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					BeTa-MethodEx                   Version 2, February 2007




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Go to Reference results

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MethodEx Project
For European Commission DG Research
BeTa-MethodEx
Version 2, February 2007
mike.holland@emrc.co.uk

Contents
► About this tool
► Pollutants addressed
► Impacts addressed
► General issues
► Sensitivity analysis possible with BeTa-MethodEx
► Use of BeTa-MethodEx
► Reference results
► Disclaimer

About this tool
BeTa (the Benefits Table database) was originally compiled in 2001 by Mike Holland and Paul Watkiss for DG
Environment of the European Commission based largely on the outputs of the ExternE Project series. The objective
of the database is to provide estimates of the external costs per tonne emission of various pollutants as an
average for each country. It is of course recognised that the damage caused by pollution is not simply a function of
geographic boundaries, but that there can also be significant variation within countries. This is outside the scope of
the database. Uncertainties associated with the modelling scale adopted here are discussed below.
A second version of BeTa was developed in early 2005 as part of the work for European Commission DG
Environment under the CAFE (Clean Air for Europe) programme. Whilst the roots of this work remained in ExternE,
some of the assumptions followed were different, drawing on the stakeholder consultation carried out under CAFE.
Most importantly, the new work used outputs from the EMEP model for the year 2010 for assessment of pollution
chemistry and dispersion, and conclusions from working groups set up by the World Health Organization (WHO)
regarding some of the health impact assessment. The scope of the new database was wider also, with account
taken of all EU Member States except Cyprus, and surrrounding seas, though it did not include escalation factors for
CAFE Methodology reports
CAFE report on the development of BeTa
BREF on Economics and Cross Media Effects
The current version of BeTa has been compiled by Mike Holland, EMRC as part of the MethodEx project for EC DG
Research. Dispersion modelling is again based on EMEP outputs for the year 2010. However, this version provides
greater flexibility than before for sensitivity analysis. In addition to the references given above, readers should also
consult the latest development of the ExternE Project methodology. Reference to the ExternE work provides access
to valuations for a wider range of pollutants than the CAFE work, including greenhouse gases, heavy metals and
dioxins. It also provides an alternative perspective on the risk attributable to different types of particle, though by
ExternE Methodology 2005 update

Pollutants addressed
BeTa provides detailed assessment for the following pollutants:
► Ammonia (NH3)
► Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
► Fine particles (PM2.5)
► Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
► Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
It also provides reference values for various trace pollutants (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, dioxins, formaldehyde,
lead, mercury and nickel) and greenhouse gases expressed against CO2 equivalent.




                                                 Page 2 of 9
Impacts addressed
The main focus for BeTa is the health impacts related to primary and secondary particles, and ozone. Effects of
ozone on crops are also included in the model. Impacts on ecosystems and materials are not included.

General issues
► Price year: 2000
► Discount rate: 3% ExternE, 4% CAFE

Sensitivity analysis possible with BeTa-MethodEx
BeTa-MethodEx permits manipulation of external cost estimates via selection of :
► The country or sea area where emissions arise,
► Different sets of assumptions on response functions and valuation
► Inclusion of 'core' and 'sensitivity' functions, the latter being based on a less robust evidence base than the former
► Thresholds for ozone effects
► Inclusion or exclusion of negative effects of NOx emissions on exposure too ozone
► Valuation of mortality using the value of a life year (VOLY) and value of statistical life (VSL) approaches
► Use of median or mean estimates of VOLY/VSL.

The following options are provided for selection of response functions and valuations:
ExternE 2005
CAFE/WHO
Custom functions and values
The focus here is on the following impacts - chronic effects of particles on mortality, chronic bronchitis from PM
exposure, restricted activity days from PM exposure and acute effects of ozone on mortality. For PM, these effects
provide the largest impacts on health. For ozone, mortality could be the most important impact, depending on how it
is valued. Ozone effects, according to the assumptions of both ExternE 2005 and CAFE, are much less important
than those of PM2.5. It is unclear whether this is a true reflection of their harmfulness, or a result of bias in the
literature. In all cases, information on likely ranges for functions and valuations is provided in the methodology
The most CAFE (particularly Volume 2) ExternE and CAFE referred to.
reports forsignificant differences betweenand ExternE already arise through:
► Differentiation in ExternE between the harmfulness of different types of particle. WHO advice to CAFE was not to
differentiate as the empirical basis for doing so is quantitatively weak (some might go further to say that it is absent).
ExternEfirm preference in ExternE for use of life years and the median estimate of a life year, in contrast to CAFE
► The considers the issue too significant to avoid.
where no preference is given between VOLY and VSL and mean and median values.

The following options are provided for mortality valuation in relation to PM exposure:
Life years lost, VOLY valuation
Deaths, VSL valuation
CAFE did not commit on choice between these options, providing estimates for both, though ExternE firmly favours
the VOLY approach, although it does acknowledge the limitations present in the underlying literature.

The following options are provided for selection of the statistical basis of sampling from mortality valuation studies:
Median
Mean
Again, CAFE did not commit to a choice between the two. ExternE favours the median, on the grounds that it is
more robust as a statistic than the mean when samples are highly skewed (as in the case of mortality valuation), and
could be taken to reflect voting rights. Neither argument can be said to provide a truly solid basis for selection of the
median.
The following are permitted as possible ozone thresholds:
0 ppb (SOMO 0)
35 ppb (SOMO 35)
Whilst WHO, in advising CAFE, did not prefer the threshold position (SOMO 35, sum of means over 35 ppb), it
accepted its use partly because of modelling constraints and partly because it was felt that effects could be
quantified with greater certainty above a threshold. ExternE favours the use of no threshold (SOMO 0).




                                                  Page 3 of 9
A particular complication in the treatment of ozone effects arises as the impact of NOx on ozone concentrations is
non-linear. At high concentrations, additional NOx can decrease ozone levels, the so-called 'titration effect'. At lower
concentrations additional NOx increases ozone levels. In several parts of Europe NOx reduction will therefore
increase ozone until emissions decline to a level at which the slope turns. Given that a significant reduction of ozone
exposures is an objective of European air quality policy, the ideal way to model this here would be to take the slope
defining the relationship between NOx emissions and ozone for current conditions, define a future ambition level, and
Set negative ozone exposures to zero
Use ozone data whether positive or negative
The first of these, setting negative ozone exposures to zero, can be considered as the ExternE position. The
second, using ozone data whether positive or negative, was used in the marginal damage assessment carried out in
CAFE.
Use of BeTa-MethodEx
The worksheet entitled "User Inputs and Results" provides space to enter whatever mix of assumptions a user
considers appropriate. Data can only be entered in cells shaded pink - all other cells are locked and unavailable for
alteration. The top block of cells (headed 'Methodological choices") permits selection of country, ozone threshold,
default set of functions and values and parameters relevant to the quantification and valuation of mortality. Clicking
on these cells provides access to drop down lists - it is advised that users select from these lists to avoid typing
errors.

The second block of cells, headed "Functions, values", permits entry of alternative data on the relative harmfulness
of different particles and response and valuation information for the effects that are most important to the analysis.

The third block of cells provides key outputs.
Reference results
Reference results are provided for three sets of assumptions:
► ExternE core
► CAFE low
► CAFE high
The last two provide the spread of results adopted under the European IPPC Bureau's BREF note on Economics and
Cross Media Effects. Opinion within the MethodEx team lies between the ExternE core and CAFE low values.

Disclaimer
Calculations and the use of outputs are strictly the responsibility of the user of the model.




                                                   Page 4 of 9
BeTa-MethodEx reference outputs                                                     Version 2, February 2007
This worksheet provides values per tonne emission for the major European air pollutants, heavy metals, dioxins, etc., as recommended
in July 2006. The values shown are fixed - too generate new estimates for NH3, NOx, PM2.5, SO2 and VOCs go to sheet "User Inputs
and results".

Greenhouse gas emissions (Source: MethodEx )
Site is unimportant for the                                                €/tonne                  Go to User guide
damage calculation for the            GHGs (CO2-eq) best                       € 19
greenhouse gases, so constant         GHGs (CO2-eq) low                         €8                  Go to User inputs and results
values are assumed for Europe:        GHGs (CO2-eq) high                       € 26

Arsenic, dioxin, lead and mercury (Source: ExternE-Pol and Rabl, personal communication)
For these pollutants, constant                                            €/tonne
damages unrelated to site of          Arsenic                            € 80,000
emission are assumed, given           Dioxin                     € 37,000,000,000
that exposure is via multiple         Lead                              € 600,000
pathways, and food is                 Mercury                         € 6,000,000
transported over long distances:


Cadmium, chromium, formaldehyde and nickel (Source: ExternE-Pol and Rabl, personal communication)
For cadmium (Cd), chromium                                                            Cr (typical
(Cr), formaldehyde and nickel                                                          mix of Cr                                Form-
(Ni), impacts are mediated            All results €/tonne                       Cd     species)            CrVI   Other Cr   aldehyde         Ni
principally through inhalation, and   Austria                             € 54,000      € 43,000      € 330,000        €0        € 170   € 5,200
so it is necessary to take account    Belgium                             € 90,000      € 72,000      € 550,000        €0        € 280   € 8,700
of site. This has been done here      Czech Republic                      € 46,000      € 37,000      € 280,000        €0        € 140   € 4,500
using results for PM2.5 as a          Denmark                             € 24,000      € 20,000      € 150,000        €0         € 74   € 2,400
reference, to derive national         Estonia                              € 6,200       € 5,000       € 38,000        €0         € 19     € 600
figures from the European             Finland                              € 7,900       € 6,400       € 49,000        €0         € 24     € 770
averages of ExternE-Pol and           France                              € 65,000      € 52,000      € 400,000        €0        € 200   € 6,300
other studies:                        Germany                             € 71,000      € 57,000      € 440,000        €0        € 220   € 6,900
                                      Greece                              € 13,000      € 10,000       € 77,000        €0         € 39   € 1,200
                                      Hungary                             € 37,000      € 30,000      € 230,000        €0        € 110   € 3,600
                                      Ireland                             € 21,000      € 17,000      € 130,000        €0         € 66   € 2,100
                                      Italy                               € 49,000      € 40,000      € 300,000        €0        € 150   € 4,800
                                      Latvia                              € 13,000      € 10,000       € 80,000        €0         € 40   € 1,300
                                      Lithuania                           € 12,000      € 10,000       € 76,000        €0         € 38   € 1,200
                                      Luxembourg                          € 60,000      € 49,000      € 370,000        €0        € 190   € 5,900
                                      Netherlands                         € 92,000      € 74,000      € 570,000        €0        € 280   € 9,000
                                      Poland                              € 42,000      € 34,000      € 260,000        €0        € 130   € 4,100
                                      Portugal                            € 32,000      € 26,000      € 200,000        €0        € 100   € 3,100
                                      Slovakia                            € 30,000      € 24,000      € 180,000        €0         € 91   € 2,900
                                      Slovenia                            € 33,000      € 26,000      € 200,000        €0        € 100   € 3,200
                                      Spain                               € 27,000      € 22,000      € 170,000        €0         € 84   € 2,700
                                      Sweden                              € 17,000      € 14,000      € 110,000        €0         € 53   € 1,700
                                      United Kingdom                      € 55,000      € 44,000      € 340,000        €0        € 170   € 5,300
                                      Average                             € 39,000      € 31,500      € 240,000        €0        € 120   € 3,800




                                                                  Page 5 of 9
BeTa-MethodEx reference outputs                                          Version 2, February 2007
Ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, fine particles, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds
Assumptions (1): ExternE core
Method                            ExternE 2005
Mortality                         Life years lost
Mortality valuation               Median VOLY
Ozone health metric               SOMO 0
Treatment of negative ozone exposures Set to zero
Include sensitivity functions? No                    Total damage, core health effect and crops only
For NH3, NOx, PM2.5, SO2 and                                         NH3         NOx        PM2.5         SO2       VOC
VOCs a series of reference        Atlantic NE               Not quantified      € 700      € 4,400     € 1,200     € 240
outputs are provided, reflecting  Austria                         € 5,000     € 2,600    € 34,000      € 4,600     € 890
the core assumptions of the       Baltic Sea                Not quantified      € 800    € 11,000      € 2,000     € 380
ExternE and CAFE                  Belgium                        € 13,000     € 1,500    € 56,000      € 5,800   € 1,400
methodologies. This provides an Czech Republic                    € 8,200     € 2,200    € 29,000      € 4,400     € 580
indication of plausible ranges,   Denmark                         € 3,300     € 1,300    € 15,000      € 2,900     € 500
though does not constitute a full Estonia                         € 1,200       € 380      € 3,900       € 990     € 100
uncertainty analysis.             Finland                           € 900       € 320      € 4,900       € 960     € 120
                                  France                          € 4,900     € 2,400    € 41,000      € 4,400     € 810
For the ozone effects of NOx      Germany                         € 7,300     € 2,900    € 44,000      € 6,000   € 1,000
emissions a computational         Greece                          € 1,300       € 490      € 7,900       € 760     € 170
problem arises for a number of    Hungary                         € 4,600     € 1,700    € 23,000      € 2,600     € 470
countries,as discussed in the     Ireland                         € 1,100     € 1,300    € 13,000      € 2,600     € 430
User Guide, where reducing NOx Italy                              € 4,600     € 1,800    € 31,000      € 3,300     € 660
emissions increases ozone         Latvia                          € 1,300       € 610      € 8,100     € 1,100     € 150
concentrations. It is, however,   Lithuania                         € 720       € 760      € 7,700     € 1,300     € 150
necessary to go through the       Luxembourg                     € 10,000     € 2,600    € 38,000      € 5,400   € 1,500
concentrations where this occurs Mediterranean Sea          Not quantified      € 210      € 5,200     € 1,100     € 220
to reach a zone where NOx         Netherlands                     € 9,200     € 1,900    € 58,000      € 7,400   € 1,100
emissions are capable of          North Sea                 Not quantified    € 1,500    € 25,000      € 3,800   € 1,100
reducing ozone to a level         Poland                          € 4,100     € 1,200    € 26,000      € 3,100     € 370
considered acceptable. Ideally    Portugal                        € 1,500       € 470    € 20,000      € 1,900     € 310
the ozone concentration           Slovakia                        € 5,800     € 1,700    € 19,000      € 2,700     € 380
assessment would be based on Slovenia                             € 5,300     € 2,100    € 21,000      € 3,400     € 780
knowledge of the slope between Spain                              € 1,800     € 1,000    € 17,000      € 2,300     € 260
current NOx emissions and         Sweden                          € 2,400       € 760    € 11,000      € 1,500     € 230
ozone concentrations, and future United Kingdom                   € 7,200     € 1,100    € 34,000      € 3,600     € 700
NOx emissions at the 'desired'
ozone concentration. However,
as the latter is not known, under
the ExternE assumptions we
simply set negative exposure
figures for NOx/ozone to zero.
Affected results are shown in
bold in the NOx column.




                                                        Page 6 of 9
BeTa-MethodEx reference outputs                                          Version 2, February 2007
Ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, fine particles, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds
Assumptions (2): CAFE/WHO low
Method                            CAFE/WHO
Mortality                         Life years lost
Mortality valuation               Median VOLY
Ozone health metric               SOMO 35
Treatment of negative ozone exposures Accepted
Include sensitivity functions? No                     Total damage, core health effect and crops only
For NH3, NOx, PM2.5, SO2 and                                          NH3         NOx        PM2.5       SO2       VOC
VOCs a series of reference        Atlantic NE                Not quantified    € 1,600      € 4,800   € 2,200     € 390
outputs are provided, reflecting  Austria                         € 12,000     € 8,700    € 37,000    € 8,300   € 1,700
the core assumptions of the       Baltic Sea                 Not quantified    € 2,600    € 12,000    € 3,700     € 530
ExternE and CAFE                  Belgium                         € 30,000     € 5,200    € 61,000 € 11,000     € 2,500
methodologies. This provides an Czech Republic                    € 20,000     € 7,300    € 32,000    € 8,000   € 1,000
indication of plausible ranges,   Denmark                          € 7,900     € 4,400    € 16,000    € 5,200     € 720
though does not constitute a full Estonia                          € 2,800       € 810      € 4,200   € 1,800     € 140
uncertainty analysis.             Finland                          € 2,200       € 750      € 5,400   € 1,800     € 160
                                  France                          € 12,000     € 7,700    € 44,000    € 8,000   € 1,400
                                  Germany                         € 18,000     € 9,600    € 48,000 € 11,000     € 1,700
                                  Greece                           € 3,200       € 840      € 8,600   € 1,400     € 280
                                  Hungary                         € 11,000     € 5,400    € 25,000    € 4,800     € 860
                                  Ireland                          € 2,600     € 3,800    € 15,000    € 4,800     € 680
                                  Italy                           € 11,000     € 5,700    € 34,000    € 6,100   € 1,100
                                  Latvia                           € 3,100     € 1,400      € 8,800   € 2,000     € 220
                                  Lithuania                        € 1,700     € 1,800      € 8,400   € 2,400     € 230
                                  Luxembourg                      € 25,000     € 8,700    € 41,000 € 10,000     € 2,700
                                  Mediterranean Sea          Not quantified      € 530      € 5,600   € 2,000     € 340
                                  Netherlands                     € 22,000     € 6,600    € 63,000 € 13,000     € 1,900
                                  North Sea                  Not quantified    € 5,100    € 28,000    € 6,900   € 1,900
                                  Poland                          € 10,000     € 3,900    € 29,000    € 5,600     € 630
                                  Portugal                         € 3,700     € 1,300    € 22,000    € 3,500     € 500
                                  Slovakia                        € 14,000     € 5,200    € 20,000    € 4,900     € 660
                                  Slovenia                        € 13,000     € 6,700    € 22,000    € 6,200   € 1,400
                                  Spain                            € 4,300     € 2,600    € 19,000    € 4,300     € 380
                                  Sweden                           € 5,900     € 2,200    € 12,000    € 2,800     € 330
                                  United Kingdom                  € 17,000     € 3,900    € 37,000    € 6,600   € 1,100




                                                         Page 7 of 9
BeTa-MethodEx reference outputs                                           Version 2, February 2007
Ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, fine particles, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds
Assumptions (3): CAFE/WHO high
Method                            CAFE/WHO
Mortality                         Deaths
Mortality valuation               Mean VSL
Ozone health metric               SOMO 0
Treatment of negative ozone exposures Accepted
Include sensitivity functions? Yes                    Total damage, core and sensitivity health effect and crops only
For NH3, NOx, PM2.5, SO2 and                                          NH3        NOx        PM2.5          SO2        VOC
VOCs a series of reference        Atlantic NE                Not quantified   € 4,800     € 14,000      € 6,300    € 1,200
outputs are provided, reflecting  Austria                         € 35,000   € 24,000 € 110,000 € 24,000           € 5,200
the core assumptions of the       Baltic Sea                 Not quantified   € 7,200     € 35,000 € 11,000        € 1,500
ExternE and CAFE                  Belgium                         € 87,000   € 14,000 € 180,000 € 31,000           € 7,100
methodologies. This provides an Czech Republic                    € 57,000   € 20,000     € 91,000 € 23,000        € 3,000
indication of plausible ranges,   Denmark                         € 23,000   € 12,000     € 48,000 € 15,000        € 2,000
though does not constitute a full Estonia                          € 8,100    € 2,200     € 12,000      € 5,200      € 420
uncertainty analysis.             Finland                          € 6,300    € 2,000     € 16,000      € 5,100      € 490
                                  France                          € 34,000   € 21,000 € 130,000 € 23,000           € 4,200
                                  Germany                         € 51,000   € 26,000 € 140,000 € 32,000           € 5,100
                                  Greece                           € 9,100    € 1,900     € 25,000      € 4,000      € 880
                                  Hungary                         € 32,000   € 15,000     € 72,000 € 14,000        € 2,700
                                  Ireland                          € 7,400   € 11,000     € 42,000 € 14,000        € 2,000
                                  Italy                           € 32,000   € 16,000     € 97,000 € 18,000        € 3,500
                                  Latvia                           € 8,800    € 3,700     € 25,000      € 5,700      € 650
                                  Lithuania                        € 5,000    € 5,000     € 24,000      € 6,800      € 710
                                  Luxembourg                      € 72,000   € 24,000 € 120,000 € 28,000           € 8,000
                                  Mediterranean Sea          Not quantified   € 1,400     € 16,000      € 5,900    € 1,000
                                  Netherlands                     € 64,000   € 18,000 € 180,000 € 39,000           € 5,400
                                  North Sea                  Not quantified  € 14,000     € 80,000 € 20,000        € 5,400
                                  Poland                          € 29,000   € 10,000     € 83,000 € 16,000        € 1,900
                                  Portugal                        € 11,000    € 3,200     € 64,000 € 10,000        € 1,600
                                  Slovakia                        € 41,000   € 14,000     € 58,000 € 14,000        € 2,000
                                  Slovenia                        € 37,000   € 18,000     € 64,000 € 18,000        € 4,400
                                  Spain                           € 13,000    € 7,200     € 54,000 € 12,000        € 1,100
                                  Sweden                          € 17,000    € 5,900     € 34,000      € 8,100      € 980
                                  United Kingdom                  € 50,000   € 10,000 € 110,000 € 19,000           € 3,200




                                                         Page 8 of 9
BeTa-Methodex: Results and key data inputs                                                       Version 2, February 2007            mike.holland@emrc.co.uk


METHODOLOGICAL CHOICES                                                                           GUIDANCE
                                                                                                 Data can only be entered in cells shaded pink. Other cells are
Click on cells below to…                                                                         locked and protected. Users are restricted to adjusting respones
... select country or sea area                                                                   functions only for those effects likely to make a significant
Belgium                                                                                          difference to the results (chronic and acute mortality, bronchitis
... select dataset for functions and values                                                      and RADs).
                                                                                                 Information on the choices defined at left, and the response
CAFE/WHO                                                                                         functions and valuations given below is provided on the sheet
... select approach to mortality quantifcation
                                                                                                 entitled "User guide".
Deaths, VSL valuation
... select statistical basis for mortality valuation
Mean
... select ozone threshold
35 ppb (SOMO 35)
... select for treatment of negative NOx/ozone relationship
Set negative ozone exposures to zero

FUNCTIONS, VALUES
Harmfulness of particles relative to average PM2.5 by mass
"Average" PM2.5 = 1 (but note that relative PM2.5 risk from specific sources, e.g. from traffic or power plants, could be higher
or lower)
Primary pollutant                                                                       CAFE ExternE 2005                Custom                         Note:
PM2.5                                                                                     1.00              1.00                                        To appy
NOx                                                                                       1.00              0.30                                        custom
SO2                                                                                       1.00              0.60                                        functions it is
NH3                                                                                       1.00              0.45                                        necessary to
VOC                                                                                       1.00              0.45                                        enter data in
Response functions for key effects                                                            Response functions                                        cells D22 to
Effect                                                                                 CAFE ExternE 2005                 Custom                         D38 and to
Chronic mortality (PM2.5)                                                              6.00%          5.00%                                             select "Custom
Chronic bronchitis, population aged >27 (PM2.5)                                        7.00%          7.00%                                             Functions and
Restricted activity days (RADs) working age population (PM2.5)                         0.48%          0.48%                                             analysis in cell
Acute mortality (ozone)                                                                0.30%          0.30%                                             A8.
Valuations for key effects                                                                Valuation/case or event
Effect                                                                                 CAFE       ExternE 2005           Custom
Chronic mortality (PM2.5)                                                         €2,000,000        €2,258,000
Chronic bronchitis, population aged >27 (PM2.5)                                     €190,000          €190,000
Restricted activity days (RADs) working age population (PM2.5)                           €82              €130
Acute mortality (ozone)                                                             €120,000           €75,000


RESULTS
Effect / assumptions                                                                     NH3               NOx            PM2.5                SO2                 VOC
Monetised damage (€/tonne), all core functions                                       € 86,101          € 15,397        € 173,807           € 30,139             € 6,215
Monetised damage (€/tonne), all core and sensitivity functions                       € 87,410          € 15,634        € 176,482           € 30,572             € 6,925
CASES - PM2.5 CORE FUNCTIONS
Life years lost/tonne (PM2.5 function)                                          Not quantified    Not quantified    Not quantified    Not quantified     Not quantified
Deaths/tonne (PM2.5 function)                                                          0.0387            0.0069            0.0781            0.0136             0.0025
Infant mortality (1 – 11 months)                                                   0.0000672         0.0000120         0.0001356         0.0000236          0.0000044
Chronic bronchitis, population aged >27                                                0.0182            0.0033            0.0367            0.0064             0.0012
Respiratory hospital admissions, all ages                                             0.00691           0.00124           0.01395           0.00242            0.00045
Cardiac hospital admissions, all ages                                                 0.00426           0.00076           0.00860           0.00149            0.00028
Restricted activity days (RADs) working age population                                    38.7                6.9             78.1              13.6                 2.5
Respiratory medication use by adults                                                      3.28              0.59              6.62              1.15               0.21
Respiratory medication use by children                                                   0.396             0.071             0.799             0.139              0.026
LRS, including cough, among adults with chronic symptoms                                  31.3                5.6             63.2              11.0                 2.0
LRS (including cough) among children                                                      20.4                3.6             41.1                7.1                1.3
CASES - PM2.5 SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
Consultations for asthma, ages 0-14                                                    0.0197            0.0035            0.0397            0.0069              0.0013
Consultations for asthma, ages 15-64                                                   0.0338            0.0060            0.0682            0.0118              0.0022
Consultations for asthma, ages over 65                                                 0.0148            0.0026            0.0298            0.0052              0.0010
Consultations: upper resp symptoms (excl allergic rhinitis) ages 0-14                  0.0671            0.0120            0.1354            0.0235              0.0044
Consultations: upper resP symptoms (excl allergic rhinitis) ages 15-64                  0.214             0.038             0.432             0.075               0.014
Consultations: upper resp symptoms (excl allergic rhinitis) ages >64                   0.0722            0.0129            0.1458            0.0253              0.0047
Extra for RADs, total population                                                          18.9              3.38              38.1              6.62                1.23
CASES - OZONE CORE FUNCTIONS
Acute mortality (life years lost, VOLY median valuation)                           -0.000040           0.000000           N/A (0)         -0.000075           0.001485
Respiratory hospital admissions, ages over 65                                      -0.000022           0.000000           N/A (0)         -0.000043           0.000840
Minor restricted activity days, ages 18-64                                              -0.09               0.00          N/A (0)              -0.17               3.35
Respiratory medication use by adults                                                   -0.032              0.000          N/A (0)             -0.062              1.219
CASES - OZONE SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
Minor restricted activity days, ages over 65                                       -0.022073           0.000000           N/A (0)         -0.042063           0.828107
Respiratory symptoms among adults                                                       -0.42               0.00          N/A (0)              -0.79              15.57




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