AIR QUALITY TRENDS IN NORTHEAST OHIO 2005 UPDATE

					        AIR QUALITY TRENDS IN NORTHEAST OHIO

                    2005 UPDATE




                                        June 2006




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                                                       2006 NOACA BOARD MEMBERS

President: Stephen D. Hambley, President, Medina County Board of Commissioners        Treasurer: James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer
First Vice-President, Robert N. Brown, Director, Cleveland Planning Commission        Assistant Treasurer: Erwin J. Odeal, Director of NEORSD
Second Vice President: Secretary: Mary E. Samide, Geauga County Commissioner          (Cuyahoga County)
Secretary: William M. Grace, Mayor, City of Elyria                                    Assistant Treasurer: Robert E. Aufuldish, Lake County Commissioner
Assistant Secretary: Peter Lawson Jones, Cuyahoga County Commissioner                 Immediate Past President: Robert C. Klaiber, Jr., P.E., P. S., Cuyahoga County
Assistant Secretary: Betty C. Blair, Lorain County Commissioner                       Engineer

                                                                           Members:

Cuyahoga County                                                                     Geauga County
Robert G. Blomquist, Mayor, City of Olmsted Falls                                   Craig S. Albert, Geauga County Commissioner
Scott E. Coleman, Mayor, City of Highland Heights                                   Mary E. Samide, Geauga County Commissioner
Jimmy Dimora, President, Cuyahoga County Board of Commissioners                     William S. Young, President, Geauga County Board of Commissioners
Dean DePiero, Mayor, City of Parma
Robert C. Downey, Cleveland Heights City Manager                                    Lorain County
Timothy Hagan, Cuyahoga County Commissioner                                         Robert J. Berner, Mayor, Avon Lake
Peter Lawson Jones, Cuyahoga County Commissioner                                    Betty C. Blair, Lorain County Commissioner
Robert C. Klaiber, Jr., P.E., P.S., Cuyahoga County Engineer                        Kenneth P. Carney, Sr., P.E., P.S., Lorain County Engineer
Kevin C. Patton, Mayor, City of Solon                                               Craig Foltin, Mayor, City of Lorain
Michael S. Procuk, Mayor, Village of Brooklyn Heights                               William M. Grace, Mayor, City of Elyria
Deborah L. Sutherland, Mayor, City of Bay Village                                   Ted Kalo, Lorain County Commissioner
                                                                                    Frank J. Pakish, Trustee, New Russia Township
City of Cleveland
Anthony Brancatelli, Councilman, City of Cleveland                                  Medina County
Robert N. Brown, Director, Cleveland Planning Commission                            Lynda Bowers, Lafayette Township Trustee
Joseph Cimperman, Councilman, City of Cleveland                                     Stephen D. Hambley, President, Medina County Board of Commissioners
Roosevelt Coats, Councilman, City of Cleveland                                      Robert Zienkowski, City Manager, City of Brunswick
Frank G. Jackson, Mayor, City of Cleveland
Jomarie Wasik, Director of Public Services, City of Cleveland                       Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD)
                                                                                    Erwin J. Odeal, Executive Director
Lake County
Robert E. Aufuldish, Lake County Commissioner                                       The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA)
James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer                                    George M. Dixon, Board President
Rita C. McMahon, City Manager, City of Painesville
Raymond E. Sines, Lake County Commissioner                                          The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)
Daniel P. Troy, President, Lake County Board of Commissioners                       David J. Coyle, Deputy Director, ODOT District 12

                                                                                    Ex officio Member:
                                                                                    William T. Skowronski, Chief, Northeast District Office
                                                                                    Ohio Environmental Protection Agency

NOACA Transportation Advisory Committee

Chairperson: Randall DeVaul, P.E., Commissioner, Cleveland Division of Engineering and Construction

Cuyahoga County                                                                     Lorain County
Paul A. Alsenas, Director, Cuyahoga County Planning Commission                      Robert J. Berner, Mayor, Avon Lake
Robert N. Brown, Director, Cleveland Planning Commission                            Betty C. Blair, Lorain County Commissioner
Joseph A. Calabrese, General Manager, GCRTA                                         Kenneth P. Carney, Sr., P.E., P.S., Lorain County Engineer
Joseph Cimperman, Councilman, City of Cleveland                                     Tom Ferguson, General Manager, Lorain County Transit
Randall DeVaul, P.E., Commissioner, Cleveland Div. of Eng. & Cons.                  Ted Kalo, Lorain County Commissioner
Jimmy Dimora, President, Cuyahoga County Board of Commissioners                     Ronald Twining, Director, Lorain County Planning Commission
Robert C. Downey, City Manager, City of Cleveland Heights
Timothy Hagan, Cuyahoga County Commissioner                                         Geauga County
Robert C. Klaiber, Jr., P.E., P.S., Cuyahoga County Engineer                        David Dietrich, Director, Geauga County Planning Commission
Rob Mavec, Commissioner, Cleveland Traffic Engineering                              R.L. Phillips, P.E., Geauga County Engineer
                                                                                    Kristina Fenselon, Transit Director, Geauga County Transit
Lake County                                                                         Mary E. Samide, Geauga County Commissioner
Robert E. Aufuldish, Lake County Commissioner
James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer                                    Medina County
Raymond Jurkowski, General Manager, LAKETRAN                                        Stephen D. Hambley, President, Medina County Board of Commissioners
Rita C. McMahon, City Manager, City of Painesville                                  Michael Salay, P.E., Medina County Engineer
Darrell C. Webster, Director, Lake County Planning Commission                       Patrice Theken, Director, Medina County Planning Commission
                                                                                    Scott Uhas, Director, Medina County Transit
                                                                                    Robert Zienkowski, City Manager, City of Brunswick

                                                                                    Other Voting Members: District Deputy Directors:
                                                                                    David J. Coyle (ODOT-12); Thomas O’Leary (ODOT-3)
                                                                                    William T. Skowronski, Chief, Northeast District Office Ohio EPA

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                                                    NOACA Transportation Advisory Committee (Continued)

Private Sector Voting Members:                                                   Non-voting members:
Frank Detillio, President, Lorain County Chamber of Commerce (Lorain County)     Dennis A. Decker, FHWA Ohio Division Administrator
James Doutt, Executive Director, Medina County Economic Development              Gary L. Failor, Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Port Authority
 Corporation (Medina County)                                                     Ricky D. Smith, Director, Cleveland Department of Port Control,
David Gilmer, Economic Development (Lake County)                                  Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Private Sector (vacant) (Cuyahoga County)                                        Ernest Gubry, Federal Aviation Administration
Private Sector (vacant) (Geauga County)                                          Richard Novak, Executive Director, Lorain Port Authority
                                                                                 William Schuster, Fairport Harbor Port Authority
                                                                                 Gary Suhadolnik, Executive Director, Ohio Turnpike Commission

Environmental Advisory Committee


Chairperson: James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer

Air Quality Subcommittee Chair: Robert E. Aufuldish, Lake County Commissioner
Water Quality Subcommittee Chair: James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer

Cuyahoga County                                                                  Lorain County
Terry Allen, Cuyahoga County Health Commissioner                                 Betty C. Blair, President, Lorain County Board of Commissioners
Tony Brancatelli, Councilman, City of Cleveland                                  Ken Pearce, Lorain County Health Commissioner
Matthew Carroll, Interim Director, Cleveland Public Health                        (representing Health Districts)
Jimmy Dimora, President, Cuyahoga County Board of Commissioners
Ann Gliha, Environmental Services Manager, Cuyahoga County Sanitary              Medina County
 Engineer’s Office (representing Sanitary Engineers)                             Stephen D. Hambley, President, Medina County Board of Commissioners
Erwin J. Odeal, Executive Director, NEORSD
                                                                                 Geauga County
Jim Storer, Cuyahoga County Soil and Water Conservation District                 Mary E. Samide, Geauga County Commissioner
 (representing Soil and Water Conservation Districts)
                                                                                 Non-Voting Members:
Lake County                                                                      Lyn Luttner, Manager, Cleveland Office, US EPA
Robert E. Aufuldish, Lake County Commissioner                                    William T. Skowronski, Chief, Northeast District Office,
James R. Gills, P.E., P.S., Lake County Engineer                                   Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
Frank Kellogg, Lake County Environmental Health Director
(representing Local Air Agencies)



Planning Advisory Committee


Chairperson: Patrice Theken, Director, Medina County Planning Commission

Paul A. Alsenas, Director, Cuyahoga County Planning Commission                   Patrice Theken, Director, Medina County Planning Commission
Robert N. Brown, Director, Cleveland Planning Commission                         Ronald Twining, Director, Lorain County Planning Commission
David Dietrich, Director, Geauga County Planning Commission                      Darrell C. Webster, Director, Lake County Planning Commission


NOACA Directors:

Howard R. Maier, FAICP, Executive Director

Ronald T. Eckner, P. E., Director of Transportation Planning
John Hosek, Director of Transportation Programs

John Beeker, Ph.D., Director of Environmental Planning
Stephen E. DeJohn, Esq., Legal Counsel/Director of Human Resources
Cheryl A. Kurkowski, CPA, Director of Finance & Operations
Jamy Wheeler, Director of Planning & Administrative Services




                 5650e
1) Title & Subtitle                                                                   2) NOACA Report No.
           Air Quality Trends In Northeast Ohio: 2005 Update                                      EV-06-02
3) Author(s) Pamela Davis, AICP; Amy Wainright, Esq.                                  4) Report Date

Contributors: Bill Davis, NOACA, and Gary Engler, Ohio EPA                            June 2006
5) Performing Organization Name & Address                                             6) Project Task No.

    Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency                                       101101 (FY 2006)
    1299 Superior Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44114-3204
    Phone: (216) 241-2414 FAX: (216) 621-3024 Web site: www.noaca.org                 7) NOACA Contract/Grant
                                                                                      No.
                                                                                         ODOT/FHWA

8) Sponsoring Agency Name & Address                                                   9) Type of Report & Period
                                                                                      Covered (July 1 2005
   Ohio Department of Transportation                                                  – June 30 2006)
   1980 W. Broad St., Box 899
   Columbus, OH 43216-0899                                                            10) Sponsoring Agency Code


11) Supplementary Notes

Federal funding for this project was provided by the Federal Highway Administration and administered by the
Ohio Department of Transportation.



12) Abstracts

Annual update on criteria pollutant air quality conditions in Northeast Ohio, for the year 2005.




13) Key Words & Document Analysis

   A. Descriptors: Air Pollution, Monitors, Criteria Pollutants, Air Quality Trends

B. Identifiers/Open Ended Terms



14) Availability Statement                                                            15) No. Pages         29
     NOACA

                                                                                      16) Price




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        AIR QUALITY TRENDS IN NORTHEAST OHIO

                                  2005 Update



                                       June 2006




                                      Prepared by


    NORTHEAST OHIO AREAWIDE COORDINATING AGENCY




              Principal Author:                            Pamela L. Davis, AICP



STEPHEN D. HAMBLEY                                       HOWARD R. MAIER, FAICP
BOARD PRESIDENT                                          EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR


The preparation of this publication was financed through grants received from the
Federal Highway Administration and the Ohio Department of Transportation and
appropriations from the counties of and municipalities within Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake,
Lorain and Medina. The contents do not necessarily reflect official views or policies of
the U.S. Department of Transportation or the Ohio Department of Transportation. This
report does not constitute a standard or regulation.




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        Abstract:

        This report presents information on air quality trends in Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake,
        Lorain, Medina, Portage, and Summit counties for the six criteria pollutants: carbon
        monoxide; lead; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; particulate matter; and sulfur dioxide. These are the
        pollutants for which the Clean Air Act requires the United States Environmental Protection
        Agency (USEPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The
        NAAQS are the maximum allowable atmospheric concentrations for each pollutant. The
        NAAQS are intended to protect people by preventing adverse health impacts from excessive
        pollution concentrations.

        Trends are generally reported for the 1995 to 2005 time period. Data is generally reported for
        those counties still under some form of nonattainment classification for the pollutant under
        discussion.

        The report also briefly discusses recent regulatory issues affecting the criteria pollutants.




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                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS




Introduction...............................................................................................................................................1

Summary of Criteria Pollutant Air Quality Status....................................................................................2

Ozone ........................................................................................................................................................3

           Current Regulatory Status For Ozone...........................................................................................6

           NOACA’s Ozone SIP Process ......................................................................................................7

Particulate Matter......................................................................................................................................8

           Current Regulatory Status For PM2.5 ..........................................................................................12

           NOACA’s PM2.5 SIP Process .....................................................................................................12

Carbon Monoxide ...................................................................................................................................13

Sulfur Dioxide.........................................................................................................................................15

Nitrogen Dioxide ....................................................................................................................................17

Lead.........................................................................................................................................................18




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Introduction

This document summarizes information on emission and air quality conditions in Northeast Ohio
pertaining to the six criteria pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide and lead) for which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has
set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

This document can also be downloaded from the NOACA web site at http://www.noaca.org/oad.html
where additional information on air quality conditions in Northeast Ohio can be viewed.

In June 2005, the 1-hour ozone standard was revoked and replaced with the 8-hour ozone standard that
was promulgated by USEPA in July 1997, the implementation of which had been delayed through
litigation. USEPA found that the 1-hour standard was inadequate for protecting public health.
Scientific information shows that ozone can affect human health at lower levels and over longer
exposure times than one hour. In response, all ozone-related materials reflect conditions in the eight-
county Cleveland/Akron/Lorain Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) will now only
reflect the 8-hour data.

In 2004, the USEPA designated the eight-county CMSA (Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain,
Medina, Portage, and Summit Counties) in nonattainment for the 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS. In 2005, the
USEPA Ashtabula (partial), Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain, Medina, Portage, and Summit Counties as in
nonattainment for the PM2.5 NAAQS. In 2005, NOACA established the NOACA Air Quality Public
Advisory Task Force to help identify emission reduction control strategies that would assist the region in
reaching attainment for both the ozone and PM2.5 standards. More information on Northeast Ohio’s
nonattainment status can be found at www.noaca.org/sipplan.html and www.noaca.org/pmsipplan.html

Materials for other pollutants are presented based upon the availability of monitoring data. Many
monitors have been removed over time in areas that attained the standards for which they were
established. The table on the following page broadly summarizes data for each of the pollutants.




5650e                                               1
Summary of Criteria Pollutant Air Quality Status for Northeast Ohio

Pollutant               Recent Trend     Designated            Major Contributing Sources                     Monitored Counties
                        Direction        Attainment Status

Ozone (8-Hr)            Level            Moderate              Automobiles, Industry, Utilities, Solvents,    Ashtabula, Cuyahoga,
                                         Nonattainment         Other Fossil Fueled Engines                    Geauga, Lake, Lorain,
                                                                                                              Medina, Portage, Summit
Particulate Matter      Level            Attainment            Automobiles, Trucks, Industry, Construction    Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain,
Less than 10 microns                                           Sites, Tilled Fields, Unpaved Roads, Stone     Summit
Daily                                                          Crushing and Burning of Wood
Particulate Matter      Level            Attainment            Automobiles, Trucks, Industry, Construction    Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain,
Less than 10 microns                                           Sites, Tilled Fields, Unpaved Roads, Stone     Summit
Annual                                                         Crushing and Burning of Wood
Particulate Matter      Level            Attainment            Automobiles, Trucks, Industry, Construction    Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain,
Less than 2.5 microns                                          Equipment, Agricultural Fertilizers, Ships,    Summit, Portage
Daily                                                          Trains and Burning of Wood
Particulate Matter      Level            Nonattainment         Automobiles, Trucks, Industry, Construction    Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain,
Less than 2.5 microns                    (Basic Subpart I)     Equipment, Agricultural Fertilizers, Ships,    Summit
Annual                                                         Trains and Burning of Wood
Carbon Monoxide         Level            Attainment            Automobiles and Other Combustion               Cuyahoga, Lake, Summit
1-Hour                                                         Engines, Other Combustion Sources
Carbon Monoxide         Level            Attainment            Automobiles and Other Combustion               Cuyahoga, Lake, Summit
8-hour                                                         Engines, Other Combustion Sources
Sulfur Dioxide          Level            Attainment            Electric Utilities and Other Industrial        Ashtabula, Cuyahoga,
24-hour                                                        Combustion Sources, Non-Road Engines           Lake, Lorain, Summit
Nitrogen Dioxide        Level            Attainment            Motor Vehicles, Electric Utilities and Other   Cuyahoga
                                                               Industrial, Commercial and Residential
                                                               Sources that Burn Fuels
Lead                    Decreasing       Attainment            Metal Processing Plants                        Cuyahoga




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Ozone

Ozone is the only criteria pollutant that is almost exclusively the result of atmospheric reactions rather
than direct emission from a source. Ozone is formed when, in the presence of sunlight, oxides of
nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxygen interact in a series of photochemical reactions that lead
to the formation of Ozone (O3). Hydrocarbons are sometime known as Volatile Organic Compounds
(VOCs). With increasing temperatures and the stagnation of air masses, these reactions can lead to O3
levels that are unhealthy for human exposure. Ozone is highly reactive and irritates sensitive tissues
with which it comes in contact. This can result in watery itchy eyes, scratchy throat and lung
congestion. This pollutant is particularly injurious to those with preexisting respiratory conditions,
children and the elderly.

Ozone levels cannot be controlled directly but can be controlled indirectly by regulating NOx and HC
emissions. Significant sources of NOx include industries such as steel and electric generation that use
coal and other fossil fuels for heat generation, the automobile and all other fossil fuel powered engines.
Significant sources of HC include the automobile, other gasoline-powered engines and industries or
businesses that use solvents.

In July 1997, USEPA issued the 8-hour ozone standard based on information demonstrating that the 1-
hour standard was inadequate for protecting public health. Scientific information shows that ozone can
affect human health at lower levels and over longer exposure times than one hour. The 8-hour ozone
standard is 0.08 parts per million (ppm), averaged over eight hours. The 1- hour standard was 0.12 ppm,
measured in hourly readings. After a lengthy legal battle, the courts upheld the new ozone standard and
a new standard for fine particle pollution. Working with State, Tribal and local environmental agencies,
USEPA is now in the process of implementing these new standards. On April 30, 2004, USEPA
published a final rule designating and classifying all areas in the United States, including Indian country,
for the more protective national air quality standard for 8-hour ozone. (69 FR 23858 (PDF, 97 pp.,
263KB)) Also on April 30, 2004, EPA took final action on key elements of the program to implement
the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. [Final Rule to Implement the 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality
Standard - Phase I, (69 FR 23951 (PDF, 52 pp., 131KB))]. In June 2005, the 1-hour ozone standard was
revoked and replaced with an 8-hour ozone standard. As a result, NOACA will now only track trends
data for the 8-hour standard.

Eleven monitors located throughout Northeast Ohio monitor ozone concentrations. Map 1 depicts their
locations.




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              Map 1
              Ozone                                                             Ashtabula
              Monitors
                                                            Lake



                                          Cuyahoga
                                                              Geauga



             Lorain



                          Medina             Summit            Portage


                                                                                     Area Monitors
                                                                                       ________________________

                                                                                           Ozone
                                                                                     0       6
                                                                                           Monitor 12             18

                                                                                         NOACA – May 2006




Ozone (O3) trends can be viewed from several different angles. The first is from the standpoint of how
well the area has done in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) over time.
The overall goal of air quality planning is attaining the standards; it is a common means of reviewing air
quality status. The second viewing angle is from the standpoint of actual monitored concentrations.
Viewing concentrations across time allows one to assess whether there is a trend in the pollutant in
question. The third angle is evaluating the emission levels of the pollutants that contribute to ozone
formation. Tracking changes in these pollutant levels can help explain observed changes in ozone levels.

When a monitor records an ambient pollution concentration that is greater than the NAAQS, the event is
classified as an exceedance. Different NAAQS have different methods for determining when an
exceedance or an accumulation of exceedances results in a violation. A violation indicates that the area
is not in attainment of the NAAQS, or in other words, not meeting the national health standard.

Currently the area is in nonattainment of the 8-hour standard. The “Current Regulatory Issues Related
to Ozone” section of this document contains additional information related to the area’s status.

Under the 1-hour standard, monitors were allowed to exceed the standard once per year on average.
Three years worth of data were reviewed to determine this average. Practically speaking, this meant that
a monitor could not have more than three exceedances in any three-year period. If it did, the area was in
violation.

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Under the 8-hour standard, a three-year average of the fourth-highest monitor values must be less than
or equal to 0.08 parts per million (ppm) (Also phrased as 85 parts per billion (ppb) because attainment
is 80 ppb, and a violation is 90 ppb, leaving 85 ppb as the breakpoint.) This is a considerably more
difficult standard to attain than the previous 1-hour standard. However, it is more representative of local
air quality conditions and more protective of public health. With the 8-hour standard, it is unlikely that
an area can move back and forth from attainment to nonattainment as occurred in some areas under the
1-hour standard.

Chart 1 displays the average number of days in each of the region’s sub areas with 8-hour standard
exceedances for 1995-2005 in Northeast Ohio. Generally, this graph does not illustrate a clear trend in
regards to ozone. Although, the number of exceedances in 2000, 2004 and 2005 were significantly
lower than 2002. The 2002 trend year data illustrates more exceedances that can be attributed to the
exceedingly hot weather (more information on weather patterns for 2004 can be found in the 2004
Annual Ozone Action Day Report). The 2005 Ozone Action Day Season (May 15th – September 15th)
saw enough heat over several days to generate a total of 16 exceedances of the 8-hour standard. There
were 8 exceedances in 2004.



Chart 1

                           Northeast Ohio Days with 8-Hour Ozone Exceedances
                                          (Days averaged across area monitors)
                                                    1995 - 2005
            30

            20
     Days




            10

            0
                 1995   1996    1997     1998      1999       2000        2001      2002   2003   2004   2005

                                             Ashtabula        NOACA              AMATS



Chart 2 displays the 4th-maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations across time for the highest
recording monitor in the eight-county Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA). Air quality
has improved since the early 1980’s, but it is also clear that there has been little change in the past
decade. This is to be expected since emission reductions during the preceding decade have been small
compared to those resulting from major new automobile and industry controls implemented during the
1980s. Small to moderate long-term reductions can be expected as older vehicles are retired and new
vehicles replace them. Larger reductions are expected to occur as new NOx controls required by the
Nitrous Oxides State Implementation Plan (NOx SIP) and the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) are
implemented at major coal burning facilities in the next few years; potentially resulting in significant
reductions in 2015. These two federal control programs will require more controls to regulate emissions
year-round at electric generating units (EGUs). Comparing the trend data for 8-hour ozone averages to
the standard of 85 parts per billion, it is clear that it will be difficult for the area to attain the new Ozone
NAAQS.
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Chart 2

                                                             Northeast Ohio 1995-2005
                                                          8-Hr Ozone Concentrations (ppb)
                                                                 (8-Hr Standard is 85 parts/billion ) )

                               240
  Ozone C oncentration (ppb)




                               200

                               160

                               120

                                80

                                40

                                 0
                                     1995   1996   1997   1998         1999         2000      2001        2002   2003   2004   2005


                                                                        4th Max 8-Hour Avg O3


Finally, ozone concentrations are directly affected by changes in the levels of hydrocarbons (HC)
(sometimes known as volatile organic compounds, or VOCs) and nitrous oxides (NOX), both of which
contribute to ozone’s formation. Decreases in the amount of NOX and HC in the atmosphere generally
result in decreases in the amount of O3 formed under a given set of conditions. Since the actual ambient
ozone concentration is strongly dependent upon climate conditions (including maximum daily
temperatures, cloud cover, wind speed and direction and humidity) reductions in O3 concentrations
based on reductions in its precursors will be difficult to identify until sufficient data has been
accumulated to allow for removal of climate effects through analysis. The Lake Michigan Air Directors
Consortium (LADCO) began a study on ozone in 2005 to determine the significance of weather patterns
on the ozone formation in Northeast Ohio. A copy of this study entitled Ozone Trends in Northeast
Ohio can also be found at http://www.noaca.org/sipplan.html.

Significant reductions have been made in both NOx and HC emission since the 1970's in northeast Ohio.
Reductions have been gained from both emission controls on industrial processes and from
technological improvements in the automobile. Recently, reductions are even being gained from smaller
sources, which are known as area sources. One such emission reduction is associated with the
development of better gasoline storage tank filling, fuel tank filling and storage tank evaporative
controls.

Trends for these pollutants are shown in Chart 3. Due to the absence of monitoring for these pollutants,
the trends data are based on inventory and modeling work done for Ohio’s State Implementation Plan
(SIP) for Ozone and not direct measurements of these sources.

Current Regulatory Status For Ozone

On April 15, 2004, the eight counties of Northeast Ohio were declared by the USEPA to be a moderate
nonattainment area under the new federal 8-hour ozone standard. This designation includes Ashtabula,
Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Medina, Portage and Summit Counties.

5650e                                                                           6
This designation became effective on June 15, 2004. (The regulations also designated the former 1-hour
nonattainment area in northeast Ohio as a moderate maintenance area under the new standard.) Only
Phase I of the specific planning requirements for this area has been published. Phase II has not yet been
promulgated by USEPA.

Chart 3


                 Hydrocarbon and Oxide of Nitrogen Emission Trends .
                      Northeast Ohio Ozone Maintenance Area



                 2,000
   Emissions .
   (tons/day)




                 1,500
                 1,000
                   500
                     0
                   Year        1980                1990                2000               2002
                                                   VOC (HC)            NOx


NOACA’s Ozone SIP Process

In order to improve air quality, states must draft a plan known as a state implementation plan (SIP) to
improve the air quality in nonattainment areas. The plan outlines the measures that the state will take in
order to improve air quality. Once a nonattainment area meets the standards and additional
redesignation requirements in the Clean Air Act, § 107(d)(3)(E), the USEPA will designate the area to
attainment as a "maintenance area." NOACA has convened a public participation process to generate
recommendations to the Ohio EPA for inclusion in the Ozone SIP.

Through SIPs, states design their approach to reducing pollution levels. The comprehensive approach to
reducing criteria air pollutants taken by the Clean Air Act covers many different sources and a variety of
clean-up methods. SIPs will have to ensure that power plants, factories and other pollution sources meet
clean-up goals by working through the air pollution permitting process that applies to industrial
facilities. State must also implement programs to further reduce emissions from sources such as cars,
trucks, buses, trains, off-road construction and agricultural equipment, small businesses and consumer
products and activities.

Ozone moderate nonattainment areas are required to submit to USEPA a SIP by June 2007. Control
measures have to be in place by 2009. The area must demonstrate attainment of clean air by June 2010.
Ohio EPA is responsible for submitting all SIPs for Ohio.


5650e                                               7
In 2005, NOACA entered a Memorandum of Understanding with Ohio EPA to undertake a public
involvement process that would engage local air quality stakeholders in identifying potential emission
reduction strategies that would assist Northeast Ohio in reaching the new 8-hour standard. NOACA
established the NOACA Air Quality Public Advisory Task Force in March 2005. The Task Force
established five working groups: Mobile, Point and Area Source Work Groups, a Public Health Forum
Work Group and a Long-Range Air Quality Work Group. The Work Group identified eighty (80)
potential emission reduction options. The Task Force developed a more strategic slate of recommended
options that were reviewed and revised by NOACA’s standing committees before presentation to the
NOACA’s Governing Board. The Board is expected to endorse a series of emission reduction
recommendations to Ohio EPA for consideration in the ozone SIP development for Northeast Ohio.
More information on NOACA’s SIP planning process can be found by visiting NOACA’s website at
www.noaca.org/sipplan.html.

Particulate Matter

Particulate matter (PM) is the term applied to both solid and liquid droplets suspended in the
atmosphere. It can be emitted directly from a source or result from chemical reactions in the
atmosphere. It is a pollutant of concern to human health because inhalation of these particles can lead to
irritated nose, throat and lung tissues. This irritation can easily create or worsen existing respiratory
problems or even cause death. Direct sources of particulate matter include industries that combust fossil
fuels, fuel powered engines, automobiles, diesel trucks, construction equipment, ships, trains and
fugitive emissions from stockpiles of earth and gravel. USEPA has focused on increasingly small
particles in setting standards. This is because the smaller the particle, the deeper it can be inhaled into
the respiratory system and become lodged there.

A subscript number generally follows references to PM. This number is the largest diameter of the
particles covered by the standard or discussion. Thus PM2.5 refers to particles less than or equal to 2.5
microns in diameter; PM10 refers to particles less than or equal to 10 microns in diameter. The term fine
particulate is also used in reference to PM2.5. To gain a sense of the particle sizes discussed here, note
that the average human hair is about 70 microns in diameter. PM10 is, therefore, one-seventh the
diameter of a human hair and PM2.5 is only one twenty-eighth of that diameter.

There are two existing PM10 NAAQS: an annual standard and a daily standard. The annual standard is
50 micrograms per cubic meter. A monitor is in attainment if its three-year average concentration is less
than or equal to the standard. (Note: Please see changes to these standards in the 2006 report.)

The 24-hour standard is 150 micrograms per cubic meter. A monitor is in attainment if its three-year
exceedance average is less than or equal to one. An exceedance of the 24-hour standard occurs when
the monitor reading that is greater than 99 percent of all other readings at that monitor for a year is
greater than the standard. (Note: Please see changes to these standards in the 2006 report.)

There are no nonattainment counties for the existing PM10 standards in Northeast Ohio. Cuyahoga
County was redesignated attainment for the PM10 Standards effective January 10, 2001 (65 FR 77308).
There are eight monitors for PM10 in Cuyahoga County. The majority are in and along the industrialized
portions of the Cuyahoga River valley. Two are near Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. There
are also four additional monitors in other areas in Northeast Ohio. Map 2 displays monitor locations.




5650e                                               8
           Map 2
           PM10
                                                                        Lake
           Monitors


                                                    Cuyahoga                    Geauga




              Lorain



                                                                             Portage
                                                       Summit
                               Medina


                                                                                Area Monitors
                                                                                  _________________

                                                                                  PM10
                                                                            0      5   10 15
                                                                                NOACA - May 2006




Chart 4 displays exceedance information for PM10 in Cuyahoga County. No violations of the annual
standard have occurred in the 1995-2005 period. As indicated by Chart 4, exceedances of the daily
standard have occurred periodically. No monitor has violated the daily standard since the mid-90s,
however.




5650e                                           9
Chart 4

                                                          Monitored Exceedances of the PM10 Standards
                                                                 Cuyahoga County 1995 - 2005
                                               (Daily standard is 150 micrograms/cubic meter, Annual standard is 50 micrograms/cubic meter)
        5


        4


        3
 Days




        2


        1


        0
                                  1995    1996          1997         1998         1999          2000        2001        2002        2003        2004      2005


                                                                                         Annual        24-Hour


Chart 5 displays the 2nd max 24-hour and annual mean concentrations observed in Cuyahoga County
from 1995 to 2005.

Chart 5

                                                                           Cuyahoga County
                                                                   2nd Max 24-Hour and Annual Mean
                                                                   PM10 Concentrations for 1995-2005
                                               (Daily standard is 150 micrograms/cubic meter, Annual standard is 50 micrograms/cubic meter)
    (micrograms/cubic meter)...




                                  250
                                  200    173                                                                                        177
          Concentration




                                                               133
                                  150               123                     117          106
                                                                                                    122
                                                                                                              110        113                              102
                                                                                                                                                83
                                  100
                                           52           41         43          45          42          43          43                      43               41
                                                                                                                               36                    34
                                   50
                                    0
                                         1995       1996       1997         1998         1999       2000      2001       2002        2003       2004      2005


                                                                                  2nd Max                 Annual Mean




5650e                                                                                          10
Monitoring for PM2.5 began in 1999. There are two existing PM2.5 NAAQS: an annual standard and a
daily standard. The annual standard is 15 micrograms per cubic meter. A monitor is in attainment if its
three-year average concentration is equal to or less than the standard.

The 24-hour standard is 65 micrograms per cubic meter. A monitor is in attainment if its three-year
exceedance average is equal to or less than the standard. An exceedance of the 24-hour standard occurs
when the monitor reading exceeds the 3-year average of the 98th percentile. (Note: Please see changes
to this standard in the 2006 report.)

During 2005, there were 14 monitors in operation. There are instances where there are multiple
monitors in a single location because there are two different types of monitoring available. One type
generates continuous readings throughout the day. The other generates a single daily reading based on
the weight of a filter collected once a day from the monitors. Map 3 shows monitoring locations for this
pollutant during 2005. Most of these monitors are located near heavy industrial boilers or electric
generation units.

Chart 6 displays 1999-2005 monitor data for Northeast Ohio counties monitoring PM2.5.

Chart 6



                                                                  Northeast Ohio PM2.5 Concentrations for 1999-2005.
                                                                              USEPA Daily Standard is 65 micrograms/cubic meter
                                                                           98th Percentile of Daily Readings may not exceed this level
                                                                             USEPA Annual Standard is 15 micrograms/cubic meter




                                            80
   Concentration (micrograms/cubic meter)




                                                                                      72
                                                                    67
                                                 59                                                     57                 58               56               55
                                            60        49                                   47                                   47
                                                                                                                                                                  51
                                                                         46                                  45                                  43
                                            40
                                                           18.4               19.7              19.8              17.7               17.2             17.5             19.4
                                            20
                                             0
                                                      1999               2000              2001              2002               2003             2004             2005


                                                                     Max                        98th Pct.                 Annual Mean




5650e                                                                                                  11
            Map 3
            PM2.5                                                              Lake
            Monitors

                                                         Cuyahoga
                                                                                        Geauga




                Lorain

                                                                                    Portage


                                                           Summit
                                  Medina


                                                                                         Area
                                                                                         ____________________

                                                                                        PM2.5
                                                                                    0     5   10 15
                                                                                        NOACA - May 2006




Current Regulatory Status For PM2.5

On December 17, 2004, the USEPA designated Ashtabula (partial), Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain, Medina,
Portage and Summit Counties as in nonattainment for the new fine particulate (PM2.5) standard.

NOACA’s PM2.5 SIP Process

As stated earlier, states must draft a plan known as a state implementation plan (SIP) to improve the air
quality in nonattainment areas. The plan outlines the measures that the state will take in order to improve
air quality. Once a nonattainment area meets the standards and additional redesignation requirements in
the Clean Air Act, § 107(d)(3)(E), the USEPA will designate the area to attainment as a "maintenance
area."
5650e                                               12
NOACA has convened a public participation process to generate recommendations to the Ohio EPA for
inclusion in the Fine Particle Pollution SIP. PM2.5 nonattainment areas are required to submit to
USEPA a SIP by April 2008. Control measures have to be in place by 2009. The area must demonstrate
attainment by April 2010, with possible extensions available until 2015, if control measures are not
feasible. Ohio EPA is responsible for submitting all SIPs for Ohio. NOACA will contribute
recommendations for the PM2.5 SIPs on behalf of Northeast Ohio by January 2007. More information
on NOACA’s PM2.5 SIP planning process can be found by visiting NOACA’s website at
www.noaca.org/pmsipplan.html.


Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed whenever a fuel is burned incompletely due to the absence of
sufficient oxygen. It enters the blood stream during normal respiration and results in insufficient oxygen
delivery to body tissues. Depending on its concentration, impacts can range from increased discomfort
for those with cardiovascular ailments, visual impairment, reduced work capacity and even death. One
of the primary sources of carbon monoxide remain is the automobile. Traffic congestion at busy
intersections can result in elevated levels of this pollutant. Other major CO sources are wood-burning
stoves, incinerators and industrial sources, including steel mills.

Similar to particulate matter, there are two primary NAAQS for carbon monoxide. A 1-hour average
concentration of 35 parts per million (ppm) cannot be exceeded more than once per year. Additionally,
an 8-hour average concentration of 9 ppm cannot be exceeded more than once per year. There is
currently no portion of the Cleveland/Akron/Lorain Metropolitan Area that is designated nonattainment
for carbon monoxide. Cuyahoga County was a designated nonattainment area for carbon monoxide
from 1978 to1994. Although there is a maintenance plan for Cuyahoga County, new fuel and vehicle
technologies make an exceedance of the standard unlikely. Ohio, with NOACA’s assistance on
emissions inventory work, completed a maintenance plan update in 2003.

There are seven monitors remaining in the area. There are four in Cuyahoga County, one in Lake
County and two in Summit County. Map 4 displays monitoring locations for carbon monoxide. Chart 7
displays 2nd-Max 1-Hour concentration carbon monoxide data for those counties currently operating
monitors. Chart 8 displays 2nd-Max 8-Hour concentration data for those counties currently operating
monitors.




5650e                                              13
                               Map 4
                               CO                                                                                      Lake
                               Monitors

                                                                                         Cuyahoga
                                                                                                                                   Geauga




                               Lorain


                                                                                                                              Portage

                                                                                                 Summit
                                                         Medina


                                                                                                                      Area Monitors
                                                                                                                       ____________________

                                                                                                                                CO
                                                                                                                                  10 15
                                                                                                                    0    5
                                                                                                                      NOACA - May 2006



Chart 7

                                            Cuyahoga, Lake, and Summit Counties - 1995 - 2005
                                        ...2nd Max 1-Hr Carbon Monoxide Concentration (ppm)...
                                                                      (Standard is 35 parts per million)

                        30.0
                               21.8
  (parts per million)
    Concentration




                        20.0
                                            15.0                                                                                                  12.8
                                                                                              11.1
                                                   7.1   9.5          9.3
                        10.0                                    6.5                                                     8
                                      6.5                                         6.8                 5.6
                                                                            5.1         4.7                 5.5 4.5                   5.5   5.1          3.5   5.5 3.1
                               4.4                                                                                                3.6 2.9
                                                          3.2                                                                                                   2.2
                                              3.0                       2.9        2.5          2.7           2.4           2.7                      1.7
                         0.0
                               1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


                                                                              Cuyahoga               Lake           Summit


5650e                                                                                         14
Chart 8

                                               Cuyahoga, Lake, and Summit Counties - 1995 - 2005
                                           ...2nd Max 8-Hr Carbon Monoxide Concentration (ppm)...
                                                                          (Standard is 9 parts per million)


                        10.0                9.4

                               8.2
                                                                                                 7.9
  (parts per million)




                                                                    6.4
                                                        6.1
    Concentration




                                                                                                                                                    5.4

                                     3.7          3.4         3.2                                             3.5
                                                                           3.0                         2.6                          3.4 2.7                       2.9
                                                                                           2.5                      2.7
                                 2.1                      2.2                     3.9                                     2.2 2.1             2.5
                                                                                                                             2.4                                         1.7
                                                                                                                                                            2.2
                                              1.9                                    1.4           1.4          1.4                                   1.3
                                                                      1.7                                                                                          1.3

                         0.0
                               1995         1996        1997        1998           1999          2000         2001        2002       2003           2004          2005

                                                                                 Cuyahoga              Lake         Summit

Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is released primarily by the combustion of fuels containing sulfur as a
contaminant. Coal and diesel fuel are both contributors to this problem. As a result, coal fueled
industries and diesel trucks remain the primary sources for this pollutant. Its primary impacts on people
are similar to ozone impacts. It irritates lung tissue and can exacerbate preexisting respiratory and
cardiovascular ailments. In addition, it is a contributor to acid rain. Acid rain deteriorates man-made
structures, damages plants and can alter pH sufficiently to destroy ecosystems. It is also a primary
component in the atmospheric reactions that generate PM2.5.

There are two primary NAAQS for SO2. A 24-hour average concentration of 0.14 ppm (365 ug/m3)
may not be exceeded more than once per year. The annual arithmetic mean concentration may not
exceed 0.030 ppm (80 ug/m3). SO2 is the only criteria pollutant for which a distinct and different
secondary NAAQS exists. Secondary NAAQS are set based on the protection of social welfare rather
than health. The secondary NAAQS for SO2 requires that a 3-hour average concentration of 0.50 ppm
not be exceeded more than once per year.

In the absence of a USEPA approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) for SO2, USEPA promulgated a
Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) in 1976. In 1978, USEPA designated areas throughout the state for
SO2. Portions of three northeast Ohio counties (Cuyahoga, Lake and Lorain) were designated
nonattainment at that time. Despite the absence of recent exceedances, these areas have remained
designated nonattainment for reasons related to state planning/legislative obligations regarding
replacements for FIP requirements. Ohio legislated the necessary FIP requirements for Lake County
and it was redesignated to attainment effective September 29, 1999 (64 FR 47113). Ohio has also
addressed its obligation for Lorain County SO2 sources. It was redesignated to attainment effective July
5, 2000.
5650e                                                                                      15
On September 27, 2003, Ohio requested revisions to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for sulfur
dioxide (SO2 with a request for redesignation of Cuyahoga County to attainment for SO2. On July 8,
2004, at 69 FR 41344, USEPA proposed to approve the requested revisions and to redesignate
Cuyahoga County as requested. USEPA also published a corresponding direct final rule on the same
date, at 69 FR 41336, but USEPA withdrew this direct final rule because it received an adverse
comment. A citizen from New Jersey expressed concern about air pollution coming east from Ohio and
urged EPA to require Ohio power plants to upgrade their pollution controls. USEPA was satisfied that
the SO2 emission limits submitted by Ohio EPA suffice to assure attainment of the SO2 air quality
standard.

USEPA notes further that a separate action proposed on January 30, 2004, at 69 FR 4566, known as the
Clean Air Interstate Rule, would require significant reduction in the emissions of SO2 and nitrogen
oxides (NOX) of power plants in Ohio and elsewhere for purposes of reducing their long-range
transported contributions to fine particulate matter and ozone exposures. USEPA also received a
comment from an affected company clarifying the operational status of boilers affected by the relevant
rule. USEPA affirmed this clarification. Thus, as proposed, USEPA approved the SO2 rules Ohio EPA
submitted, removing the Federal Implementation Plan rules that these State rules superseded, and
redesignated Cuyahoga County to attainment for SO2 on February 28, 2005.

There are nine SO2 monitors operating in northeast Ohio. Map 5 displays their locations. Chart 9
displays the 2nd-Max 24-Hour sulfur dioxide concentrations for counties conducting monitoring from
1995 through 2005. Lorain County no longer operates an SO2 monitor. Chart 10 displays the annual
means for the same period.

Chart 9

                                    2nd Max 24-Hr Sulfur Dioxide Concentration (ppb), 1995 - 2005                                          .
                                                      in Northeast Ohio Counties
                                                                             (Standard is 140 ppb)

                         100
                                                                                                                                                            77
                          80                             72
  (parts per million).




                                                                                  62 65
    Concentration




                                                    57             57                                                   60
                          60                                                                                                      52 54
                                     46    49
                                                                        44                       44         44                                 47 52
                                                42                                          40                                                          42
                                            37     34          37              36          35            34                   36                                 36
                          40                   32 29
                                28 50                                                                  36           41
                               19         22                        20       19                21         19      21               20     18
                                                        21                                            25         18          24                 14
                          20                                  20                    27                                                                 20
                                                                                          21                         20                    32
                                    20
                           0
                                1995      1996    1997         1998           1999         2000        2001      2002         2003         2004         2005

                                                        Ashtabula              Cuyahoga              Lake      Lorain        Summit




5650e                                                                                16
Chart 10

                                                       Annual Mean Sulfur Dioxide Concentration (ppb), 1995 - 2005                                                            ..
                                                                        in Northeast Ohio Counties
                                                                                                  (Standard is 30 ppb)
   Concentration (parts per billion)




                                       20
                                                               11
                                                  11                             12       11 10             11                                                   10                                    10
                                             10            11       10   10 10                                                             10         9 10
                                                       9                                              9              7 8               8                                  9            8
                                                                                                                                                                                               8       8    8
                                       10                  6             6
                                                                                      9
                                                                                                       11                          7
                                                                                                                                                                 7                 6
                                                                5             5                   5              5         9               5         6
                                             4     5                                       4                           9                         4       4   4        4       4                    4
                                                                                      5                 6                      4                                                           3

                                        0
                                              1995         1996          1997         1998        1999            2000             2001           2002        2003             2004                2005

                                                                                 Ashtabula        Cuyahoga                 Lake                Lorain        Summit



Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is formed atmospherically by the oxidation of nitric oxide. Primarily high temperature
combustion processes, such as those found in cars and truck engines and at power plants, release nitric
oxide. Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish brown gas. It is readily apparent around urban areas during hot,
stagnant weather. It can worsen respiratory conditions and may reduce resistance to lung infection. It
also plays a major role in ozone formation, global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion.

A single NAAQS of an annual arithmetic mean of 0.053 ppm exists for nitrogen dioxide. This mean
may not be exceeded without constituting a violation. No portion of the northeast Ohio area is
designated nonattainment for nitrogen dioxide. In northeast Ohio, Cuyahoga County is the only county
monitoring for this pollutant. It operates two monitors whose locations are depicted in Map 6. Chart 11
displays annual mean concentrations for Cuyahoga County from 1995-2005.
Chart 11

                                                                          Cuyahoga County, 1995 - 2005
                                                                Annual Mean Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration (ppb) .
                                                                                                  (Standard is 53 ppb)


                                        50
   (parts per billion)
    Concentration




                                        40         27           26           28            27          25             23               24            22              22            22                  22
                                        30
                                        20
                                        10
                                         0
                                                  1995         1996          1997         1998        1999           2000          2001              2002        2003              2004            2005

                                                                                                                 Cuyahoga



5650e                                                                                                        17
                    Map 6                                                                                        Euclid


                    Nitrogen Dioxide
                    Monitors                                                              Bratenahl
                                                                                                            Richmond
                                                                                                            Heights  Highland
                                                                                                                     Heights
                                                                                             East
                                                                                             Cleveland                                      Gates
                                                                                                            South Euclid                    Mills
                                                                                                                                Mayfield Heights
                                                                                                 Cleveland Heights

                                                                                     Cleveland          University Heights
                                                                                                                                        Hunting
        Bay                                Lakewood                                                                                     Valley
                                                                                                      Shaker Heights
        Village             Rocky                                                                                           Pepper Pike
                            River                                                                                         Woodme
              Westlake                                                   Newburgh                           Highland
                            Fairview                Linndale             Heights                            Hills              OrangMoreland
                            Park                                          Cuyahoga Heights                Warrensville         e    Hills Chagrin Falls
                                                       Brooklyn                                           Heights
                                                                       Brooklyn         Garfield
                  North                                                Heights          Heights                                         Bentleyville
                                                                                               Maple Heights
                  Olmsted                                                                                        Bedford Heights
                                       Brook Park
                                                                                                            Bedford
                                                Parma
        Olmsted                                                                                                                        Solon
                                                Heights                           Independence
               Olmsted Falls
                                 Middleburg                                                                          Oakwood
                                                               Parma                              Walton Hills
                                 Heights



                                                                        Broadview
                                                                                                                           Area
                                                                        Heights                                                NO2 Monitors
                                                                                                                       _____________________

                                 Strongsville         North                                                        0
                                                      Royalton                        Brecksville                          2
                                                                                                                                Miles 4           6

                                                                                                                       NOACA – May 2006




Lead

Historically, leaded gasoline was the primary source of lead emissions, although in Cleveland a single
source, Master Metals, was responsible for large amounts of fugitive lead emissions. Master Metals is
now defunct. USEPA began efforts to phase out the use of lead in gasoline in the early 1970s. It was
not until the December 31, 1995, that the use of leaded gasoline in on-road vehicles was banned. Lead
additives can and are still used in off-road engines. However, only metal industries and battery
manufacturers remain significant contributors to atmospheric lead pollution. Lead accumulates in the
body and can damage kidneys, liver, the nervous system and other organs.

A single NAAQS for a quarterly average concentration not to exceed 1.5 micrograms/cubic meter exists.
This concentration may not be exceeded without constituting a violation. Once leaded fuel was banned
most areas of the country experienced rapid decreases in ambient air lead concentrations. There are no
nonattainment areas for lead in Northeast Ohio. Chart 12 displays quarterly lead concentrations for
Cuyahoga and Summit Counties from 1995 - 2005. Summit County no longer operates a lead monitor.
Five monitors remain in Cuyahoga County. Their location is depicted in Map 7.



5650e                                                                       18
Chart 12

                                                      Highest Quarterly Mean Lead Concentrations, 1994-2004 .
                                                                                       (Standard is 1.5 micrograms/cubic meter)
  (micrograms per cubic meter)




                                 5                                                  4.32
         Concentration




                                                      2.87

                                       1.24                          1.06
                                                                                                  0.65          0.01 0.2                                                         0.36
                                            0.06          0.03              0.04        0.04           0.02 0.15                              0.15             0.12                       0.15
                                 0
                                           1994       1995            1996          1997           1998          1999           2000             2001           2002               2003   2004

                                                                                                     Cuyahoga                   Summit




                                 Map 7                                                                                                   Euclid

                                 Lead
                                 Monitors                                                                           Bratenahl            Richmond
                                                                                                                                         Heights Highland
                                                                                                                                                 H i ht
                                                                                                                      East                                                 Gates
                                                                                                                      Cleveland      South                                 Mill
                                                                                                                                     Euclid                Mayfield
                                                                                                                        Cleveland                          Heights
                                                                                                                        Heights
                                                                                                              Cleveland         University
                                                                                                                                Heights                                Hunting
                          Bay Village                               Lakewood                                                                                           Valley
                                                                                                                                Shaker
                                                   Rocky River                                                                  H i ht                 Pepper Pike
                                                                                                  Newburgh                                           Woodme
                                     Westlake                                                     Heights                             Highland
                                                    Fairview Park           Linndale                                                  Hill              Orang
                                                                                                                                                           Moreland Hills
                                                                                                    Cuyahoga                       Warrensville                     Chagrin Falls
                                                                                                    H i ht                         H i ht
                                                                             Brooklyn           Brooklyn         Garfield
                                     North Olmsted                                              Heights          H i ht                    Bedford                     Bentleyville
                                                                                                                   Maple Heights
                                                                                                                                           Heights
                                                             Brook Park                                                              Bedford
                                                                          Parma
                                 Olmsted                                  Heights                                                                                      Solon
                                                                                                           Independence
                                                          Middleburg                                                        Walton Hills
                                       Olmsted                                                                                                Oakwood
                                                          Heights                      Parma
                                       Falls

                                                                                                                                         Area Monitors
                                                                                               Broadview                                             PbMonitors
                                                                                               Heights                                       _______________________

                                                         Strongsville          North Royalton                                        0       2         4               6
                                                                                                            Brecksville
                                                                                                                                         NOACA – May 2006




For More Information

More detailed criteria pollutant data can be found at http://www.epa.gov/air/data/reports.html from
which this report was derived.

5650e                                                                                                          19

				
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