Agent Agent Origin Mechanism of Action Toxicokinetics Clinical Signs Diagnosis by taoyni

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									      Agent            Origin                       Mechanism of Action              Toxicokinetics            Clinical Signs           Diagnosis               Treatment

Methomyl               Hot carbamate                                                                           Vomiting, seizures,                              Do not induce emesis
                       insecticide                                                                             death, onset of signs                            at home due to quick
                       Fly bat: contains large                                                                 w/in 30 min,                                     onset of signs
                       amounts of sugar                                                                                                                         Control seizures,
                                                                                                                                                                atropine
                                                                                                                                                                Good prognosis if
                                                                                                                                                                seizures are
                                                                                                                                                                controlled
Nicotine               Toxin: pyridine alkaloids    Nicotinic mimics                 Poor gastric              Emesis, Excitation,      Nicotine, cotinine in   Bathing, emetic if
Nicotine species       (nicotine, nornicotine,      acetylcholine at                 absorption                tachypnea, salivation,   urine, blood, liver,    appropriate,
(Nicotine,             anabasine, anatabine)        acethylcholine receptors         Well absorbed from        diarrhea, muscle         kidney, GI contents     AC/Cathartic,
nornicotine,           Retains toxicity when        Low doses: stimulation of        respiratory tract,        weakness, depression,                            Atropine, IV fluids,
cotinine, anabasine)   dried so should never be     receptors                        intestine, skin           twitching, respiratory                           Artificial respiration,
                       used as feed                 High doses: stimulation          Alkalinization            paralysis, cardiac                               urinary acidification,
                       Also see fetal deformity     followed by depolarizing         enhances absorption       arrest, death                                    avoid oral antacids
                       Insectcide sprays,           blockade                         Possible enterohepatic
                       dusts, pigs foraging in                                       recirculation
                       harvested tobacco fields
Lobelia (Indian        Eastern US, Wet soil
tobacco)               Toxin: Pyridine alkaloids
                       (like nicotine/less
                       potent)
                       Toxicity: highest
                       concentration before
                       and during flowering
                       Flowers > leaves
Poison hemlock         East Central Illinois        Coniine, N-methyl coniine,       Cattle, elk, swine more   Initially muscular       Coniine, N-methyl       Decontamination if
                       Late April – June            gamma-coniciene,                 at risk than pets         weakness, trembling,     coniine, coniceine      found early
                       Fence rows, roadsides,       conhydrine,                                                ataxia, slobbering,                              Symptomatic and
                       railroad tracts,             pseudoconhydrine                                           rapid pulse, dilated                             supportive
                       streambeds                            Piperadine alkaloids,                             pupils, frequent
                       All parts toxic, but toxin   Nicotinic type alkalods, also                              urination and
                       highest in seeds             teratogenic, conicene and                                  deficaiton
                                                    coniine are primary                                        Initial stimulation
                                                    teratogenic alkaloids                                      followed by depression
Lupine (Lupinus    Seeds and seed pods        Quinolizidin alkaloids:                                    Death due to               Possible detection of   Symptomatic and
species)           highest concentration of   -binding to nicotinic Ach                                  respiratory failure        lupine alkaloids        supportive
                   alkaloids                  receptor                                                   Teratogenic in cattle,
                                              -Stimulation followed by                                   rarely goats
                                              blockade                                                   -Depression, ataxia,
                                              -Death due to respiratory                                  twitching, excitation,
                                              failure                                                    seizures, head
                                              -Also a teratogen                                          pressing in sheep
                                              (anagyrine)                                                -Neuro signs primarily
                                                                                                         in sheep (also cattle,
                                                                                                         horse)
Imidacloprid                                  Binds nicotinic receptors        Rapid oral absorption,    Oral – salivation,                                 Dilute oral lesions
(Advantage ®)                                 Persisiten activation leads to   minimal dermal            vomiting, oral ulcers in                           Bathe or steroids for
                                              accumulation of Ach              absorption, lipophilic,   cats                                               dermal lesions
                                              Overstimulation of Ach –         resides in fatty layers   Dermal – redness,
                                              excitation, convulsions,         of skin                   pruritis, alopecia
                                              paralysis, death of insect       Wide margin of safety
                                              Higher affinity for insect
                                              nicotinic receptors, high
                                              numbers of receptors in
                                              insect nerves


           -Other novel insecticides
                  -Nitenpyram – Nitocninc Ach agonists
                  -Lufenuron (Program, Sentinal) – Benzoylphenyl urea – disruption of chitin synthesis
                  -Fipronil (Frontline) – GABA agonist, More selective for insect GABA receptors than mammalian, seizures in rabbits
Widow spiders      Red, yellow, orange        Venom: complex mixture of        Cats: extremely           Lactrodectism: short-                              Control pain with
(Lactrodectus      hourglass-shaped           six neuroactive protein,         sensitive to widow        lived localized pain at                            opiods
species)           marking on the ventral     proteolytic enzymes also         venom, paralysis early    bite site, venom is                                Muscle relaxants such
                   abdomen of the female      present, Principle toxin for     in course, severe pain    taken up by lymphatics                             as methocarbamol and
                   Males and females are      mammals is alpha-latrotoxin      (howling),                and blood, in 30-120                               diazepam
                   brown and have no          (polypeptide that causes         hypersalivation,          min onset of myalgia                               Calcium gluconate no
                   marking                    large release and then           restlessness, vomiting,   and muscle cramps                                  longer recommended
                   Found throughout US,       depletion of Ach and NE at       diarrhea, muscle          near bite site, pain                               Equine origin antivenin
                   especially south           postganglionic sympathetic       tremors, cramping,        spreads to large                                   (Lycovac ®) – very
                   Prefer dark places,        synapses)                        ataxia, inability to      muscle groups of legs,                             effective
                  especially leaf litter                                     stand may precede      thorax, back abd.
                  -Warm weather, will die                                    atonic paralysis,      Packing at 2-3 hr
                  in cold weather                                            Cheyne-Stokes          Mild/moderate
                                                                             respiratory pattern    hypertension and
                                                                             may develop prior to   tachycardia
                                                                             death                  Signs usually resolve
                                                                                                    48-72 hours but signs
                                                                                                    such as weakness,
                                                                                                    fatigue, insomnia may
                                                                                                    persist for weeks to
                                                                                                    months
          -Western Black Widow spider: Common in Western US
          -Northern Widow spider: common in Northern US, hourglass is not joined
          -Red Widow Spider, Red-Legged Widow Spider: Found in palmetto fronds of sandy, scrub pine in central and southern Florida
          -Brown Widow spider: hourglass is orange, introduced species in US, found in Florida
Botulism          Found in environment        Inhibition of release of Ach   Ingesiton of           Flaccid paralysis:       Clinical signs, Lab   Remove sourse,
(Clostridium      Species sensitivities to                                   preformed toxin, of    begins in hindquarters   analysis of serum,    Antitoxin (serum
botulinum)        different serotypes A-                                     spore                  and progresses to        gut contents,         product of horse
Anaerobic gram    G; Toxin heat labile/                                                             forequarters             feedstuff             which as received
positive spore    spores resistant to                                                               Inability to swallow     (preformed toxins,    injections of activated
forming rod       dessication, carrion most                                                         Death due to             mouse inoculation     form of toxoid),
                  common source of toxin                                                            respiratory distress     assay, ELISA – type   antibiotics, wound
                                                                                                                             C)                    debridement,
                                                                                                                                                   symptomatic and
                                                                                                                                                   supportive
                                                                                                                                                   (respiratory support)
                                                                                                                                                   Prevention: vaccinate
                                                                                                                                                   for C. botulinum
                                                                                                                                                   toxins, dispose of
                                                                                                                                                   carcasses
Larkspur          Western plant, contains   Diterpenoid alkaloids                                                           Sudden death,            Remove from source,
                  numerous diterpenoid      (Methyllycaconitine): potent                                                    nausea                   Physostigmine,
                  alkaloids                 neuromuscular blocking                                                          hyperirritability,       neostigmine – may
                                            agents (blocks nicotininc                                                       muscle tremors,          require retreatment,
                                            receptors), cattle nicotinic                                                    stiffness, weakness,     avoid stress, relieve
                                            receptors more susceptible                                                      constipation, bloat,     bloat
                                                                                                                            oral irriation,
                                                                                                                            collapse, prostration,
                                                                                                                            bloat, convulsions,
                                                                                                                            respiratory
                                                                                                                            paralysis, death as
                                                                                                                            soon as 3-4 hours
Tick paralysis    Ticks feed for more       Tick secretes neurotoxin        Dog, cattle, sheep   Ascending paralysis,                                Remove tick – rapid
Dermacentor       than 5 days               from salivary glands when                            retention of pain                                   recovery, tick dip,
andersoni                                   feeding, may interfere with                          sensation and tail wag,                             artificial respiration,
                                            ach synthesis or liberation                          death from                                          Fipronil
                                                                                                 respiratory paralysis
Loperamide        GI drug-opiate            Promotes intestinal fluid and   Enterohepatic        Duration of signs: 4-48                             Emesis, activated
                  antidiarrhea              electrolyte absorption and      recirculation        hours                                               charcoal, fluid support
                  Immodium AD               increased segmental                                  Ivermectin sensitive                                as indicated
                                            (circular) contrctions of                            breeds, juveniles may                               Naloxone to reverse
                                            intestinal smooth muscle                             be more sensitive than                              opiod signs (multiple
                                                                                                 other dogs                                          doses may be needed)
                                                                                                 Vomiting, lethargy,                                 Risks/prognosis:
                                                                                                 ataxia, abdominal pain,                             favorable outcome
                                                                                                 hind limb paresis,                                  with timely and
                                                                                                 bloody vomiting and                                 appropriate tx
                                                                                                 diarrhea
Hybrid Sudan                                Cyanide converted to Beta-                           Implicated in causing      cystitis, possible       Recovery is possible if
Grass                                       cyanoalanine, a lathyrogen                           equine cystitis – ataxia   ascending nephritis,     condition is diagnosed
Sorghum vulgare                             Inteferes with normal nerve                          syndrome; may also         paralysis of             early
var sudenense                               development and function:                            effect cattle, sheep,      perineum associated      Treatment includes
                                            swollen, degenerating axons,                         Ataxia especially when     with vaginits            antibiotics, supportive
                                            demyelination, increased                             backed or turned,                                   care, discontinuation
                                            glitter cells in spinal cord                         paralysis of urinary                                of Sorghum ingestion
                                                                                                 bladder: continual
                                                                                                 dribbling of urine,
Hydrogen Sulfide     Colorless gas produced      Mucosal and respiratory        Released upon            Signs include                                       Fresh air, O2,
(H2S)                by anaerobic                irritant, stimulation of       agitation of liquid      conjunctivitis, cough,                              Ventilator
                     decompensation of           chemoreceptors, acapnia        manure holding pits      dyspnea, cyanosis,                                  Prevention: remove
                     sulfur-containing organic   leading to asphyxia                                     seizures,                                           animals when pit is
                     matter                      High levels of direct                                   cardiopulmonary                                     agitated, provide
                                                 paralyze respiratory center                             arrest, death                                       adequate ventilation
                                                 (unrelated to CO2 levels in                                                                                 NEVER ENTER THE
                                                 blood)                                                                                                      PIT!!!
Chlorphenoxy         2,4-D used to control       Amine salt makes poisonous                              Usually only expect GI                              Synptomatic
Herbicides           broadleaf weeds and         plants more palatable                                   upset; no signs                                     treatment
(2,4-D, and 2,4,5-   grasses, monocots,                                                                  expected for
T)                   woody plants, aquatic                                                               dogs/cats walking on
                     weeds, non-flowering                                                                treated lawn
                     plants                                                                              Graze out period= 7
                                                                                                         days, cattle; 3 weeks
                                                                                                         horses
                                                                                                         High doses
                                                                                                         experimentally caused
                                                                                                         muscle membrane
                                                                                                         irritability and rigidity
                                                                                                         resulting in myotonia
IONOPHORES           Anticoccidials in poutry,   Net cellular imbalances of     Widely distributed in    Latent period of 12-72      Lesions: paleness and   Treatment:
                     antibiotic growth           cations, especially in         body, eliminated via     hours before they           streaking of            Decontaminate recent
                     promotants                  mitochondria/bacteria,         bile, selective ion      appear                      myocardium              ingestion with
                     Exposure: mixing errors,    resulting in decreased ATP     transport of Na, K, Ca   GI: anorexia, diarrhea      especially in horses,   induction of emesis in
                     feed fed to wrong           Cattle: cellular effects       down their               in hors and dog,            cattle, sheep           appropriate species
                     species, dogs eating        involve inhibition of          concentration gradient   vomiting in                 DX: test feed for       and administration of
                     cattle/chicken feed         enzymatic activities           Horses especially        monogastrics that can       ionophores              activated charcoal
                                                 Cattle: weight gain and feed   sensitive                vomit, colic in horses,                             Vitamin E/Selenium as
                                                 efficiency                                              rumenitis in cattle                                 antioxidants
                                                 Cellular toxicity related to                            Cardiac and                                         Supportive care with
                                                 change in function or damage                            respiratory: weakness,                              fluids, bicarbonate if
                                                 to cellular organelles                                  dyspnea, cyanosis,                                  significantly acidodic
                                                                                                         decreased exercise                                  Caution with riding
                                                                                                         tolerance, arrhythmias                              recovered horses –
                                                                                                         Nervous system:                                     U/S
                                                                                                         ataxia, depression,
                                                                                              stiffness, recumbency,
                                                                                              paralysis (dogs, birds)
                                                                                              Myoglobinuria in sheep,
                                                                                              swine, dogs
                                                                                              Sweating and polyuria
                                                                                              in horses
                                                                                              Decreased rate of
                                                                                              gain, poor feathering
                                                                                              Sudden death < 2-3
                                                                                              days or > 1 weeks
                                                                                              apparent recovery due
                                                                                              to cardiac fibrosis

Macadamia Nuts    Toxic principle is                                 Signs within 12 hours,   lameness, stiffness,      Pancreatitis from   Supportive care over
and Dogs          unknown                                            weakness, vomiting,      inability to rise         high fat content    24-48 hours; often
                  Toxic doses: 1 nut/kg                              depression, ataxia,      Hind limbs more                               home treatment
                                                                     tremors,                 affected than
                                                                     hyperthermia,            forelimbs
         Metabolic acidosis:

         CO2 + H2O   H2CO3   HCO3- + H+   CO3- + H+
                           Carbonic                         Carbonate
                            Acid                               Ion
         -Decreased plasma pH: Normal 7.36-7.44
         -Decreased plasma Bicarbonate
                -normal: 20-28 mEq/L
                -With toxicoses, usually due to loss of HCO3- due to buffering of excess acids
         -Compensatory decreased PaCO2 and increase in ventilation
Ethylene Glycol   Contains 95% ethylene      Cats very sensitive             Diagnosis: High anion      Stage 1: History, time     Draw blood sample for
(antifreeze)      glycol                     Sweet tasting                   gap: excess of             of year, clinical signs,   diagnosis before
                  Windshile wiper            -Stage 1: Neurological and      unmeasured anions          ethylene glycol test in    administering
                  antifreeze contains 20-    GI, 30 min. to several hours    High osmol gap:            dog, human EG test in      pharmaceuticals
                  30% methanol               post-ingestion                  measured osmolality –      cat, Kacey test (dogs,     Prompt and aggressive
                  In radiator: 50%           -Ethylene Glycol  (alcohol     calculated osmolality      cats) – false positives    treatment
                  ethylene glycol            dehydrogenase)                 (DX: > 20 mOsm/kg          b/c just measures low      Renal failure is NOT
                  Present in lesser          glycoaldehyde                   water)                     levels of alcohols,        reversible once it
                  amounts in latex acrylic   Stage 2: Acidosis, 8-24 hr.     Acidosis: pH < 7.4         Woods lamp (detects        occurs due to fibrosis
                  paints (<5%)               post exposure                   Stage 3: Acute renal       fluorescine dye in         of tubules caused by
                  Diethylene glycol also     -Glycoaldehyde  (Aldehyde      failure – azotemia with    antifreeze in urine)       predipitation of
                  present in paint and       dehydrogenase)  Glycolic       isosthenuria, Calcium      Limitations of EG          calcium oxalate
                  break fluids               Acid                            oxalate monohydrate        tests (detection limit     crystals in tubules
                                             Stage 3: Renal failure, 12-72   crystals in urine, U/S –   high for cats)             Decontamination not
                                             hours post-exposure             mineralization, Halo       False negatives            really effective
                                             -Glycolic acid  (Lactate       sign, post-mortem:         beyond stage 1             because rapidly
                                             Dehydrogenase)  Glyoxylic      kidney calcium levels >    Test for                   absorbed, early
                                             Acid  Oxalic Acid              1000ppm, detection of      Unmetabolized parent       induction of emesis
                                                                             EG in kidney,              compound                   may be successful
                                                                             Birefringent crystals      False + with propylene     Treatment provides
                                                                             in tubules,                glycol,                    competitive inhibition
                                                                             mineralization of BM       formald/metaldehyde,       of alcohol
                                                                             on renal histopath         glycerine, glycerol        dehydrogenase with
                                                                                                                                   ethanol/Fomepizole
                                                                                                                                   4-MP (cats 2-3hr)
Fomepizole (4-MP):
       -Not effective if animal is already in renal failure
       -Not effective if no measurable ethylene glycol in blood – run test prior to treatment
       -Will not worsen CNS depression or acidosis
       -Will not interfere with EG test
       -Will prevent metabolism of ethanol if given concurrently so either give ethanol OR 4-MP, not both
**On test:
CRI of 7% Ethanol
       % Ethanol desired (7%) = ml required of available Ethanol solution
       ----------------------------- --------------------------------------------------
       % Ethanol stock solution                   1 Liter of fluids

       -typically use 40% vodka (80proof)
       -Treat until EG test is negative (all parent compound excreted) or until acidosis resolved for 24 hours
-Or can use pulse ethanol method if not CRI
       -maintain constant blood ethanol level, so need to monitor animal and adjust treatment accordingly
       -20% ethanol solution, give 5 treatment, and then every 6-8 hours 4-5 more treatments
-Ethylene Glycol treatment
       -maintain hydration, protect kidneys with fluid diuresis
       -Dialysis: can remove ethylene glycol more rapidly than renal excretion
       -Keep warm
       -Seizures control with diazepam as needed
       -Monitor urine for crystals, casts
       -Blood work for acid-base status, azotemia, hpocalemia (treat PRN with calcium gluconate slowly IV), hyperkalemia, and
       parent compound
       -Treat metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate according to base deficit
               -IV Bicarbonate = 0.3 x BW (kg) x Base Deficit
       -B Vitamins: Thiamine and Pyridoxine
Propylene Glycol     Automotive antifreezes                                                             Serious alcohol                                     Treatment similar to
                     (safer)                                                                            intoxication possible if                            methanol, supportive
                     Present in low                                                                     sufficient PG ingestion                             care, fluids, etc.
                     concentrations in food,                                                            ( > 10ml/kg in dogs)
                     pharmaceuticals,                                                                   Signs similar to
                     cosmetics, low levels in                                                           methanol
                     cat food
                     In activated charcoal or
                     injectable medications,
                     can interfere with EG
                     tests
Salicylates          BenGay – methyl             Therapeutic action due to     **Uncoupling of          GI upset/ulceration:                                Decontaminate if
(Bengay®,            salicylate, PeptoBismol –   inhibition of prostaglandin   oxidative                vomit, anorexia,                                    early (emesis, AC),
Peptobismol®, Alka   bismuth subsalicylate,      synthesis which reduces       phosphoylation           melena, platelet                                    minimum database
Seltzer®             KaoPectate,                 inflammation                  Aspirin: ability to      inhibition, increased                               then repeat at 48 and
                     Acetylsalicyclic acid       Toxic response due to         move protons across      bleeding times                                      72 hours, Fluid
                     (aspirin)                   decreased gastroprotective    inner mitochondrial      Higher doses: CNS                                   diuresis at twice
                                                 PG formation, reduced renal   membrane, bypassing      signs including                                     maintenance for 48-
                                                 perfusion, fever due to       ATP synthetase,          seizures, coma                                      72 hours, GI
                                                 uncoupling of oxidative       inhibiting glycolysis    Tachypnea                                           protectants
                                                 phosphorylation, metabolic    and producing heat       (respiratory                                        (Misoprostol,
                                                 acidosis                                               compensation for                                    Sucralfate,
                                                 Cats prone: decreased                                  acidosis, pulmonary                                 Famotidine,
                                                 ability to metabolize                                  edema), fever,                                      Omeprazole),
                                                 salicylates via                                        acidosis,                                           NPO/Manage vomiting
                                                 glucuronidation                                        hyperglycemia, Heinz                                with anti-emetics
                                                                                                        body formation in cat                               PRN, Treat acidosis
                                                                                                                                                            PRN,
                                                                                                                                                            thermoregulation,
                                                                                                                                                            transfusion if
                                                                                                                                                            critically anemia
HOPS                 Ingestion of both           Interfere with reuptake of    Malignant                tachypnea, abd pain,       Decontaminate            Dantrolene (direct
Humuls lupulus       unspent and spent hops      Ca by SR  prolonged          Hyperthermia-like        severe hyperthermia        (emesis/AC/cathartic),   acting skeletal muscle
                     can results in clinical     muscle contraction, increa.   syndrome if ingested     (108F), myoglobinuria,     monitor acid-base,       relaxant, IV fluids,
                     signs within 3 hours        muscular glycogenolysis,      by dogs                  death within 6 hours       sodium bicard for        cooling (avoid alcohol)
                                                 lactic acidosis, heat prod.   Progressive agitation,                              acidosis,
           -Mechanisms of renal disease
                        -Kidney:
                                -high blood flow
                                -high metabolic demands (requires energy)
                                -Ability to detoxify agents, or activate them
                        -Glomerular lesions
                                -Toxic injury rarely occurs (snake venoms causes endothelial damage)
                        -Renal tubular necrosis: most common
                                -Various mechanisms: antimicrobials, metals, EG, mycotoxins, etc.
                        -Renal Mineralization
                                -Hypercalcemia  dystrophic mineralization
                                        -Vitamin D or D analogues
                        -Papillary necrosis: ischemia (NSAIDS)
                        -Contact irritation: Renal pelvis, lower urinary tract (Cantharidin)
Vitamin K3/         (not K1 which is used for                                                            Renal tubular necrosis                           Symptomatic
Menadione           anticoagulants, natural                                                              (horses), rarely see                             treatment, rare now
                    plant source)                                                                        hemolytic anemia in
                    Menadione is synthetic                                                               other species,
                    Horses- given
                    parenterally, used to
                    treat epistaxis
Cantharidin         Found in hemolymph and      Vesicant – direct damage to      Rapidly absorbed from   Low dose – depression,   Clinical pathology      Remove source, AC
(Blister Beetles)   genitalia of Epicauta       mucosal surfaces (GI and         GI, Excreted in urine   anorexia, discomfort     (elevated PCV,          binds cantharidin,
                    spp. (wide head, narrow     urinary tract vulnerable)                                High dose –              creatining kinase,      Mineral oil, fluids
                    thorax, long abd,           May locally interfere with                               restlessness,            high serum protein      (rehydration, dilute
                    probably as defense         oxidative phosphorylation -                              depression,              followed by low         cantharidin, increase
                    mechanisms)                 Inability to maintain cellular                           tachycardia, mucosal     protein,                renal excretion,
                    Infestation of alfalfa      fluid balance, acantholysis                              ulcers (mouth, GI,       hypocalcemia,           monitor and correct
                    Colorless, odorless,        and vesicle formation (leads                             urogenital) colic,       hypomagnesemia)         electrolytes, acid-
                    stable, released when       to ulcers and erosions)                                  fever, frequent          Necropsy                bse), pain relief
                    beetles crushed                                                                      urinarion, diarrhea      (hyperemia, ulcers,     Px: guarded to poo
                                                                                                         Synchronous              erosions throughout     Prevention: feed small
                                                                                                         diaphragmatic flutter    GI and urinary tract,   square bales, avoid
                                                                                                         (hiccup with each        myocardial necrosis)    crimpingk, avoid
                                                                                                         heartbeat), muscle       Cantharidin analysis    wheel traffic on hay,
                                                                                                     fasculations, shock       (urine, gut contents      look for beetles in
                                                                                                     acidosis, death           collected early),         field before harvest
                                                                                                                               beetles or beetle
                                                                                                                               parts found in hay or
                                                                                                                               pelleted feed
Sulfonamides    Therapeutic mechanism:                                   Precipitation in renal      All species, chronic      Keratoconunctivitis       Discontinue, remove
(antibiotics)   inhibition of bacterial                                  tubules (carnivores),       therapy increase risk,    sicca, dermal             source, fluids
                dihydropteroate                                          Inhibition of Vit. K        younger dehydrated        eruptions, hepatic        (protect kidneys),
                synthase – required to                                   producing bacteria,         animals more at risk      necrosis, hemolytic       alkalinization of urine
                produce                                                  reduction of gut folate                               anemia,                   (ion trap- sulfas are
                tetrahydrofolate)                                        producing bacteria –                                  hypothyroidism,           weak acids), vitamin
                                                                         aplastic anemia                                       anaphylactoid rxns        K, Cyclosporine or
                                                                                                                                                         pilocarpine for tear
                                                                                                                                                         production
NSAIDS          Carprofen, Etodolac,       Act by inhibition of COX      Well absorbed orally in     GI: ulcers due to         Lab: not right after      Emesi, AC – repeated
                Meloxicam (Metacam),       COX-1: constitutive,          stomach and SI,             inhibition of             exposure, usually a       doses for many
                Deracoxib (Deramaxx),      produced continuously,        absorbed very rapidly,      prostaglandins that       few days                  NSAIDS, Cathartic,
                Firocoxib, Ibuprofen,      tissue hemostasis, GI         many are highly protein     mediate production of     -decreased PCV or         Obtain baseline BUN,
                naproxen, etc.             protection, platelet          bound, most metabolized     gastrin and HCl, direct   positive occult blood,    Crt, urine SG
                                           function, regulation of       to inactive form and        cytotoxicity to GI        may see increased         (monitor at 24,48,72
                Acetominophen/Tylenol      blood flow                    eliminated by various       epithelial cells,         BUN, Crt                  hr)
                is different               COX-2: inducible, produced    routes, some do undergo     decrease in               Lesions: Gastric          IV fluids – diuresis
                Aspirin somewhat           in response to infection or   enterohepatic               hydrophobicity of         ulcerations,              for at least 48-72 hr
                different                  inflammation, pain, fever     recirculation               mucous layer in           irritation, hyperemia,    if expecting renal
                If it comes in 325 mg,                                                               stomach, impairment       edema                     damage
                probably Tylenol and not                                 Cats, ferrets are very      of gastric                Right dorsal colitis in   GI protectants
                Ibuprofen                                                sensitive, at least 2x as   microcirculation          horses                    H2 blockers –
                If it is in 220 mg,                                      sensitive as dogs           Renal: (analgesic         Renal papillary           famotidine,
                probably naproxen                                        Toxic doses varies with     nephropathy)              necrosis                  cimetidine, ranitidine
                                                                         agent                       vasoconstriction in                                 Proton pump inhibitor
                                                                         Naproxen has very long      renal capillary beds,                               – omeprazol
                                                                         half life in dog (3 days)   redistribution of blood                             Prostaglandin E1
                                                                         so even low doses can be    away from medulla                                   analogue –
                                                                         a problem, especially if    (papillary necrosis),                               misoprostol
                                                                         repeated                    hypotensive animals                                 Sucralfate – binds to
                                                                         Meloxicam not labeled       inc. risk Hepatic:                                  exudates at ulcer site
                                                                         for oral use in cats        Idiosyncratic reaction                              Supportive care
                                                                                                       of labs to carprofen,
                                                                                                       can see with any
                                                                                                       NSAID, withdrawal,
                                                                                                       supportive treatment,
                                                                                                       washout time
                                                                                                       CNS: Occasionally at
                                                                                                       very high doses can
                                                                                                       see CNS signs, coma
                                                                                                       or seizures
                                                                                                       Ferrets: severe CNS
                                                                                                       depression, esp.
                                                                                                       Ibuprofen exposure
                                                                                                       -Acute toxicity of
                                                                                                       Ibuprofen in dogs
                                                                                                       (vomit, anorexia,
                                                                                                       hematamesis,
                                                                                                       diarrhea, melena, abd
                                                                                                       pain, colic, PU/PD,
                                                                                                       oliguria, anuria,
                                                                                                       depression, seizures,
                                                                                                       icterus)
Cholecalciferol   Puppies normally have     Cholecalciferol  (liver)     Rapid absorption, highly    By 12-72 hr: vomit,     R/O other causes of     Decontaminate:
(Vitamin D3)      high phosphorus           calcifediol  (kidney)        lipophilic, enterohepatic   diarrhea, anorexia,     hyperCa, post           emesis, repeated
                  compared to adults, may   calcitriol                     recycling, long half life   depression, PU/PD,      mortem – bile,          doses of AC and
                  persist up to year in     Overall function: increase                                 Hyperphosphatemia,      kidney, urine for       cathartic
                  large breed dogs          serum calcium                                              Hypercalcemia,          calcifediol, Lesions:   Obtain baseline Ca, P,
                                            Increase intestinal                                        Azotemia                mineralization of       BUN, Crt, monitor for
                  Rodenticides (Rat-B-      absorption of calcium,                                                             kidneys, gut, cardia,   96 hr
                  Gone, Mouse-B-Gone,       stimulate osteoclastic bone                                                        skeletal muscles,       Correct Hyper Ca: IV
                  Rampage, Quintox)         resorption of calcium,                                                             tend/ligam              saline, Furosemide,
                                            increase renal calcium                                                             Crystalline mineral     prednisone,
                  Cestrum diurnum           reaboprion                                                                         deposits in tubular     phosphate binders,
                  (Florida)                 Initially incr. Phos then Ca                                                       basement                low Ca/Ph diet,
                                                                                                                               membranes, Bowman       Calcitonin,
                                                                                                                               capsule                 Pamidronate (inhibits
                                                                                                                                                       osteoclastic bone
                                                                                                                                                       resorption
                                                                                                                                                              Px: good for early
                                                                                                                                                              decontamination,
                                                                                                                                                              no/mild elevations of
                                                                                                                                                              Ca, P, poor for
                                                                                                                                                              delayed tx, severe Ca,
                                                                                                                                                              P elevations, soft
                                                                                                                                                              tissue mineralization

Soluble oxalate-     Shamrock, Rhubarb,      Combine with calcium in         K and Na oxalate highly     Hypocalcemia – acute        Lesions: Calcium         Remove from source,
containing plants    Dock, sour doc, curly   blood (chelates)  severe       soluble in water, rapidly   death, dullness, rumen      Oxalate crystals in      provide clean feed
                     dock, Halogeton,        hypocalcemia, life-             absorbed from gut,          atony, bloat,               renal tubular lumen,     and water, fluids,
                     Greasewood, Beets,      threatening with Halogeton      filtered by kidney,         twitching, ataxia,          lumen distension,        monitor and correct
                     Lambsquarters           -Forms insoluble calcium        concentrated in renal       teeth grinding, tetany,     flattened                calcium deficits,
                                             oxalate (Bi-refringent)         tubules                     seizures, bradycardia,      degenerated tubular      acidosis
                                             Oxalate nephrosis                                           slobbering, weakness,       epithelium               1:3 dicalcium
                                                                                                         incoordination, coma,       Identify plant in gut,   phosphate: sodium
                                                                                                         azotemia, comit,            Oxalate                  chloride may bind
                                                                                                         depression, weight          concentrations in        soluble oxalates in
                                                                                                         loss, death                 forage or kidney         gut
Boric acids and      Terro Ant Killer II     Directly cytotoxic to           Rapidly absorbed from       Vomit, anorexia, skin                                Decontaminate,
borates                                      tubular epitherlium             gut, excreted unchanged     irritation, ocular                                   symptomatic
                                                                             in urine                    irritation, renal failure                            Not an organic
                                                                                                         – concentrations in                                  chemical, but a metal,
                                                                                                         kidneys,                                             so AC will not work
                                                                                                         hyperexcitability,
                                                                                                         seizures, delirium,
                                                                                                         weakness, coma
                                                                                                         Usually mild, self-
                                                                                                         limiting vomit
Grapes and Raisins                           Toxic dose: 1.5 oz snack box                                Acute renal failure         Elevated BUN, Crt,       Aggressive
                                             of raisins in 33 lb dog, ½ lb                               syndromes in dogs           sometimes elevated       decontamination,
                                             grapes in 22 lb dog                                         All breeds susceptible      serum Ca, P, glucose     emesis, gastric
                                                                                                         Vomiting by 6 hours,        Lesions: renal           lavage, AC (multiple
                                                                                                         diarrhea, anorexia,         proximal tubular         doses), Enemas
                                                                                                         abdominal pain,             degeneration and         Baseline serum
                                                                                                         lethargy by 24-36           necrosis, mineralized    chemistries, monitor
                                                                                                         hours, By 36-72 hr:         tubular                  for 72 hours, IV
                                                                                                               anuria, oliguria         debris/proteinaceous    fluids (saline) 2x
                                                                                                                                        casts, epithelial       maintenance, 48 hr
                                                                                                                                        degeneration            Promote diuresis
                                                                                                                                                                (Furosemide,
                                                                                                                                                                dopamine, mannitol),
                                                                                                                                                                peritoneal dialysis,
                                                                                                                                                                hemodialysis
Redroot pigweed        Widely distributed in        Nephrotoxicant (cattle,                                    Depression, weakness,    Lesions: Ascites,
                       cultivated solids,           sheep, pigs, goats, horses),                               trembling,               perirenal edema in
                       gardens, cattle lots,        renal tubular nephrosis (no                                incoordination,          pigs and cattle,
                       waste ares                   oxalates)                                                  recumbency, ventral      swollen pale kidneys,
                       Nitrate accumulators,                                                                   edema, fluid distended   proximal and distal
                       soluble oxaltes                                                                         abdomens, azotemia,      tubular necrosis and
                                                                                                               hypoCa, hyperPh          dilatation
Oak poisoning,         Immature leaves in           Usually cattle, occasionally   Lesions: perirenal edema,   Constipation, colic,     History, clinical       Symptomatic, Calcium
acorn poisoning        spring, acorns in fall,      horses                         retroperitoneal edema,      hemoglobinuria,          signs,                  hydroxide binds to
                       also buds, flowers,                                         ascites, pale, swollen      anorexia, depression,    Pyrogallol in serum     tannic acid
                       stems                                                       kidneys with petechial      GI atony, renal          and urine – early
                       Gallotannins, tannic acid                                   hemmhroages,                failure, death
                                                                                   hemorrhagic enteritis,
                                                                                   ulcerations




Lillies (Lillium and   Cats especially              Necrosis of proximal renal     Unidentified water          By 2-6 hr, vomit,        Crt >>> BUN,            Decontaminate:
Hemerocallis spp.      All parts of plants toxic,   tubular epithelial cells:      soluble toxic principle     salivation, anorexia,    Epithelial cats and     emesis, AC, cathartic,
                       pollen                       sloughing into lumen,                                      depression               glucosuria              IV fluids at 2-3x
                                                    plugging up of tubular lumen                               By 24-72 hr: Elevated    Lesions: swollen        maintenance for 24-
                                                                                                               BUN, crt, potassium,     kidneys, acute renal    48 hr, delayed
                                                                                                               phosphorus, oliguria,    tubular necrosis,       treatment can result
                                                                                                               anuriz, possible         granular and hyaline    in death, peritoneal
                                                                                                               hemature, PU/PD          casts, Intact           dialysis and
                                                                                                                                        basement membrane       hemodialysis
Ochratoxin A, B, C   Corn, barley, rye, wheat   Inhibition of phenylalanine    Well absorbed from gut,       Porcine mycotoxin         Lesions: pale, enlarge   Remove source, treat
Aspergillus spp,     Toxin produced at 68-      metabolizing enzymes           enterohepatic                 nephropathy               kidneys with rough       for renal disease
Pnicillium spp.      77F, >16% humidity         Strongly binds proteins        recirculation, passes         High doses:               surface, pale cortical
                     moisture in feed           Intereferes with synthesis     through glomerulus,           gastroenteritis           streaking, loss of
                                                of tRNA and mRNA (protein      reabsorbed in tubules         Low doses (chronic):      epithelial brush
                                                synthesis), disruption of                                    decreased                 border, necrosis of
                                                carbohydrate metabolism                                      responsiveness,           epithelial cells,
                                                (ATP production), increases                                  reduced feed intake,      interstitial fibrosis,
                                                generation of free radicals                                  poor weight gain,         dilated tubules,
                                                                                                             weight loss, increased    thickened basement
                                                Monogastrics much more                                       mixed infections, poor    membranes, sclerosis
                                                sensitive                                                    response to               of glomeruli
                                                Impaired growth in calves                                    treatment, renal          Analysis of feed,
                                                                                                             failure over time         liver kidneys for
                                                                                                                                       ochratoxins
Pit Vipers           NE, E, SE US,              Hylauronidase spreading        Neurotoxins (only some        Immediate intense         CBC, Chem –              DO NOT USE: cold
Cotalid snakes       rattlesnakes throughout    factor (cleaves hyaluronic     pit vipers) – bind            pain at bite site,        baseline, 6, 12, 24 hr   packs, ice,
Venom                US                         acid in collagen)              presynaptically, inhibiting   regional swelling,        Coagulation profiles –   tourniquets, incision
                     All have a pit             Myotoxins – destruction of     NT release                   discoloration of skin,    baseline, 6, 12, 24 hr   and suction,
                     Fossa between eye and      muscle cells                   phospholipase increases       cannot determine          Urinalysis – baseline,   electroshock, alcohol
                     nostril (sensitive to      Phospholipase A – rupture      release of NT  Final         severity of systemic      6, 12 hours              Keep calm, maintain
                     infrared radiation)        of myofibrils                  block occurs when             effects by local tissue   Presence of              limb below heart,
                     About 25% of bites are     Hemorrhagic toxinc –           neurotransmitter              response                  echinocytes within       transport to vet
                     dry (no venom)             hyper/hypocoagulation          depleted                      Head – obstruction to     12 hours                 hospital
                                                -Myocardial depressant         3 Main venom types:           airways, well             Lesions – tissue         Monitor hourly: TPR,
                                                factors                        -tissue destruction,          vascularized area         necrosis and             blood pressure
                                                Kallikrein-like activity and   coagulopathy,                 Limbs – front legs        sloughing                Circumferential
                                                metalloproteinase (local       hypotension                   Onset may be delayed                               measurements above,
                                                pain, tissue necrosis,         -severe neurotoxicosis        – monitor for 12 hours                             below and at bite site
                                                systemic hypotension)          with no destruction of        Cardiac arrhythmias,                               Maintain severity
                                                                               coagulopathy                  tachycardia,                                       scores of pulmonary,
                                                                               -Combination of               fasciculations,                                    cardiovascular, local
                                                                               neurotoxin in tissue          hemolysis,                                         wound, GI,
                                                                               destruction/coagulopathy      hemorrhage, shock,                                 hemotologic, CNS
                                                                                                             renal failure,                                     IV crystalloid
                                                                                                             hypovolemic shock                                  therapy
                                                                                                                                                                Antibiotics
                                                                                                          Corticosteroids – not
                                                                                                          recommended
                                                                                                          Antivenins: Antivenin
                                                                                                          Polyvalent (equine
                                                                                                          origin), CroFab (ovine
                                                                                                          origin), best results
                                                                                                          when used early,
                                                                                                          monitor for
                                                                                                          anyphylaxis

Coral Snakes ==   Red on yellow, kill a       Neurotoxin: non-                 CNS depression,            Transport to hospital,
elapid snakes     fellow, red on black,       depolarizing neuromuscular       ascending paralysis        Baseline bloodwork
                  venom lack (only true in    blockade (Vasomotors             (cats), hypotension,       monitor for 24
                  US)                         instability, muscle paralysis,   loss of spinal reflexes,   hours),
                  Shy, reclusive, fixed       CNS depression)                  hemolysis,                 Antivenin: administer
                  front fangs                 Local tissue damage,             myoglobinuria, death       early, slowly IV
                  (envenomation requires      hemolysis, vasodilation,         due to respiratory         fluids, monitor for
                  chewing), small size,       hypotension                      paralysis,                 aniphylaxis, 1 vial
                  small fangs                                                  intravascular              binds 2 mg of coral
                                                                               hemolysis (dogs),          snake venom
                                                                               Rhabdomyolysis (cats)      Respiratory support,
                                                                                                          antibiotics, prolonged
                                                                                                          recovery for
                                                                                                          neurologic status
Recluse spider    Evenomation when            Necrotic arachnidism             Local: dermal necrosis     Most cases do not
                  disturbed or                Venom complex mixture of         -central blister with      require treatment,
                  threatened, not             enzymes:                         surrounding                clean wound, broad
                  aggressive, violin-shaped   Sphyngomyelinase                 edema/erythema,            spectrum antibiotics,
                  marking on dorsum of        (disruption of cell              progresses to              no specific antidote,
                  cephalothorax, second       membranes, platelet              darkened center and        Dapsone (a sulfone)
                  pair of legs longer than    aggregation, chemotactic         vesicle (Bull’s eye        leukocyte inhibitor,
                  remaining legs, three       factor – neutrophil              lesion), necrosis of       Symptomatic and
                  pairs of eyes in            recruitment, intravascular       central area, slow         supportive (allow
                  semicircle                  coagulation, dermal              progressive wound          wound to granulate
                                              necrosis)                        that is slow to hearl      in), hyperbaric
                                              Heparin sulfate                  Systemic: hemolyasis,      oxygen?
                                              proteoglycan, laminin-           nausea, vomiting,
                                           enactin: degredation of                                   fever, malaise, Coombs
                                           basement membrane                                         negative hemolytic
                                           Hyaluronidase, lipase,                                    anemia
                                           alkaline phosphatase,
                                           esterases, proteases

Gangrenous      Mycelia infected seed      Ergopeptine and Ergoline                                  Extremities affected                           Remove from source,
Ergotism        heads (sclerotia, ergot    alkaloids (Ergovaline)                                                                                   provide nutritious
                bodies), rye, wheat,       Vasoconstriction: D1-                                                                                    diet, anti-
                barley, oats, grasses      dopaminergic receptor                                                                                    inflammatories,
                Concentration              inhibition, partial agonism of                                                                           antibiotics
                dependent upon seasonal    alpha-1 adrenergic and
                growing conditions         serotonin receptors

Black Walnut    Black walnut shavings as   Unknown                                                   Laminitis within 4-12                          Remove from source,
                bedding, Unidentified      Likely due to ischemia of                                 hours, fever,                                  AC if early, remove
                toxin (nog juglone)        laminae, increased                                        increased HR, RR,                              shoes, provide soft
                                           sensitivity to epinephrine                                edema of lower limbs,                          bedding, anti-
                                                                                                     pounding digital pulses                        inflammatories,
                                                                                                                                                    supportive care


               Clinical Signs associated with the liver:
                      -Depression, anorexia, vomiting, icterus, secondary coagulopathy
                      -Hepatic photosensitization in large animals
                              -Cannot mobilize phylloerythrin (byproduct of chlorophyll metabolism)
                              -Phylloerythrin levels increase and activated by UV radiation
                              -Dermal signs of irritation, ulceration



Iron            Toxcity dependent on       When capacity is                 Rapidly absorbed PO      Phase I: 0-6 hours, GI    Measure SI and       Emesis (pills may
                total amount of            overwhelmed, free iron is        Vitamin C may increase   upset, possible GI        TIBC                 adhere to gut mucosa),
                elemental iron:            present                          absorption               bleeding                  If SI > TIBC, need   AC not effective,
                Ferrous fumarate = 33%     Free iron ions penetrate         Iron ions absorbed,      Phase II: 6-24 hours,     to chelate, repeat   MgOH – precipitate
                Ferrous gluconate = 12%    cells of liver, heart, brain,    bound to transferring    latent period             SI in 4-6 hours,     iron in gut (FeOH)
                Metallic iron and rust     other organs: increase lipid     during transport in      Phase III: 12-96          often must be a      Deferoxamine: IM 4-8
                        (iron oxide) not toxic     peroxidation from free          blood (70-80% Hb),         hours, GI signs,           human hospital           hours, CRI, stop when
                        In dogs > 60mg/kg:         radical damage, damage to       very little excreted       metabolic acidosis,        Radiographs: opaque      SI < TIBC, or when
                        serious signs              mitochronodria, microsomes,     Toxicity occurs when       shock, hypotension,        tablets                  urine normal color (2-
                        100-200 mg/kg lethal       cellular organelles, causes     serum iron                 tachycardia,               Defeoamine               3 days)
                                                   direct necrosis, direct         concentration (SI)         cardiovascular             (Desferal) challenge:    Symptomatic and
                                                   caustic and/or irritant         exceeds total iron         collapse, coagulation      1 dose  vin rose        supportive for shock,
                                                   effect on GI tract.             binding capacity           deficits, hepatic          color to urine if iron   GI signs, liver damage
                                                                                   (SI > TIBC)                necrosis, death            present
                                                                                                              Phase IV: 2-6 weeks        Necropsy: liver
                                                                                                              later, GI stricture        levels of iron,
                                                                                                              formation                  perioportal necrosis
Acetaminophen           The other NSAID,           Inhibits COX 1 and 2            Rapid GI absorption,       Cats: onset several        Decontaminate:           Monitor liver function,
                        Present in non-aspirin     therapeutically                 peak blood levels in 10-   hours, depression,         Emesis, AC,              support liver as
                        pain relievers             NAPQ1 (toxic intermediate)      120 min, Metabolized       anorexia, vomiting,        cathartic                needed
                        -Cats particularly         is the problem in overdos       by p450s (liver) and       methemoglobinemia,         N-acethylcysteine:       Monitor tear
                        sensitive: ½ 325 mg tap     Oxidative damage to RBC       then conjugated to         cyanosis, tachypnea,       Provides –SH,            production
                        for 8 lb cat (deficit in   and heme                        sulfate or glucuronide     weakness, edema of         Glutathione              If
                        glucuronyl-s-              (Methemoglobinemia, heinz       Enterohepatic              face and paws, possible    precursor, loading       methemoglobinemia:
                        transferase)               bodies)                         recirculation, half-life   hepatic necrosis           dose of 5%,              -Ascorbic acid
                        Feline Hb contains more     Binds to SH groups            prolonged if pre-          Dogs: onset delayed 1-     maintenance for 7        -Oxygen
                        –SH groups (susceptible    covalently  necrosis           existing liver damage      3 days, depression,        treatments               -Whole blood
                        to attack)                  Depletes glutathione as       Acetaminophen has a        anorexia, abdominal        Charcoal may             -Methylene blue in
                         methemoglobinemia        this neutralizes in NAPQ1       toxic intermediate         pain, icterus, shock,      interfere with           dogs
                        Dogs: 100 mg/kg            (when it is gone, hepatocytes   that gives rise to         centrilobular hepatic      absorption
                        hepatic necrosis,         die)                            Mercapturic Acid and       necrosis, elevated liver   Cimetidine in dogs:
                        >200mg/kg                                                 cell death                 enzymes,                   reduces activity of
                        methemoglobinemia, 40                                                                 Methemoglobinemia          hepatic microsomal
                        mg/kg  KCS                                                                           possible                   enzymes
                                                                                                                                         SAM-E in dogs is
                                                                                                                                         protective
Coal tar, pitch, clay   Coal tar shamppos,         Uncouples oxidative             Well absorbed orally       GI upset, Mucosal          Evidence of              Assess mucosal
pigeons, phenolics      roofing tars, creosote,    phosphorlyation                 and dermally               damage, ulcers,            exposure, laboratory     damage, demulcents,
Phenols                 Clay pigeon targets,       Hepatic failure                 Detoxified by              stimulates resp.           analysis possible but    decontaminate, bathe
                        phenol disinfectans for    Highly concentrated phenols     glucuronidations (cats)    center, so may see         difficult                skin: glycerine, PED,
                        farms, poultry units,      – liquefactive necrosis                                    resp. alkalosis,                                    dish detergent (may
                        hospitals, homes                                                                      seizures, coma, death,                              be too dilute to
                                                                                                              liver damage, icterus,                              remove)
                                                                                                               renal failure rarely,                              N-acetylcysteine
                                                                                                               methemogobinemia                                   -Symptomatic and
                                                                                                               possible                                           supportive care

Cycad palms, Sago      Grow normally in            3 Main toxins:                   Dogs can show signs in     Dogs: vomiting, often     Clin path: elevated      Decontaimnate –
palm                   subtropics, ornamental      -Cycasin: GI irritant, hepatic   < 12 hours, cattle can     bloody, diarrhea,         ALT, AST, Alk phos,      emesis and AC (early
                       yard and garden plant,      necosis, converted to MAM        show mild signs several    depression, anorexia,     hyperbilirubinemia,      and aggressive)
                       all part of plant,          in gus (mutagenic,               days post exposure         seizures,                 leukocytosis,            GI protectants are
                       especially nut, dogs        carcinogenic, teratogenic)       Lesion: hemorrhage         coagulopathies            increased BUN,           key
                       usually exposed, cattle     -GMAA: Neutotoxic amino          and necrosis of gut,       Sheep: often consume      decreased albumin,       Shock doses of fluids
                       as well, especially         acid                             centrilobular and          massive amounts           electrolyte              may be needed
                       chronic, young leaves are   -Unknown neurotoxin: likely      midzonal necrosis in       leading to anorexia,      disturbances,            Monitor hepatic
                       very palatable              causes axonal degeneration       dog, megalocytosis,        weight loss,              increases in PT, PTT     enzymes
                                                   in CNS                           peracinar necrosis and     gastroenteritis, death    Cycasin and BMAA         Monitor for
                                                                                    fibrosis in ruminants,     Cattle: often chronic     are detectable in        coagulopathy,
                                                                                    hepatic                    exposure, weight loss,    liver, but are not       electrolytes, CNS
                                                                                    encephalopathy             weakness, ataxia,         routinely tested for     (valium for seizures)
                                                                                    (spongy degeneration       paresis (zamia            (few labs have           Sympatomatic and
                                                                                    in CNS, demyelination      staggers), can also see   ability)                 supportive
                                                                                    and axonal                 liver damage more
                                                                                    degeneration in brain,     rarely
                                                                                    spinal cord, and dorsal
                                                                                    root ganglia)




Aflatoxins             Drought years – invades     Biotransformed in liver to       Rapidly absorbed,          Usually chronically       Cin path: increase in    Non-specific
(Aspergillus flavus)   damaged crops               reactive epoxide                 distributes to various     exposed                   all liver enzymes (Alk   treatment: remove
                       Founds in crops with        intermediate:                    organs, especially liver   -Reduced weight gain,     phos, ALT, AST),         source
                       high energy content such    -epoxide binds to cellular       Eliminated in bile,        rough hair coats,         degree depends on        Prevention and
                       as corn, peanuts,           macomolecules (nucleic acids,    urine, feces, milk, eggs   anemia, jaundice,         amount of exposure       control: prevent crop
                       cottonseed, rice, sweet     proteins, organelles)                                       anorexia, depression,     and chronicity,          damage, dry corn to
                       potatoes                    -Disruption of normal                                       ascites, GI upset, long   increased bilirubin,     15% moisture or less
                       Fluorescence under UV       metabolic processes                                         term can see liver        decreased TP and         (aflatoxin grows well
                     light:                     -Carcinogenesis,                                         tumors (mostly a          albumin, Decreased       in moist conditions)
                     -B1, B2: blue              immunosuppresssion,                                      human concern)            BUN                      Ammoniation of
                     -G1, G2: green             metagenesis, teratogenesis                               Ducklings: anorexia,      Lesions:                 feedstuff (changes
                     -M1, M2: found in milk     -Suppresses immune                                       young birds rapidly die   proliferation of bile    structure, so less
                                                response                                                 Cattle: decreased feed    ducts, granular and      toxic metabolites are
                                                Aflatoxin B1 bioactivation                               intake and decreased      vaculolated              produced)
                                                and partial detoxification by                            milk production           hepatocyte               NovaSil ® - anticaking
                                                P450 enzymes                                             Fetal malformations       cytoplasm, nodules       agent
                                                                                                         Acute exposure: can       and regenerative         Total dietary
                                                                                                         see massive hepatic       liver cells, diffuse     concentration < 20 ppb
                                                                                                         failure                   fatty liver, distorted   (max allowable in milk
                                                                                                                                   liver architecture,      is 0.5 ppb)
                                                                                                                                   centrilobular
                                                                                                                                   accumulation of
                                                                                                                                   lipids, hemorrhage in
                                                                                                                                   gut, fat, muscle,
                                                                                                                                   heart, hepatic
                                                                                                                                   carcinomas
            Aflatoxins: Sampling and testing grain
                   -Feed Specimen Banking: Freeze back labeled samples from all batches of feet
                   -Specimens to obtain in cases of suspected Aflatoxicosis: 5kg sample of bin-probe-to get a representative sample
                          -Hot spots ½ way down – or wherever get the greated amount of modly fines = worst case sample
                   -Black light screening:
                          -Indicates presence of Aspergillus not aflatoxin
                          -Samples with only one glowing kernel have had aflatoxin at 4,000 ppb
                   -Crack corn before doing black light test
                   -Follow up positives with laboratory analysis

Cocklebur            Xanthium strumarium,       Toxic principle:                CAT is water soluble     Depression, abdominal     Clin path: massive       Symptomatic and
                     present throughout the     Carboxyatractyloside (CAT)      and well absorbed        pain, anorexia,           liver enzyme             supportive, do not
                     US, most cases in swine    -Inhibits Mitocondrial          Signs rapid (death in    vomiting, dyspnea,        elevation                allow access to young
                     (cattle and sheep also),   ADP/ATP carrier resulting in    hours) or delayed (2-3   fasciculations,           Hypoglycemia             plants
                     usually palatlb ewhen      decreased entry of ATP into     days)                    extensor rigidity,        Lesions: firm, pale
                     plant is young although    mit, inhitibs oxidative                                  convulsions,              liver, centrilobular
                     toxin is at highest        phophorylation                                           opisthotonus, paddling,   hepatic necrosis
                     concentration in seeds                                                              coma, death
                    or 2 leaf cotyledons,
                    stable when dry
Pyrrolizidines      Ragwort, Rattle box,        Bioactivation by hepatic         Toxic pyrroles react   Pigs most sensitive,      Lesions:                No specific treatment
alkaloids           tarweed, heliotrope,        P450s to toxic pyrroles          with cellular          then cattle and horses    acutely: pan-lobular    Animals exhibiting
(Venooclusive       Viper’s bugloss, Comfrey,   (primariliy occurs in liver,     macromolecules         (sheep and goats less     necrosis with           signs rarely recover
disease,            Hounds tongue               but may also occur in lung,      May be recycled –      sensitive)                hemorrhage              prevention
Seneciosis)                                     kidney, etc                      progressive hepatic    Acutely – hepatic         Chronically:
                                                Can cross-link DNA,              damage                 failure, anorexia,        alkylation of DNA >>
                                                proteins, other cellular         Cytotocity pyrrole     depression, icterus,      cells cannot divide,
                                                macomolecules                    specific               ascites                   hepatocytes
                                                Results in direct cytoxicity                            Chronically – months to   continue to grow
                                                as well as antimitotic                                  years, unthriftiness,     (hepatocytomegaly,
                                                effects                                                 photosensitivity,         karyomegaly),
                                                -May polymerize and are                                 icterus, serum hepatic    regenerative
                                                harmless                                                enzymes may remain        response (bile duct
                                                -May be oxidized and                                    normal, any additional    proliferation),
                                                eliminated or reactivated in                            stress may be serious     necrosis results in
                                                some tissues                                            in these animals          fibrosis, progressing
                                                                                                                                  to large
                                                                                                        Clin path: elevation in   megalocytes,
                                                                                                        liver enzymes, bile       necrosis, fibrosis,
                                                                                                        acids, can be minimal     cirrhosis
                                                                                                        or massive changes        3 Main lesions:
                                                                                                        depending on dose         hepatocytomegaly,
                                                                                                                                  fibrosis, bile duct
                                                                                                                                  proliferation



Blue-green algae,   Toxins are cyclic           Bind to phosphates               Rapidly absorbed,      Acute death due to        -Elevated liver         Early decontamination,
cyanobacteria       peptides, warm weather,     covalently, Disrupt cell         transported to liver   neurotoxins (nicotinic    enzymes,                symptomatic and
                    late summer and fall,       cytoskeletal architecture        via bile duct          signs from anotoxin a,    -ID of bacteria in      supportive, poor
                    increased nutrients in      (intermediate filaments,         transporter            SLUDDE signs from         water, gut contents,    prognosis
                    water, wind- blows bloom    microtubules,                                           anatoxin a(s)             -ID toxin in water,
                    toward shoreline            microfilaments, cell collapse)                          Hepatic damage:           algae, gut contents
                                                Neurotoxins: anatoxin-a/a(s)                            lethargy, vomit,
                                                                                                        diarrhea, GI atony,
                                                                                                        weakness, pale mm,
                                                                          elevated liver enzymes
                                                                          Grossly: enlarged,
                                                                          congested nutmeg liver
                                                                          Histologically:
                                                                          centrilobular to
                                                                          midzonal necrosis and
                                                                          hemorrhage
                                                                          Death due to
                                                                          hemorrhagic shock
                                                                          (can be with hours)

Lantana        Southern warmer ares      Lantadene A and B:               Acute: by several        Lesions: swelling,     Activated charcoal,
               of US                     Intrahepatic cholestasis,        hours: depression,       orange liver,          supportive care
               Seasonal ornamentals in   slow, prolonged absorption       anorexia, decreased      enlarged gall
               North                     from gut, biotransformed in      gut motility,            bladder, periportal
               Ruminants primarily       liver, excreted in bile          constipation,            degeneration, portal
                                         Damage to bile canalicular       photosensitization       fibrosis, bile duct
                                         membranes and microbilli,        Chronicity:              hyperplasia, swollen
                                         closure and blockage of bile     photosensitization,      kidneys, tubular
                                         flow, retention of bilirubin     cracking of skin,        necrosis
                                         and phylloerythrin               photobia, clouding of
                                                                          cornea
Sequiterpene   Sneezeweed,               Highly reactive groups,          Acute and subacute:      Few lesions or         Prognosis is poor,
lactones       bitterweed, distributed   strong GI irritants, bind to –   depression, anorexia,    distinc clin path      providing good feed is
               across North America,     SH groups and aklylate them      ruminal atony,           changes                preventative
               sheep usually affected     inactivation of essential      abdominal pain,
               Bitter plants             metabolic enzymes, inhibits      coughing, tremors,
                                         oxidative phosphorylation,       seizures, death in a
                                         metabolic acidosis,              few hours or days,
                                         hypoglycemia, a few are also     vomiting of greenish
                                         mutagenic                        material (Spewing
                                                                          Sickness)
                                                                          Chronic: weeks or
                                                                          months, much more
                                                                          common situation, poor
                                                                          body condition, weight
                                                                          loss
Alsike clover   Horses only, unknown           Mechanism unknown                                          Signs by 2-4 weeks       Elevated liver
                toxic principle, fresh                                                                    “Big liver Disease”      enzymes, bile acids,
                and dried clover                                                                          Signs: due to hepatic    bilirubin
                Cool, wet spring                                                                          damage                   Lesions: Bile duct
                                                                                                          -Photosensitization      proliferation, lobular
                                                                                                          without concurrent       fibrosis, liver may be
                                                                                                          liver disease,           large or small
                                                                                                          Trifoliosis, dew
                                                                                                          poisoning
                                                                                                          Neurologic signs
                                                                                                          Unthriftiness
Xylitol         Other common sugar             Xylitol similar to Xylulos       Liver failure possible,   Ingestion of large       Profound                 Emesis with caution,
                alcohols (sorbitol, lacitol,   Xylulose metabolized via         but rare with large       quantities in humans:    hypoglycemia in dogs     activated charcoal not
                mannitol, maltilol)            Pentose Phosphate Pathway        ingestions, enzyme        diarrhea, intestinal     (rapid rise in insulin   effective, obtain
                Artificial sweeteners          (PPP) – reversible for insulin   elevations by 6-24        cramping                 levels, drop in blood    baseline glucose and
                Low glycemic index (7) =       release                          hours, hypoglycemia       Ingestion of large       glucose)                 monitor closely
                -Ability of a                  Xylulose enters PPP,             not always seen           quantitities in dogs:    hypoglycemia             K, P, liver enzymes,
                carbohydrate to                interferes with regulation of                              rapidly and completely   (hyperglycemia in        total bilirubin, coag.
                increase blood glucose         insulin release  excess                                   absorbed                 some cases:              Parameters
                -glucose (100), sucrose        insulin released                                           Vomiting, depression,    Somogyi-like             If hypoglycemia:
                (110), Has 2.4 cal/g           Overall depletion of ATP,                                  weakness, ataxia,        effect),                 dextrose bolus and
                Not metabolized by             hepatic cellular homeostasis                               seizures, Rapid onset    hypokalemia,             CRI, small frequent
                bacteria (prevents tooth       impaired                                                   (15-30min), gum longer   hypohphosphatemia        meals, potassium
                decay), “sugar alcohols”                                                                                                                    supplementation, may
                                                                                                                                                            take 12-24 hours
                                                                                                                                                            For large ingestiong:
                                                                                                                                                            start dextrose
                                                                                                                                                            immediately, liver
                                                                                                                                                            protectants (SamE,
                                                                                                                                                            Marin, Vitamin E),
                                                                                                                                                            plasma/blood
                                                                                                                                                            transfusions)
                                                                                                                                                            Px: good for
                                                                                                                  uncomplicated
                                                                                                                  hypoglycemia and mild
                                                                                                                  liver enzyme elvation
                                                                                                                  with prompt
                                                                                                                  treatment
                                                                                                                  Guarded to poor with
                                                                                                                  severe elevation of
                                                                                                                  liver enzymes,
                                                                                                                  hyperbilirubinemia,
                                                                                                                  hyperphosphatemia,
                                                                                                                  coagulopathy
Gyromitrin      Throughout NA, early      Gyromitrin metabolized to      Severe GI,                               Primarily supportive,
mushrooms       spring primarily, toxic   monomethylhydrazine which      vomit/diarrhea +/-                       like isoniazid, can use
                principles: Gyromitrin    inhibits GABA, hepatic         blood, 36-48 hr see                      pyridoxine for the
                                          damage likely due to free      liver damage in                          seizures
                                          radical formation in liver,    possibly renal damage,
                                                                         hemolysis,
                                                                         methemoglobinemia,
                                                                         coma seizures
Amanitins and                             Amanitins: inhibit nuclear     Vomit, diarrhea, GI       hypoglycemia   Emesis or lavage,
phalloidins                               RNA polymerase II             pain, lethargy, liver                    repeated AC, fluids
                                          inhibits protein synthesis     failure and                              help eliminate
                                          Phalloidine: bind actin and    coagulopathy, seizures,                  amanitins, NAC,
                                          cause damage to                renal damage, death                      Penicillin G can
                                          cytoskeleton, rapid cell                                                interfere with
                                          death, only problem if given                                            enterohepatic
                                          parenterally, broken down in                                            recirculation,
                                          acid stomach                                                            Cimetidine, SamE
Teratogenesis:
       -Physiologic changes during pregnancy
               -Basal metabolic rate increases
               -Increase in CO to support fetus/placenta
               -Increase in blood volume
               -Increase in body weight
                      -Increase in body fat %
               -Increase in stomach emptying time
                      -But decrease in intestinal motility
                               -Where most abs occur
               -Decreased gastric acidity
               -Increase in GFR
               -Some hepatic enzymes increase due to progesterone induction
       -Placenta
               -Really not much of a barrier to most drugs/xenobiotics
                      -Small molecules, lipid soluble, not charged cross easily
                               -Iron enters by receptor mediated endocytosis
               -Has some metabolic capability, both phase 1 and 2 reactions occur (much less than liver)
               -Large blood flow
               -High protein content
       -Fetus
               -pH of fetus is slightly acidic, so weak bases can accumulate in the fetus
               -Generally little metabolic capability
               -Physiologic response to hypoxia, very sensitive
                      -Bradycardia, apnea
               -Non teratogenic effects on fetus
                      -Toxic effects
                      -Similar to what can occur in adult
                      -Metabolic capability can be limited, so can see increase accumulation of drug compared to dam and more
                      severe effects
                      -Or, may have less effect depending on agent kinetics
               -Teratogenesis
                      -Greatly dependent on time of exposure
                                -More so than dose
                                       -Even at low dose of teratogenic drug or substance can be a high risk if time of exposure is critical

                                 Stage                                       Possible effect of toxicant
                                 Blastogenesis                               Interefere with implantation and end pregnancy
                                 Embryogenesis                               During differentiation, can see teratogenesis
                                 Metamorphosis                               During organogenesis, can see teratogenesis
                                 Fetal growth                                Resistant to problems


False hellebore   Azasteroids (steroidal   Unknown                        Species Affected:        Signs depend on            Monkey face lambs
                  alkaloids)               Possibley by acting on early   primarily sheep, also    gestational time of        Cycloplegia,
                  -Jervanines are the      cartilage formation or         cattle, goats, pigs,     exposure                   deformed mandible,
                  teratogens               possibly by inhibiting         llamas                   Exposure after about       shortened upper jaw,
                                           acetylcholine receptors                                 6 weeks gestation in       proboscis above eye
                                                                                                   sheep and and 8 weeks      Prolonged gestation
                                                                                                   gestation in cattle and    due to lack of
                                                                                                   horses will result in no   pituitary function
                                                                                                   problems                   Most lambs born
                                                                                                   Time dependent             dead or die shortly
                                                                                                   effects during             after birth
                                                                                                   gestation: lambs
                                                                                                   12-14 days – cyclopean
                                                                                                   defect
                                                                                                   12-34 days – motor
                                                                                                   nerve paralysis
                                                                                                   24-30 days – cleft
                                                                                                   palate
                                                                                                   25-36 days –
                                                                                                   hypoplasia of
                                                                                                   metacarpals/tarsals
Tobacco           Toxic principle:         Neuromuscular blocker that     Species affected:        Arthrogryposis             Scoliosis, kyphosis,
                  Anabasine, anatabine     prevents normal fetal          cattle 45-75 days        (crooked calf disease):    lordosis, torticollis,
                                           movement during gestation      gestation, sheep 30-60   flexure and rotation of    cleft palate
                                                                          days, pigs 18-68 days    carpal joints, fetlocks
Poison Hemlock   Toxic principle: Coniine,   Causes reduced fetal          Species affected:
                 N-methyl coniine,           movement                      calves, pigs, goats
                 gamma-coniceine,                                          Horses and sheep are
                 conhydrin,                                                resistant
                 pseudoconhydrine
Lupine           Ammodendrine,               Reduced fetal movement in                               Crooked calf disease
                 anagyrine                   utero
Locoweed         Toxin principle:            Crosses placenta              Species affected:         Born weak, difficulty
                 Swainsonine                 Inhibits mannosidases:        lambs and calves          nursing, death,
                                             generalized lysosomal                                   crooked legs,
                                             storage disease                                         contracted tendons
                                                                                                     Fetal resorption,
                                                                                                     abortions, infertility,
                                                                                                     hydrops allantois, fetal
                                                                                                     deformities
Mercury          Organic mercurials          Interfere with metabolic                                Cerebellar hypoplasia
                                             activity and prevent                                    in kittens
                                             synthesis of essential                                  Can mimic
                                             proteins                                                panleukopenia
Fescue           Tall fescue grass from      Ergot alkaloids               Cattle, sheep, horses     3. Fat necrosis:           Detection of N.          Remove from source
                 pastures or in hay          Ergoline: lysergic acid,      4 syndromes:              presence of necrotic       coenophialum in plant    (30-90 days for
                 Suitable forage for         lysergol, ergonovine          1. Fescue foot: similar   fat in abdomen (hard,      tissue                   mares)
                 cattle and horses           Ergopeptine: Ergovaline,      to ergotism, cooler       caseous, yellowish,        Analysis of forage or    Provide clean diet
                 Neotyphodium                ergosine, ergotamine          weather of fall and       chalky white nodules       hay for ergot            D2 recptor
                 coenophialum: fungal        Vasoconstriction:             winter, extremities       of adipose tissue),        alkaloids(esp.           antagonists for
                 endophyte, intercellular    - Inhibition of D1 dopamine   affected, swelling and    coagulative necrosis of    ergovaline)              valuable ruminants
                 spaces of leaves, stems,    receptors                     reddening of coronary     adipocytes and             Analysis of biological   Domperidone for
                 seeds                       -Partial agonism of alpha     band  necrosis and       occasionally foci of       tissues for ergot        mares 10-15 days prior
                 Confers disease and         adrenergic receptors          sloughing of hooves       macrophages and            alkaloids                to parturition
                 insect resistance to         Impaired circulation to     2. Summer slump:          saponification, grazing
                 fescue                      extremeties, abdominal and    reduced cutaneous         for several seasons
                                             pelvic fat stores and         heat transfer and         (often unrecognized),
                                             placenta, hyperthermia, dry   endocrine imbalances      necrotic fat masses
                                             gangrene, necrotic fat,        impaired                may cause obstruction
                                             altered placental function,   thermoregulation          4. Equine agalactia –
                                             abortion                      Decreased feed            dystocia: mares in late
                                             Decreased prolactin           intake, weight gain,      gestation ingest
                                                secretion: stimulation of D2     growth rate, milk        endophyte  agalactia,
                                                dopamine recpeotrs lowers        production,              prolonged gestation,
                                                prolactin secretion (prolactin   reproductive function,   dystocia, premature
                                                required for lactation an        lethargy,                placental separation,
                                                dparturition) Agalactia and      hyperthermia, seeding    thickening of fetal
                                                delayed parturition              shade or standing in     membranes, retained
                                                                                 water                    placenta, absence of
                                                                                                          udder development,
                                                                                                          waxing, increased fetal
                                                                                                          size (overgrown
                                                                                                          hooves, decreased
                                                                                                          muscle mass, fexor
                                                                                                          tendon laxity)
Nitrates-nitrites   -Plant nitrogen –           When excess nitrite is           In rumen: normally       Weakness, exercise        Lesions: brown or        Careful handling
NO3      NO2        stressed plants do not      formed in the rumen, Hb is       nitrate quickly          intolerance, dyspnea,     chocolate colored        Methylene blue slowly
                    use nitrate, nitrate        oxidized to form                 converted to nitrite,    tachycardia, brown,       blood, brownish cast     IV, repeat as needed
                    continues to accumulate,    methemoglobin (ferrous           then nitrite converted   grey, muddy mucous        to all tisues            Px: Good if liver for
                    stable in dried plant       Fe2+  ferric Fe3+), thus        to ammonia (NO3         membranes, collapse,      Tests: nitrate           24 hours, may abort
                    material, plants acumulat   losing it’s oxygen carrying      NO2  ammonia),          terminal convulsions,     concentrations in        3-7 days post
                    nitrates  damage,          capacity                         excess nitrite           death, abortion           plasma, serum, whole     exposure
                    drought, fertilizers                                         absorbed                                           blood, forages, urine,   Prevention: Monitor
                    -Fertilizers, water                                          Ruminants especially                               ocular fluid             nitrate concentrations
                                                                                 sensitive, horses less                             Methemoglobin            in forages (dilute
                                                                                 sensitive to nitrates,                             analysis                 forages)
                                                                                 monogastrics low                                                            Allow for adaptation,
                                                                                 sensitivity                                                                 delay harvesting if
                                                                                                                                                             possible, raise cutter
                                                                                                                                                             bar in field
Isocupressic acid   Pine needle                 Abortion: vascular                                        Few days to 2 weeks
                    absorption/ingestion        impairment of uterine blood                               after ingestion: vulvar
                    during last trimester of    flow, increase in fetal                                   swelling, mammary
                    pregnancy (fresh and        cortisol                                                  development, vulvar
                    dry)                                                                                  discharge, followed by
                                                                                                          delivery of dead or
                                                                                                          weak calf, retention of
                                                                                                          fetal membranes
                                                                                                          accompanied by
                                                                                            infection and
                                                                                            inflammation of uterus
                                                                                            Uterus flaccid, doughy,
                                                                                            and fluid-filled
Zeralenone   Mycotoxin (Fusarium)       Binds to estradiol-17 beta                          -Pre-pubertal gilts        Analysis of feed
             produced in field, but     (weak estrogen)                                     most sensitive:            Often concurrent
             increased with improper                                                        implantation failure, 7-   contamination with
             storage                                                                        10 days post mating,       DON (vomitoxin)
             Usually corn, esp. ear                                                         decreased number of
             corn, also wheat,                                                              CLs, Pseudopregnancy,
             sorghum, barley, oats,                                                         anestrus,
             sesame seed, corn silage                                                       vulvovaginitis,
             Environmental stable                                                           enlarged, tortuous
                                                                                            edematous uterus,
                                                                                            enlarged mammary
                                                                                            gland, fetal reorption,
                                                                                            mummies, stillborn pigs
                                                                                            -Males: atrophy of
                                                                                            testes, mammary gland
                                                                                            enlargement
Gossypol     Yellow, polyphenolic       Processing affects toxicity:   Free gossypol        Reproductive: Reduced      Lesions: suggestive
             pigment in cottonseed      Heating increases binding of   absorbed, binds to   conception rates,          of chronic heart
                                        free gossypol so less toxic    rumen proteins       abortions, reduced         failure  fluid in
                                        Switch to solvent extraction   (protective)         litter size, suppression   thorax and abdomen,
                                        method caused deaths                                of P14 and E17,            nutmeg livers,
                                                                                            affects follicular         enlarged and flabby
                                                                                            development, CL            heart, myocardial
                                                                                            function, male             streaking
                                                                                            ruminants: decreased       Damage to
                                                                                            sperm motility and         spermatozoa and
                                                                                            sperm production           germinal epithelium
                                                                                            Cardiac effects:           Analysis of feed
                                                                                            movement of K+ across
                                                                                            cellular membranes 
                                                                                            hypokalemia,
                                                                                            destruction of cardiac
                                                                                            musculature
Lactation:
        -Lactating animals may have larger appetite than usual, may predisposed them to getting into stuff, especially if not feed
        adequately
        -Agents that are fat soluble will potentially accumulate in milk
        -Milk has slightly acidic pH (compared to plasma) so basic substances more likely to enter milk and accumulate
        -Contains proteins, potential for protein bound agents to accumulate as well
        -Even agents that may be safe at therapeutic doses in lactating animal can be concern in overdose situation
        -Most agents, not a lot of information about how much truly does accumulate in milk
-Treating a pregnant animal
        -Think of effects on fetus or neonate for both toxicants as well as treatment
        -Lavage, consider in some serious situations
        -AC, generally safe, avoid repeated sorbitol
        -Cathartics – use with caution, electrolyte disturbances with repeated use could induce labor
        -May need to consider emergency C section if serious stress possible on pups if near term
                -Likely a rare situation, reserved for fairly valuable litters




       -Some X rated drugs: cause fetal abnormalities, fetal risk
             -Castor oil, DES, ergotamine, misoprostol, lorazepam (benzodiazepines), some statins, oxytocin, quinine, ribavirin,
             warfarin

								
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