Document Sample
					             LOCAL AIR PROGRAMS                                                               COMMUTESMAR T                                                                                  ALABAMA DEPARTMENT OF
                                                                                                                                                                                           ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
    In addition to the Department's efforts, the Jefferson County                Vanpooling is another resource to
Department of Health (JCDH) and the City of Huntsville operate local         reduce emissions generated by on-road
programs that provide implementation and oversight of air quality pro-
grams within their jurisdictions. The staffs associated with these local
                                                                             mobile sources. Instead of individuals
                                                                             driving separate cars to and from work,
                                                                                                                                                                                       Safeguarding Alabama’s Air Quality
programs review permit applications, issue permits, perform inspec-          vanpooling allows numerous individu-
tions, initiate enforcement actions, and conduct air monitoring activities   als to share a common van to commute
to document and protect air quality.                                         to work. This cost-effective alternative                                        The Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) utilizes a wide range of monitoring equipment and technology to per-
                                      The Jefferson County Department        to the daily commute reduces gasoline                                       form ambient air monitoring and to document air quality in Alabama. Air quality throughout Alabama and across America is monitored,
                                 of Health operates a series of air moni-    consumption, reduces automobile air emissions, and allows individu-         assessed and compared to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to determine the quality of our air resources. The NAAQS
                                 tors that collect air quality data in       als to share a ride with others in a friendly environment. ADEM has         are levels of air quality, with an adequate margin of safety, that are established to protect human health and the environment. The U.S.
                                 Jefferson County. JCDH provides real-       several employees that utilize vanpooling to commute from Birmingham to     Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established NAAQS for six criteria pollutants, including ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
                                 time air quality data, including current    Montgomery.
                                                                                                                                                         carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and lead.
                                 ozone concentrations, which allows the                                                                                      ADEM's monitoring activities indicate that all 67 of Alabama's counties comply with the current NAAQS for five of the six criteria pol-
                                 public to make informed decisions                                                                                       lutants, with those being sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and lead. Additionally, 65 of Alabama's coun-
                                 about their daily activities.                                                                                           ties comply with the NAAQS for ozone, with only Jefferson County and Shelby County not meeting the standard.
    JCDH staff also observe and evaluate emission testing at facilities to                                                                                   In order to maintain the air quality in areas that currently comply with the NAAQS and achieve compliance in Jefferson and Shelby coun-
document air emissions and determine compliance with air permits.                                         Key Dates
                                                                                                                                                         ties, ADEM has implemented a variety of regulatory programs to reduce and monitor the emission of air pollutants. The information in this
Emission tests involve the collection of air samples from industry                                                                                       brochure highlights ADEM's commitment to addressing air emissions and ensuring clean air for all Alabama citizens.
stacks/vents. The air samples can then be analyzed to determine the            Ozone Monitoring                  March 1    -   October 31
type(s) and concentration(s) of compounds that are being emitted.              Ozone Forecasting                 April 15   -   September 30
    Additionally, JCDH leases a                                                Burn Ban                          May 1      -   September 30
2003 Honda Civic Hybrid Electric                                               Low Sulfur/Low RVP Gas            June 1     -   September 15
Vehicle (HEV) to demonstrate and
promote better air quality for on-
                                                                                                                                                                                                              OZONE FORMATION
road mobile sources. The car is a
gasoline-electric hybrid that needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NOx Emissions
                                                                                                                                                           Ozone is a unique chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's stratosphere and provides
no "plug in," gets up to 51 mpg, and                                                                                                                   protection from harmful ultraviolet radiation. However, when ozone is found at ground-level
                                                                                                          Web Sites
has a cruising range of 650 miles.                                                                                                                     it can cause respiratory and other health-related problems. Several groups of people are par-
The leasing is made possible through                                                                                                                   ticularly sensitive to ozone, including the elderly, children and persons with preexisting respi-
                                                                               Air Quality Index
the Alabama Partners for Clean Air.                                                                                                                                                                                           ratory diseases.
     Huntsville's Division of Natural Resources established an Industrial                                                                                                                                                         Ozone is not emitted
                                                                               Ozone Forecasts
Air Pollution Control Achievement Awards Program in 1997 to encour-                                                                                                                                                           directly into the air by
age additional reductions in air emissions within the City of Huntsville.                                                                                                                                                     factories or industries but
                                                                               Jefferson County Department of Health
The awards program recognizes industrial, institutional and commercial                                                                                                                                                        is formed by a chemical
facilities that go beyond the regulatory requirements to reduce air emis-                                                                                                                                                     reaction between nitro-
                                                                               City of Huntsville
sions. The Division also promotes ozone awareness by posting a                                                                                                                                                                gen oxides (NOx) and
“Clean Air Tip of the Week” on the local government channel during
                                                                               Alabama Partners for Clean Air                                                                                                                 volatile organic com-         Point Sources -Large Stationary Facility (Power Plant/Paper Mill)
the peak ozone season.
                                                                                                                                                                                             pounds (VOCs) in the          Area Sources - Small Stationary Facility (Gas Station/Bakery)
                                                                               CommuteSmart                                                                                                                                   presence of sunlight and      On-Road Sources - Road/Highway Vehicles (Cars/Trucks)
    For more information contact:                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Non-Road Sources - Off Road Vehicles (Boat/Plane/Lawnmower)
                                                                                                                                                                                       heat.    Thus, elevated
                        Air Division                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Biogenic Sources - Natural Vegetation (Plants/Trees/Shrubs)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ozone concentrations and
                   Post Office Box 301463                                                                                                                                                                                     ozone related problems
             Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463                                                            Data Aquisition                                                                                                        generally occur during
                       (334) 271-7861                                                                                                                                                                                         the summer months.
                                                 National Air Quality Database                                                                                                                       Nitrogen oxides are
                                                                                                                                                                                     emitted from motor vehi-
                                                                               National Ozone Mapping Program                                                                                                                 cles, power plants, and
                                                                                                                          other combustion sources, while VOCs are emitted from biogenic sources (trees/plants), motor
                                                                                                                                                       vehicles, refineries, chemical plants, and other industrial sources. The charts on this page out-
                                                                                                                                                       line the sources of NOx and VOCs. In order to control the formation of ground-level ozone,
                                                                                                                                                       the Department has adopted regulatory requirements to reduce emissions of NOx and VOCs.
                                                                                                                                                                    OZONE FORECASTS AND AIR                                                         ADEM PROGRAMS T O ACHIEVE
  OZONE AIR QUALITY STANDARD                                                                AIR QUALITY MONIT ORING
                                                                                                                                                                         QUALITY INDEX                                                                AND MAINTAIN THE NAAQS
    The national ambient air quality standard for ozone is currently                    The Department's Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program uti-                                                       ADEM currently provides daily
referred to as either the 1-hour standard or the 8-hour standard. The               lizes air monitors to document ambient air quality for criteria pollu-                                             ozone forecasts for the cities of             The Department has implemented numerous regulatory programs to
1-hour standard (125 ppb) was adopted by EPA in the 1970s but has                   tants throughout Alabama. The efforts of this program include plan-                                                Birmingham, Mobile and Huntsville         achieve the ozone NAAQS in Jefferson and Shelby counties and allow the
                                                                                    ning the locations for the network of air monitors, site procurement,                                              during the months of April through        remaining Alabama counties to continue to meet the NAAQS for all criteria
been replaced by the more stringent 8-hour standard (85 ppb). The 8-
                                                                                    installation of shelters/equipment, operation/maintenance of air moni-                                             September, when ozone formation is        pollutants. The Department employs a professional staff of scientists, mete-
hour standard was adopted by EPA in 1997 and is currently being                                                                                                                                                                                  orologists, and engineers who implement and oversee these regulatory pro-
implemented. Since the 8-hour standard has not been fully imple-                    tor equipment, analysis of data, and reporting of data.                                                            most likely. The forecasts are pre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       pared and issued to the public each       grams. These regulatory programs seek to reduce the emissions of NOx and
mented, areas have not been formally designated as attainment/nonat-                    The program operates 58 air mon-
                                                                                    itors at 31 locations throughout                                                                                   day by ADEM meteorologists and            VOCs, precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone, as well as other
tainment under this standard. Areas that are currently designated as
                                                                                    Alabama. These air monitors collect                                                                                are based upon predicted weather          criteria pollutants.
nonattainment, i.e. not meeting the ozone standard, are designated as                                                                                                                                  conditions, ozone forecast models             In 2001 the Department became the first state agency in the southeast to
such under the 1-hour standard.                                                     ambient air quality data that allows
                                                                                                                                                                                                       and observed ozone trends. The            receive EPA approval for its plan to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from
    The1-hour ozone standard is met when three or fewer exceedance                  the Department to scientifically docu-                                     presence of certain weather systems can produce low relative humidity,            fossil-fuel fired equipment dur-
days are recorded over a three-year period at a given monitoring site.              ment air concentrations for the six cri-                                   light to calm northerly winds, and clear skies, which are the common con-         ing ozone season. The plan
As outlined in the table below, the air monitor at Helena recorded four             teria pollutants and determine compli-                                     ditions on Ozone Alert days.                                                      requires emission reductions
days that exceeded the 1-hour ozone standard during the last three                  ance with the national ambient air                                             The purpose of the ozone forecasts is to declare "Ozone Alerts" on days       from large electric generating
years. Thus, the Jefferson County and Shelby County area is desig-                  quality standards. ADEM staff rou-                                         when ozone concentrations could exceed the NAAQS. The ozone forecasts             units, large industrial boilers,
nated as nonattainment for ozone.                                                   tinely evaluate the monitor network, add new monitors, and visit all       allow citizens to adjust their daily routines to limit their outdoor activities   large industrial turbines, and
                                                                                    monitors on a regular basis to perform calibration and maintenance         on Ozone Alert days and also take voluntary actions to assist in the preven-      cement kilns. Air pollution con-
        Days/Year that Birmingham Area Exceeded                                     activities.                                                                tion of ozone formation.                                                          trol equipment has already been
                 1-Hour Ozone Standard                                                  As part of this program, the Department operates 14 monitors to                                                                                          installed at some facilities and
                                                                                                                                                                                             Everyday Tips                                       projections indicate a reduction
      Monitor            2000                2001      2002
                                                                 2000-2002          measure ozone at various Alabama locations. Additionally, the                   Car pool, use public transportation, bike, or walk whenever
                                                                   Total            Jefferson County Department of Health operates nine ozone monitors                                                                                           of approximately 50,000 tons of
                                                                                                                                                                    possible.                                                                    nitrogen oxides per year by 2007.
       Helena              2                  1         1            4
                                                                                    within Jefferson County and the City of Huntsville operates one.                Keep automobile tires properly inflated.
       Hoover              1                  0         0            1                                                                                                                                                                                The Department also requires the sale and use of cleaner gasoline in
      McAdory              0                  1         0            1
                                                                                    ADEM uses the ozone data when issuing ozone forecasts to large                  Keep car, boat, and other engines tuned according to                                                            Jefferson and Shelby counties during the
      Fairfield            0                  0         0            0                                                         municipal areas during               manufacturer's specifications.                                                                                  summer months. ADEM staff conduct sam-
       Tarrant             1                  1         0            2                                                         ozone season. ADEM also                                                                                                                              pling activities at bulk terminals, gas sta-
       Pinson              1                  0         0            1                                                         participates in the national                                                                                                                         tions, and convenience stores to ensure the
       Corner              0                  0         0            0                                                         ozone mapping program, an                                                                                                                            low sulfur/low vapor pressure gasoline is
                                                                                                                                                                                         Ozone Alert Day Tips
     Providence            0                  0         0            0
                                                                                                                               internet-based program pro-          Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner’s thermostat at a                                             being utilized. ADEM has also implemented
   N. Birmingham           1                  0         0            1
                                                                                                                               viding the public with cur-          higher temperature.                                                                                             a Leak Detection Audit Program to monitor
        Leeds      Established in 2001        0         1            1
                                                                                                                               rent ozone levels and health         Refuel cars and trucks after dusk.                                                                              for leaking vapors when gasoline trucks are
                                             8-Hour Ozone Averages                                                             related messages during the          Combine errands and reduce trips.                                                                               being filled at bulk terminals. These pro-
    The 8-hour ozone
                                         Monitor      County      2000-2002                                                    ozone season.                        Defer use of gasoline powered lawn/garden equipment                                                             grams reduce the emissions of VOCs and
standard, which is cur-
                                     Ashland           Clay            82                                                          Since critical regulatory                                                                                     assist the area in complying with the ozone NAAQS.
rently being implement-                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ADEM staff perform emission testing and air toxics monitoring to eval-
                                    Bay Road          Mobile           81                                                      decisions are based upon the
ed, is expected to better                                                                                                                                                                                                                        uate and/or quantify air emissions
                                   Chickasaw          Mobile           80                                                      data obtained from the
protect against the                                                                                                                                               The daily ozone forecasts are based on the Air Quality Index, which was        at facilities to ensure that facilities
                                    Fairhope         Baldwin           82                                                      ambient air quality moni-
human health effects of                                                                                                                                        developed by EPA and consists of color-coded categories that correspond to        comply with emission limits con-
                                  Dewberry Trail      Elmore           80
ozone. An area would                                                                                                           tors, the Department has        specific ozone concentrations and recommended actions for the general             tained in their air permits. The
                                     Sumter           Sumter           76
meet the 8-hour ozone              Montgomery       Montgomery         81
                                                                                                                               implemented quality control     public. The color-coded categories allow citizens to easily recognize when        Department also performs audits of
standard when the aver-               Sipsey         Lawrence          78                                                      measures and quality assur-     unhealthy ozone levels are predicted.                                             continuous emission monitors to
age of the fourth high-             Huntsville       Madison           82                                                      ance reviews to ensure that                                                                                       document the monitoring systems
est ozone readings from              Decatur          Morgan           85                                                      high quality data is report-                    Ozone Forecast Categories                                         are operating properly and are
each of the most recent            Tuscaloosa       Tuscaloosa   Established 2001                                              ed. The Department has                                                                                            accurately measuring air emis-
                                    Southside         Etowah     Established 2002                      Ozone Monitoring        established     a    Quality                                                                                      sions.
three years is less than
                                      Helena          Shelby           92                                      Map             Assurance Project Plan for                                                                                               Additionally, the Department prohibits the open burning of specific
85 ppb. This table illus-
                                     Fairfield       Jefferson         82                                                                                                                                                                                                                 materials year-round and also institutes
trates the average of the           McAdory          Jefferson         86                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a burn ban, which further restricts open
fourth highest ozone                 Hoover          Jefferson         88
                                                                                    each monitoring program and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          burning activities in various counties
readings from the past                Pinson         Jefferson         82           Standard Operating Procedure for each                                                                                                                                                                 during the summer months. Open
three years for all ozone             Tarrant        Jefferson         82           brand/model of instrument that is uti-                                                                                                                                                                burning can generate both NOx and
monitors in Alabama.                  Corner         Jefferson         83           lized. Both of these procedures have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        VOCs and contribute to the formation
                                   Providence        Jefferson         87           been reviewed and approved by EPA.                                                                                                                                                                  of ground-level ozone.
                                   N. Birmingham     Jefferson         82
                                     Leeds           Jefferson   Established 2001
                                  Muscle Shoals       Colbert    Established 2003