918.

       Top right: Employees of Robey-French
 Company pose during the annual Christmas        other important company events, such as the effect of the Great
  party. Many of the young women seen here       Depression on sales in 1933 and the rationing of Kodak film
continued to work at the store for decades and   during World War II. The author writes:
   were later honored by the Eastman Kodak
                                                        In June (1943) as during all the war years, film was rationed.
        Company for their lifetime of service.
                                                        When a supply was put on the shelves there was, of course, almost
                                                        a ‘stampede’ for the public to purchase but one roll per customer.
    Bottom right: Interior of Eastman Kodak
                                                        (Note: One of our counters was moved from its foundation from
       Stores, Inc. During World War II, one
                                                        the force of the public endeavoring to obtain the film!!)
          of the counters was moved from its
         foundation as customers clamored to     In 1902, the Eastman Kodak Company purchased the Boston
               purchase rationed Kodak film.     firm of Horgan, Robey & Co., retailers of photographic goods and
                                                 supplies. The new company was incorporated under the name
                                                 Robey-French Company. Robey-French continued to sell both
                                                 professional and amateur photographic supplies, in addition to
                                                 operating developing and photo-printing services. In 1927, the
                                                 business’s name changed to Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.; in that
                                                 same year, the store opened a second branch in Boston’s Hotel
                                                 Stadler Building. As Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., grew in success,
                 Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 4

                 the firm moved into a number of increasingly larger locations
                 around the city, with such amenities as a projection studio for
                 showing Cine-Kodak motion picture film. In 1961, the business
                 constructed a brand new facility on Needham Street to cater solely
                 to professional photographers.

                 Ernest Dichter and the Birth of an
                 American Icon: Mattel’s Barbie Doll
                 Ernest Dichter (1907-1991) was a Vienna-trained psychologist who
                 came to New York in 1938 to escape the Nazis. In this country, he
                 became a pioneer in the development of the marketing tool known
                 as motivational research, which used psychological techniques,
                 including the “depth interview,” similar to an analyst’s session,
                 to probe the consumer’s innermost desires and expectations
                 surrounding a given product or service. In Dichter’s “Living
                 Laboratory” in his hilltop mansion overlooking the Hudson River,
Ernest Dichter   test groups and families watched commercials and interacted with
                 actual products in a facsimile of a typical middle-class family room.
                 Dr. Dichter was at the height of his fame and influence in 1958-
                 1959 when he received a commission from Mattel, Inc., of Los
                 Angeles to evaluate both parents’ and children’s reactions to
                 some of their products. Much of the work involved toy guns for
                 boys, but for girls, Dichter was to gauge responses to the new
                 Barbie doll, part of a trend toward older dolls for older girls who
                 used them to anticipate adolescent and adult behavior. As one of
                 Dichter’s subjects remarked, “Mine is a business woman. See the
                 navy suit and the flower hat. She is going out to dinner and maybe
                 dancing afterwards. Doesn’t she look smooth?”
                 From his sample of girls, Dichter found a few complaints. The
                 original doll had too much eye makeup, which was corrected, and
                 the neck was too long, which was not. All girls liked the realistic
                 accessories. Those under ten preferred the more spectacular
                 costumes, while those over ten imagined themselves in Barbie’s
                 place: “… look at the spike heels! I like these clothes…They are the
                 most! I would like clothes like that myself.” Not surprisingly, the
                 gold brocade ball gown was the most popular outfit; the cook-out
                 set was the least popular and eventually dropped. Barbie would
                 not spend much time working in front of a hot stove.
                 Most parents thought that Barbie’s sexiness made her an
                 objectionable playmate for girls under ten: “… they could be a cute
                                          Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 5

                                          decoration for a man’s bar.” However, all mothers were impressed
                                          with the quality of Barbie’s wardrobe: “… the fine seams are better
                                          than some of the clothes I buy for the children.”
                                          Dichter concluded, “The doll should be promoted as a toy which
                                          helps develop desirable traits and habits in the children. If this
                                          is done, the parents’ own attraction to the doll will become a
                                          motivating force in favor rather than against the purchase.” He
                                          also noted the importance of peer pressure in boosting sales and
                                          suggested ways to get parents to start with a few basic outfits that
                                          could be expanded by repeat purchases. And so they did.
                                          The Mattel report is but one of almost two thousand that
                                          Dr. Dichter prepared between 1938 and 1988, which survive
                                          among his papers at Hagley. All contain equally candid and frank
                                          assessments by potential consumers in the U.S., Canada, Western
                                          Europe and Mexico, providing a unique window into popular
                                          attitudes and reactions to goods and services, especially in the
                                          boom years of the 1950s and 1960s. All of Dr. Dichter’s reports
                                          and proposals are now open to researchers. Other sections of the
                                          archive will follow during the year.

                                          ON-LINE DIGI TAL A RCH I V ES
                                          The Library has recently put four collections of newly digitized
                                          collection material into the Hagley Digital Archives (http://digital.
        Image of a 1937 bomber from the
Lammot du Pont Aeronautical Collection.

                                          Lammot du Pont Aeronautical Collection
                                          Lammot du Pont, Jr., assembled a large collection of materials
                                          related to aeronautics and the history of flight from the first balloon
                                          flights in 1783 through the 1940s. The collection was donated to
                                          the Hagley Library in 1965. Approximately 400 images from the
                                          collection have been digitized so far, and more will be added in the
                                          future. The collection includes images of balloon races, the round-
                                          the-world flight of the Graf Zeppelin, bombers and fighter planes,
                                          and more than forty images of Charles Lindbergh.

                                          P. S. du Pont/Longwood Collection
                                          This collection, partially digitized with a generous grant from
                                          the Longwood Foundation, includes approximately 3,500 images
                                          collected by Pierre S. du Pont during his lifetime. More than 1,000
                                 Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 6

                                 images from the collection show the development of Longwood
                                 Gardens. Also included are photographs of the du Pont family,
                                 travel images, and a variety of other photos documenting the
                                 interests and activities of P. S. du Pont.

                                 Hagley Research Reports on the History of
                                 the Brandywine Valley
                                 This is a selection of forty-six research reports produced by Hagley
                                 staff and scholars beginning in 1953 for the purpose of developing
                                 the museum’s exhibits and interpretations program. The digitized
                                 reports cover the industrial development of the Brandywine River
                                 Valley and surrounding area, with a particular focus on the early
                                 history of the DuPont Company. All of the reports were produced
                                 using manuscript and secondary sources from the Hagley Library.

                                 Lukens Steel Company Collection
                                 This digital collection contains almost nine hundred images
                                 selected from the Lukens Steel Company photograph collection.
                                 It includes images from woodcuts showing the early history of
                                 the mill, interior and exterior views of factory buildings, various
                                 depictions of machinery, employees both at work and leisure, and
                                 twentieth-century aerial views of the Lukens physical plant. Other
                                 items vary, from philanthropic activities supported by Charles L.
                                 Huston, photographs of the Lukens and Huston families, and the
                                 elaborate celebrations associated with Lukens Steel anniversaries.

                                 Miss America Programs
                                 This collection comprises thirty-two Miss America Pageant
                                 programs, from 1945 to 1967, taken from the Joseph Bancroft
                                 and Sons collection. Joseph Bancroft and Sons served as the
                                 primary corporate sponsor of the pageant from 1945 to 1967. The
                                 programs include information about the pageant and contestants,
           Cover from the 1946
                                 as well as advertising from businesses in Atlantic City and the
Miss America Pageant yearbook.
                                 surrounding area.
                                 To access these digital collections, visit

                                 New Online Exhibit: “Building the Lydonia II”
                                 The Hagley Library is pleased to announce the launch of “Building
                                 the Lydonia II,” an online exhibit of nineteen images from the
                                 Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 7

                                 Pusey and Jones Company that traces the construction of the steam
                                 yacht Lydonia II from the laying of its keel to its first sea trial.
   Completed Lydonia II docked
at the Pusey and Jones Company   The Pusey and Jones Company of Wilmington, Delaware,
 in Wilmington, March 1, 1912.   maintained a photographic record for many of its shipbuilding
                                 and machine contracts from 1870 to 1955. This collection of
                                 photographs was acquired by the Hagley Library in 1970. While
                                 the content varies, the shipbuilding images typically document
                                 important points in the construction process, that is, laying of the
                                 keel, on the shipway, christening, launching, fitting out, and the
                                 sea trial.
                                 The Lydonia II series is the only set scanned in its entirety, but
                                 it is representative of other sequences in the Pusey and Jones
                                 Photograph Collection. Visit this exhibit and other online exhibits
                                 at Approximately 800 of more
                                 than 6,700 images in the Pusey and Jones collection are available
                                 online in the Hagley Digital Archives (
Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 8


Who Uses the Resources of the Hagley Library?
As an internationally regarded research facility dedicated to the
history of business and technology, the Library’s top priority
remains scholars. It was a busy year for the Library, with more
than 21,794 different reference transactions (letters and e-mails,
researcher visits, photo orders, and circulated items) conducted
by Library staff in the Imprints Department and the Pictorial
Collections Department. The Digital Archives is also exponentially
expanding access of the collections to users. From the middle of
May through December of 2008, 33,669 unique visitors consulted
355,775 library informational pages or collection items in the
digital archives.
The collections used in the Library during the past year ranged
from the nineteenth-century merchant and manufacturing records
to twentieth-century industrial design collections. More frequently
consulted collections used this year include the DuPont Company
and the du Pont family, National Association of Manufacturers,
Pennsylvania Railroad Records, J. Howard Pew papers, and this
year, the Ernest Dichter research reports. At the same time, the
range of topics researched remained vast and impressive.
Scholars who need access to large amounts of our materials are
able to apply for a grant to come for a period of time to do their
research here. If you live in the Wilmington area, it is easy to visit
the Hagley Library in person to read our books in the beautiful
setting of our reading rooms. But we serve a public far beyond the
scope of those who venture to our site; this is done through our
active participation in the Interlibrary Loan program.
In 2008, Hagley received more than seven hundred loan requests
from other libraries. Our library is a special collection and many
items are rare. We loan our imprints material to academic and
special libraries in this country if proper handling is ensured. If
an item cannot be loaned, we will attempt to make photocopies,
provided the item will not be harmed in the process.
We carefully balance the opportunity to share our holdings with
as many people as possible with the need to protect the materials
themselves. For example, we had to decline a request this month
for the loan of a book published in Italy in 1597, but we were able
                                                 Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 9

                                                 to fill a request for a photocopy of a rare pamphlet published in
                                                 Philadelphia in 1825.
                                                 We also get direct requests from people from all over the world.
                                                 While we never loan print materials to individuals, we are
                                                 able to make photocopies of many rare pamphlets and trade
                                                 catalogs. Recently Linda Gross, reference librarian, was able to
                                                 provide copies of an Illustrated Price List of Microscopes, Microscopic
                                                 Apparatus, and Optical Instruments, published in 1876, and a catalog
                                                 of Adjustable Holders for Incandescent Lamps, published in 1894.
                                                 We encourage everyone with an interest in our collections to
                                                 search our online catalog at If you find
                                                 something that you would like to see, but you are unable to come
                                                 to our library in person, contact your university interlibrary loan
                                                 librarian about borrowing it, or contact Hagley’s interlibrary loan
                                                 librarian, Linda Gross (, about obtaining a copy.

                                                 The Model Builders
                                                 Much effort and attention is spent in research libraries to
     The layout for this model is based on the   work with students of history who seek to understand the past
industrial landscape of the Great Lakes region   intellectually. However, a portion of our library patrons here at
       in the 1940s and 1950s. This HO scale     Hagley fall under the category of model builders, or people who
model was built by Mike Rabbitt from scratch     seek to understand a subject by literally reconstructing the past.
     and shows a typical steel plant complete    Unfairly, model builders can be dismissed as hobbyists rather
   with all steelmaking facilities and working   than historians. The product of their research may not be written
         commercial and industrial railroads.    in books, but working models have a marvelous ability to capture
                                                 people’s imaginations and teach them about their world.
                                                 A natural evolution in methodology tends to play out among
                                                 modelers. Many novices start out looking solely for props and
                                                 scenery to augment a model railroad set. To an exacting mind,
                                                 however, the process cannot stop there. To build an accurate
                                                 model of a particular railroad, factory, place, or even a moment
                                                 in time, modelers will often visit the scene they wish to recreate.
                                                 Even then, the built environment can offer only so many clues, as
                                                 buildings and technologies are replaced over time. The quest for
                                                 source information gradually leads serious modelers to research
                                                 libraries and historical societies, where they can examine written
                                                 records and photographic evidence to refine their models. In some
                                                 cases, the historical research process itself can ultimately become
                                                 more consuming than the model building.
                                                  Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 10

  Lehigh Avenue and Broad Street Stadiums         The industrial landscape lends itself to such modeling efforts,
             (Dallin Photo ID 70.200.05174).      and the extent of Hagley’s research collections in the realms
                                                  of industry and technology is unparalleled. Hagley’s holdings
The 1929 photo from the Dallin Aerial Survey      include the archives of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation,
shows the area around the Reading Railroad’s      Pennsylvania Railroad Company, E. I. du Pont de Nemours &
  North Broad Street Station in Philadelphia.     Company, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Sun Oil Company,
      A detailed examination of this and other    and the Westmoreland Coal Company, to name just a few. We also
     street-level photos by Ron Hoess allowed     hold the Dallin Aerial Survey, which contains 15,000 aerial views
  him to create model row houses to reflect the   of the Delaware Valley and adjacent areas, taken between 1925 and
 neighborhood housing for his railroad model.     1940. Detailed descriptions of these and other archival collections
                                                  can be found in our online catalog via the library home page at
                                         Our digital archive of photographs and
                                                  full-text documents can be accessed from the library home page as
                                                  well. And, of course, we welcome any questions at (302) 658-2400,
                                                  ext. 227.
                                                  Thanks to Mike Rabbitt and Ron Hoess, two of our regular library patrons,
                                                  volunteers, and model builders, for consulting on this article.
                                               Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 11


                                               Lecture Series
                                               The 2008 lecture series brought four excellent speakers to Hagley.
                                               On October 1, 2008, Dr. Kevin Borg, an associate professor in the
                                               Department of History at James Madison University and former
                                               Hagley Fellow, gave a lecture on his book titled Auto Mechanics—
                                               Technology and Expertise in Twentieth-Century America. Dr. Borg
                                               grew up in a “car household,” as his family owned an auto repair
                                               business; he augmented his personal interest with many years of
                                               research. Following his lecture, Dr. Borg signed copies of his book
                                               and entertained questions from the audience; twenty-nine people
                                               attended the program.
       Nicholas Lowry, lecturing at Hagley.    On October 15, Nicholas Lowry, director of the Poster Division
The lecture complemented the poster exhibit.   of the Swann Auction Galleries in New York City, presented
                                               an entertaining lecture, “Posters as an Art Form.” This lecture
                                               complemented the “Give It Your Best: Workplace Posters in the
                                               United States” exhibition in the Visitors’ Center. Lowry drew from
                                               his extensive experience with Swann, as well as his experiences as
                                               a guest appraiser on PBS’s “Antiques Roadshow.”
                                               Dr. David Kirsch, an associate professor at the Robert H. Smith
                                               School of Business, University of Maryland, talked about his
                                               book, The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, on November
                                               19. Given the economy and the current status of the car industry,
                                               Kirsch’s lecture proved both timely and informative. After the
                                               lecture, audience members, totaling seventy-seven, viewed
                                               several electric vehicles brought by the University of Delaware
                                               and other audience members.
                                               The final lecture, on December 10, by Dr. W. Barksdale Maynard,
                                               featured his newly published book, Buildings of Delaware. The
                                               audience, our largest at 189, responded with great enthusiasm to a
                                               topic of local interest which highlighted the beautiful architecture
                                               that is part of the history of Delaware.

                                               Dr. Eugene McGowan Film
                                               Eighty-four people attended the February 8 premiere of the
                                               Hagley Museum and Library film on Dr. McGowan, Delaware’s
                                               first black psychologist in the public school system. A
                                               Conversation with Dr. Eugene McGowan: African American School
                                                Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 12

                                                Psychologist and Community Activist covered his involvement in
                                                the National Health Association, Delaware Committee for Fair
                                                Practices, Delaware Leadership Council and the Wilmington
                                                and Delaware State chapters of the NAACP. Jeanne Nutter
                                                was the film’s executive producer, and it was funded by the
                                                Delaware Humanities Forum, Delaware Heritage Commission,
                                                Bloomfield College, and the Longwood Foundation. The
                                                premiere took place at the Delaware Center for Contemporary
                                                Art on Wilmington’s waterfront.
                                                The film is based on an interview with Dr. McGowan
                                                conducted ten years ago for the film A Separate Place: The Schools
                                                P. S. du Pont Built, which presented the influence du Pont had
                                                on African American education in Delaware. Hagley has forty-
       In the audience at the film premiere:    five hours of oral interviews with African Americans who
Dr. McGowan, front row. Seated in the row       taught or attended schools built by P. S. du Pont in the 1920s
          behind him, from left to right, are   and has produced two other films drawn from these interviews:
          Dr. Patricia Turner Debnam and        Conversation with Jane Mitchell: African American Nurse and
        Littleton Mitchell.Edward Loper. is     Rev. Maurice J. Moyer: Civil Rights Activist. A short version of A
     seated directly behind Dr. McGowan.        Separate Place is available with a curriculum guide composed of
                                                materials from our collections and suitable for classroom use;
                                                it may be accessed on Hagley’s web page at http://www.hagley.
                                                To obtain copies of any of these films ($10 each), please contact
                                                Roger Horowitz at extension 244 or e-mail

                                                UPCOMING EVENTS
                                                April 4 – Saturday - 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m.
                                                Hagley Fellows Conference: “Unintended Consequences”
                                                Seemingly rational actors make decisions, create institutions,
                                                shape environments, or develop technologies expecting certain
                                                outcomes, but things do not always go as planned. “Unintended
                                                Consequences” seeks to explore the enormous influence of these
                                                inevitable yet unexpected occurrences. Registration required.
                                                Contact Carol Lockman at
                                                April 16 – Thursday – 6 p.m.
                                                 Research Seminar
                                                 Ross Thompson, University of Vermont, presents his paper,
                                                “The Continuity of Wartime Innovation: The Civil War Experience,”
                                                 in the Copeland Room of Hagley Library. Based on broad research
                                                 on American manufacturing, Thompson explains how the
Hagley Library and Archives ~ March 13, 2009 ~ Page 13

production needs stimulated by the Civil War had a dramatic
impact on the productivity of American industries. The lecture is
free. Participants are asked to read the paper in advance; obtain a
copy by contacting Carol Lockman at

Can’t get enough news from the Hagley Library? Good news! We
are now blogging. Check out the new Hagley Library and Archive
blog at
If you have questions about the collections highlighted here or
about using our collections, please contact one of our reference
librarians/archivists at (302) 658-2400.
Marge McNinch, Manuscripts and Archives
Ext. 330,
Judy Stevenson, Pictorial Collections
Ext. 277,
Linda Gross, Imprints
Ext. 227,,
If you have questions about Center programs, please contact Carol
Lockman at ext. 243 or
Please direct general questions to Terry Snyder at ext. 344 or
Thank you for taking the time to read about our new collections,
researchers, activities, and upcoming events. We hope that one or
more of these inspire you to come to Hagley and experience all
that we have to offer. I look forward to seeing you here, and in the
meantime, please accept our best wishes,


Terry Snyder
Deputy Director, Library Administration