Kongeriget Danmark by liuqingzhan

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									                   Kongeriget Danmark
                 Kingdom of Denmark




                   Flag                                 Coat of arms


                        Motto
                         none
      (Royal motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed,
                    Danmarks styrke
    "The Help of God, the Love of the People, the Strength of
                          Denmark")

                            Anthem
                 Der er et yndigt land (national)
                Kong Christian (royal and national)




                       Location of Denmark (orange)
 – on the European continent (camel & white)
 – in the European Union (camel)             [Legend]

Capital                            Copenhagen
(and largest city)                 55°43′N, 12°34′E
   Official languages              Danish1
      Government                   Constitutional monarchy
  - Monarch                        Margrethe II
  - Prime Minister                 Anders Fogh Rasmussen
The Kingdom of Denmark (Danmark, literally meaning "the land of Danes") is the smallest and
southernmost of the Nordic countries. Located north of its only land neighbour, Germany,
southwest of Sweden, and south of Norway, it is located at 56° N 10° E in northern Europe. The
national capital is Copenhagen. Denmark is regarded as a Scandinavian country, although it is
not located on the Scandinavian Peninsula.

Denmark borders both the Baltic and the North Sea. The country consists of a large peninsula,
Jutland, which borders northern Germany, plus a large number of islands, most notably Zealand,
Funen, Vendsyssel-Thy, Lolland and Bornholm as well as hundreds of minor islands often
referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark has historically controlled the approach to the
Baltic Sea, and these waters are also known as the Danish straits.

Denmark became a constitutional monarchy in 1849 after having been an absolutist state since
1660 and has been a parliamentary democracy since 1901. Having existed for more than 1,000
years, the Danish monarchy is the second oldest in the world, right after the Japanese. Denmark
is a part of the European Union. The Kingdom of Denmark also encompasses two off-shore
territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, both of which enjoy wide-ranging home rule. Since
the mid-20th century, Danish society has been partly defined by the "Scandinavian Model" of
public services. According to a study published by UNESCO and the CIA, Denmark ranks as the
"happiest" nation on earth.[1]

History




Hankehøj, by Johan Thomas Lundbye. A Danish down. Note the glacial character of the terrain
and the kurgan, or burial mound of an early chief, in the centre.



Prehistoric Denmark

The earliest Danish archaeological findings date back to 130,000–110,000 BC in the Eem
interglacial period.[2] People have inhabited Denmark since about 12,500 BC, and agriculture has
been in evidence since around 3,900 BC.[3] The Nordic Bronze Age (1,800–600 BC) in Denmark
was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings, including lurs and the Sun
Chariot.

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south. The
Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and
Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates
from this period in Denmark and much of northwest Europe, and is among other things reflected
in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.[3] The first Danish people came to Denmark between
the Pre-Roman and Germanic Iron Age,[4] in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1–400).

Before the arrival of precursors to the Danes, who came from Scandinavia and spoke an early
form of north Germanic, most of Jutland and part of the islands had been vacated or partly
vacated by the earlier Jutes, who settled in Britain together with the Angles and the Saxons to
form the Anglo-Saxons.

The exact origin of Denmark has been lost in history, but a short note[5] about the Dani in "The
Origin and Deeds of the Goths" from 551 AD by historian Jordanes is believed by some to be an
early mention of the Daner,[6] one of the ethnos from which are descended the modern Danish
people. The Danevirke defence structures were built in several phases from the 3rd century
forth,[7] and the sheer size of the construction efforts in 737 are attributed to the emergence of a
Danish king.[7] The new runic alphabet was first used at the same time, and Ribe, the oldest town
of Denmark, was founded about 700.

Pre Christian Denmark




The Jelling Stones, Denmark's "birth certificate", seen from the north with "Gorm's Mound" in
the background.

From the 8th to the 10th century, the Danes were known as Vikings. Together with Norwegians
and Swedes, they colonised, raided and traded in all parts of Europe. Viking explorers first
discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century, on the way towards the Faroe Islands and
eventually came across "Vinland" (Land of Grass/Land of Wine) also known today as
Newfoundland, in Canada. The Danish Vikings were most active in the British Isles and Western
Europe. They temporarily conquered and settled parts of England (known as the Danelaw),
Ireland, France and founded Normandy. More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been
found in Denmark than in England. As attested by the Jelling stones, the Danes were united and
Christianised about 965 by Harald Bluetooth. It is believed that Denmark became Christian for
political reasons so as not to get invaded by the Holy Roman Empire, which was also an
important trading area for the Danes. In that case Harald built six fortresses around Denmark
called Trelleborg and built a further Danevirke. In the early 11th century Canute the Great won
and united Denmark, England and Norway for almost 30 years.[8]

Medieval Denmark

Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (Skåne, Halland
and Blekinge) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia, as well as the duchies of Schleswig and
Holstein. Most of the latter two now form part of northern Germany. In 1397, Denmark entered
the Kalmar Union with Norway and Sweden. The union was a personal union with the individual
states maintaining their nominal independence. Scandinavia remained unified under this
arrangement until Sweden broke away in 1523. The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia
in the 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in
1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway as the Norwegian royal
bloodline was extinct with the plague that ravaged Scandinavia.

Recent history




Map of Denmark

Two centuries of wars with Sweden followed. King Christian IV attacked Sweden in the 1611-13
Kalmar War but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing Sweden to return to the union
with Denmark. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a war
indemnity of 1 million silver riksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom.[9]
Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt
(founded as a rival to Hamburg), Christiania (following a fire destroying the original city),
Christianshavn, Christianstad, and Christiansand. Christian also constructed a number of
buildings, most notably Børsen, Rundetårn, Nyboder, Rosenborg, a silver mine and a copper
mill. Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company.
Christian had planned to claim Sri Lanka as a colony but the company only managed to acquire
Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast. In the Thirty Year's War, Christian tried to become the
leader of the Lutheran states in Germany, but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter
resulting in a Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein occupying and pillaging Jutland.
Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in
Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was rising and the power of
Denmark falling. In 1643, Swedish armies invaded Jutland and in 1644 Skåne. In the 1645
Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, Gotland, the last parts of Danish Estonia,
and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, king Frederick III declared war on Sweden and
marched on Bremen-Verden. This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King Charles
X Gustav of Sweden conquered both Jutland, Funen and much of Zealand before signing the
Peace of Roskilde in February 1658 which gave Sweden control of Skåne, Blekinge, Trøndelag
and the island of Bornholm. Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having destroyed Denmark
completely and in August 1658 he began a two-year long siege of Copenhagen but failed to take
the capital. In the following peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence
and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.

Denmark tried to regain control of Skåne in the Scanian War (1675-79) but this attempt was a
failure. Following the Great Northern War (1700-21), Denmark managed to restore control of the
parts of Schleswig and Holstein ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in 1721 and 1773,
respectively. Denmark prospered greatly in the last decades of the 18th century due to its neutral
status allowing it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars. In the Napoleonic
Wars, Denmark originally tried to pursue a policy of neutrality to continue the lucrative trade
with both France and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with
Russia, Sweden and Prussia. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen
in both 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet, in the other, burning large parts
of the Danish capital. These events mark the end of the prosperous Florissant Age and resulted in
the Dano-British Gunboat War. British control over the waterways between Denmark and
Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813, Denmark-Norway went
bankrupt. The post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna demanded the dissolution of the Dano-
Norwegian union, and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Denmark-Norway had
briefly hoped to restore the Scandinavian union in 1809, but these hopes were dashed when the
estates of Sweden rejected a proposal to let Frederick VI of Denmark succeed the deposed
Gustav IV Adolf and instead gave the crown to Charles XIII. Norway entered a new union with
Sweden which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and
Greenland. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over Danish India (Tranquebar in
India) from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish
West Indies (the U.S. Virgin Islands) from 1671 to 1917.




Den Grundlovsgivende Rigsforsamling (The founding fathers of the Danish constitution), 1860–
1864 painting by Constantin Hansen.

The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the
European Revolutions of 1848 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849.

After the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig) in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede
Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity.
After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality, as a result of which Denmark stayed
neutral in World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the
then-German region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark
refused to consider the return of the area and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of
Schleswig. The two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March, respectively.
On 10 July 1920, after the plebiscite and the King's signature (9 July) on the reunion document,
Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163,600
inhabitants and 3,984 km². The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year 15 June
on Valdemarsdag.
Despite its continued neutrality, Denmark was invaded by Germany (Operation Weserübung), on
9 April 1940. Though accorded self-rule (which ended in 23 August 1943 because of a mounting
resistance movement, which was upsetting the German military leadership), Denmark remained
militarily occupied throughout World War II. The Danish sympathy for the Allied cause was in
general strong, but in spite of this fact the economical cooperation between Germany and
Denmark continued throughout the war. In 1944, 1,900 Danish police officers were arrested by
the Gestapo and sent to the concentration camp Buchenwald, from which many never returned
alive. The Danish people distinguished themselves during the war by rescuing virtually the entire
Jewish population of Denmark, chiefly by conveying Danish Jews to neutral Sweden in fishing
boats.[10] During the war, Iceland claimed independence and in 1948 the Faroe Islands gained
home rule. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the United Nations
and NATO and, in 1973, along with Britain, joined the European Economic Community (later,
the European Union). In 1979, Greenland gained home rule.

Politics




The Folketing in session. The speaker's podium seen from the balcony of the former members of
parliament.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, with executive power with Queen
Margrethe II as head of state. This executive power is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the
prime minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments. The cabinet, including the
prime minister, and other ministers collectively make up the government. These ministers are
responsible to Parliament, the legislative body, which is traditionally considered to be supreme
(that is, able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors).

While the monarch is head of state and theoretically holds all executive power, it is the prime
minister who is head of government. The government is answerable chiefly to Parliament;
however, ministers do not have to come from Parliament, though it is mostly the case.

The Folketing is the national legislature. It has the ultimate legislative authority according to the
doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, however questions over sovereignty have been brought
forward because of Denmark’s entry into the European Union. In theory however, the doctrine
prevails. Parliament consists of 179 members elected by proportional majority. Parliamentary
elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to
call one sooner. On a vote of no confidence the parliament may force the entire government to
resign.

Compared to most other Western European countries, the Danish political system has
traditionally emphasised coalitions. In some cases this has been in the form of majority
coalitions, although most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions, ruling
with more or less stable parliamentary support.
Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen

Since November 2001, the Danish Prime Minister has been Anders Fogh Rasmussen from the
party Venstre, a center-right liberal party. Apart from a 10 year period defined by economic
reform and change of foreign policy during the 1980s, historically, the Social Democrats have
led most post-war Danish governments, although the Social Democratic influence has never been
as strong as in Sweden.

Geography
Denmark's northernmost point is Skagens point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7"
northern latitude, the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35"
northern latitude, the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude, and the
easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago
Ertholmene 18 kilometres northeast of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is 452 km (over
280 mi), from north to south 368 km (228 mi).

Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland) and 443 named islands.[11] Of these, 76
are inhabited, with the largest being Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of
Bornholm is located somewhat east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the
larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden, the
Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand, and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with
Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. Main cities are the capital
Copenhagen (on Zealand), Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg (on Jutland) and Odense (on Funen).
Along with Equatorial Guinea it is one of two countries in the world with its mainland on a
continent and its capital city on an island.

The country is mostly flat with little elevation; the country's average height above sea level is
only 31 metres (101 feet) and the highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 170.86 metres (560.6 ft).
Other hills in the same area southwest of Århus are Yding Skovhøj at 170.77 metres (560.3 ft)
and Ejer Bavnehøj at 170.35 metres (558.9 ft).[12] The area of inland water is: (eastern Denmark)
210 km² (81 sq mi); (western D.) 490 km² (189 sq mi).

Denmark is split into 443 named islands which results in a long coastline, 7,314 kilometres
(4,544 mi).[13] A perfect circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would have a circumference
of only 742 kilometres (461 mi). Another feature that shows the close connection between the
land and ocean is that no location in Denmark is farther from the coast than 52 kilometres
(32.3 mi). The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean
constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation
projects (to counter erosion). On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and
2 metres (3 to 6.5 feet), and the coastline moves outward and inward on a 10 kilometres (6 mi)
stretch.[14]




Denmark seen from space.

The climate is in the temperate zone. The winters are not particularly cold with mean
temperatures in January and February of 0.0 °C and the summers are cool with mean temperature
in August 15.7 °C.[15] There is a lot of wind, which is stronger during the winter and weaker
during the summer. Denmark has an average of 170 rainy days. The greatest rainfall comes in
September, October and November.[16]

Because of Denmark's northern location, the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly. There
are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8 a.m. and sunset 3:30 p.m., as well
as long summer days with sunrise at 3:30 a.m. and sunset at 10 p.m.[17] The shortest and longest
days of the year have traditionally been celebrated. The celebration for the shortest day
corresponds roughly with Christmas (Danish: jul) and modern celebrations concentrate on
Christmas Eve, 24 December. The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian
society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.[18] Christianity introduced the celebration of
Christmas, resulting in the use of the Norse name also for the Christian celebration. Efforts by
the Catholic Church to replace this name with kristmesse were unsuccessful. The celebration for
the longest day is Midsummer Day, which is known in Denmark as sankthansaften (St. John's
evening).[19] Celebrations of Midsummer have taken place since pre-Christian times.[20]

Regions and municipalities
Denmark is divided into five regions (Danish: regioner, singular: region) and a total of 98
municipalities. The regions were created on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish
Municipal Reform to replace the country's traditional thirteen counties (amter). At the same time,
smaller municipalities (kommuner) were merged into larger units, cutting the number of
municipalities from 270 to 98. The most important area of responsibility for the new regions is
the national health service. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes,
and the health service is primarily financed by a national 8% (sundhedsbidrag) tax combined
with funds from both government and municipalities. Each Regional Council consists of 41
elected politicians elected as part of the 2005 Danish municipal elections.

Most of the new municipalities have a population of least 20,000 people, although a few
exceptions were made to this rule.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands are also parts of the Kingdom of Denmark, but have
autonomous status and are largely self-governing, and are each represented by two seats in the
parliament.

Economy
This thoroughly modern services market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date
small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living
standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of
food and energy and has a comfortable balance of payments surplus and zero net foreign debt.
Also of importance is the sea territory of more than 105,000 km² (40,000+ sq mi).

The Danish economy is highly unionised; 75% of its labour force are members of a trade
union.[21] Most trade unions take part in the organised umbrella system of trade unions, the
biggest umbrella organisation being the so-called LO, the Danish Confederation of Trade
Unions. However, an increasingly larger part of the labour force choose not to become members
of a trade union or to become members of one of the trade unions outside the organised system
(often referred to as the yellow, in Danish gule, trade unions).

Relationships between unions and employers are cooperative: unions have a day-to-day role in
managing the workplace, and their representatives sit on most companies' board of directors.
Rules on work schedules and pay are negotiated between unions and employers, with minimal
government involvement. The unemployment rate March 2007 was 3.9%, for a total of 106,600
persons. The number of unemployed is forecast at 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the
working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by
70,000 to 2,790,000.[22] Parttime jobs included.[23] Because of the present high demand for but
lacking supply of skilled labour, especially regarding factory, transport, building and
construction jobs, in addition to hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working
hours have risen, especially compared with the economic downturn 1987 – 1993.[24]




Danish notes and coins

Denmark's national currency, the krone (plural: kroner), is de facto linked to the Euro through
ERMII.[25] Currently (March 2007) exchanges with American dollars at a rate of about USD 0.18
per krone (about 5.60 kroner per dollar).

The government has been very successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic
convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the
Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September
2000 referendum, reconfirmed its decision not to join the then 12 of the 15 other EU members in
the euro (UK and Sweden being the others of the EU not to do so).

The welfare model is the general term for Denmark to organise and finance their social security
systems, health services and education. The principle behind the welfare model is that benefits
should be given to all citizens who fulfil the conditions, without regard to employment or family
situation. The system covers everyone; it is universal. And the benefits are given to the
individual, so that e.g. married women have rights independently of their husbands.

In the area of sickness and unemployment, the right to benefit is, however, always dependent on
former employment and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost
always -but need not be- administered by a trade union, and the payment of contributions;
however the largest share of the financial burden is still carried by the central government and
financed from general taxation, not in the main from earmarked contributions.

The State is involved in financing and organising the welfare benefits available to the citizens to
a far greater extent than in other European countries. For that reason the welfare model is
accompanied by a taxation system which is both broadly based (25% VAT and excise) and with
high income tax rates (minimum tax rate for adults is 38%, and 60% if you fail to provide your
tax card to your employer). The tax freeze introduced by the Anders Fogh Rasmussen
government has ended the upward drift in municipal income tax rates, but the number of people
in the top income tax bracket still grows. This of course is also true for the number of people in
the lowest income tax bracket.
The benefits given are more generous than in the British Beveridge model — and in combination
with the taxation system this brings about a greater redistribution than in the Bismarck model,
which is aimed rather at maintaining the present status.

For the past three years Denmark has ranked first on the Economist Intelligence Unit's "e-
readiness" list. "A country's 'e-readiness' is a measure of its e-business environment, a collection
of factors that indicate how amenable a market is to Internet-based opportunities."

Transport




The Great Belt Fixed Link, seen from the Zealand side.

Enormous investment has been made in recent decades in building road and rail links between
Copenhagen and Malmö, Sweden (the Øresund Bridge), and between Zealand and Funen (the
Great Belt Fixed Link).

The main railway operator is Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways) for passenger services
and Railion for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. Copenhagen
has a small Metro system and an extensive S-tog electrified suburban railway network.

Denmark's national airline (together with Norway and Sweden) is Scandinavian Airlines System
(SAS) and Copenhagen Airport is the country's largest airport, and also the biggest hub in
Scandinavia.

A ferry link to the Faroe Islands is maintained by Smyril Line. Other international ferry services
are mainly operated by DFDS (to Norway and the UK) and Scandlines (to Germany and
Sweden).

Danes without a car usually ride their bicycles or a bus to school and work.

Demographics
The majority of the population is of Scandinavian descent, with small groups of Inuit from
Greenland, Faroese, and immigrants. According to official statistics in 2005, immigrants and
their descendants made up 461,614 people, or 8.5% of the total population. A large number of
these immigrants come from South Asia, and The Middle East.[26] During recent years, anti-
immigrant sentiment has surfaced in Denmark as is the case also in many other parts of
Europe.[27]

Danish is spoken throughout the country, although a small group near the German border also
speak German. English is the most widely spoken foreign language, spoken particularly by
people in larger cities and youths, who are taught two or more foreign languages in school and
who watch films and broadcasts on television which, apart from films for children, are not
dubbed but subtexted in Danish.

Regarding religions in Denmark, according to official statistics from January 2006, 83.0% of
Danes are members of the Lutheran state church, the Danish People's Church (Den Danske
Folkekirke), also known as the Church of Denmark. The rest are primarily of other Christian
denominations, and about 4% are Muslims, due to immigration of Muslim population to the
country. Denmark has freedom of religion, and there are numerous small religious societies and
communities in addition to the official church.

As in most countries, the population is not distributed evenly. Although the land area east of the
Great Belt only makes up 9,622 km² (3,715 sq mi), 22.7% of Denmark's land area, it has 45%
(2,445,168) of the population. The average population density of this area is 254 inhabitants per
km² (658 per sq mi). The average density in the west of the country (32,772 km²/12,653 sq mi) is
91/km² (236 per sq mi) (2006).

The median age is 39.8 years with 0.98 males per female. 98.2% of the population is literate (age
15 and up). 1.74 children born/woman (2006 est.), which reflects a coming drop in worker to
retiree ratio. The annual average population growth is 0.33%.[28]

Population 1 January 2007 was 5,447,084, which equals 128.48 inh./km² land area or 332.78
inh./sq mi. land area (16,368 sq mi) Censuses merely for population numbers are not conducted;
they are based on the computerised, day-to-day updated Central Office of Civil Registration.

Education
The Danish education system is sophisticated and offers free access to public school, high school
and most kinds of higher education (universities etc.). About 99% of the general population
attend elementary school (lasting 9 to 10 years); 86% attend secondary school and 41% pursue
further education.

Primary school in Denmark is "den Danske Folkeskole" (translated: "the Danish Public School").
It goes from 0-10th grade (10th grade is optional). In Denmark one can also go to
"Friskole"/"Privatskole" or "free school"/private school: schools that are not under the
municipalities. An example is "Rudolf Steiner Skolerne" or "Waldorf Schools". The most special
kind of school in Denmark is "Efterskole". If translated directly from Danish it becomes "after
school". The "after school" is an optional school that goes from an 8-10th grade, and it's like a
boarding school, but pupils mostly attend after schools for one year only, although some schools
allow for the pupils to stay there for two years. Most pupils attend the school in 10th grade, but
many do it in 9th grade instead. On many of these schools there is emphasis on a particular
subject, for example sports or languages. One of the big differences between a boarding school
and an "after school" is the freedom; the pupils have more freedom at an "after school" .

Perhaps the most important Danish contribution to education is the "folkehøjskole", introduced
by N.F.S. Grundtvig in the 1800s. Literally translated as "people's high school", the
folkehøjskole is a social education structure without tests or grades, putting its emphasis not on
demonstrable achievement but rather on communal learning, self-discovery, and learning how to
think.[29] Many young Danes attend a folkehøjskole for a few months or a year after they
graduate from the Gymnasium, which is a school comparable to High School and the first year of
College in the US, before going on to university. However, the folkehøjskoles, as "schools for
the people", are also resources for lifelong learning. Some folkehøjskoles have particular focus
areas, such as sports, music, or environmental protection. Most, however, offer a broad liberal
arts education.

However, following graduation from "Folkeskolen", there are several other opportunities
including the before mentioned "Gymnasium" (comparable to High School), but also HF (similar
to Gymnasium, but one year shorter, however 10th grade in Folkeskole is required), HTX (with
focus on Mathematics and engineering), HHX (with focus on trading and business) and so on.
The two last mentioned is like the "Gymnasium" a three year education that offers specific
education on various subjects. All three kinds have the same "grundforløb" which if translated
would be something similar to "ground education" lasting only half a school year. The ground
education offers the students to rotate between the three "gymnasiums" if they change their
mind.

Culture




Windmills, antique (pictured) and modern, accent the gently rolling meadowlands of Denmark.

Perhaps the most famous Dane is actually a fictional character, Hamlet, the title character of
William Shakespeare's famous play, which was set in the real castle of Kronborg in Helsingør.
The play was inspired by an old Danish myth of the Viking Prince Amled of Jutland, and his
quest for vengeance against his father's killer. Another widely known Dane is Hans Christian
Andersen, in Denmark referred to as H. C. Andersen, a writer mostly famous for such fairy tales
as "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", and "The Ugly Duckling". Also
playwright Ludvig Holberg, Karen Blixen (pen name: Isak Dinesen), Nobel laureate author
Henrik Pontoppidan, and the Philosopher Søren Kirkegaard are renowned world wide. Also
Niels Bohr, the famous physicist who developed the first working model for the atom and the
quantum theory concept of complementarity.

The capital city of Copenhagen has often been referred to as a fairy tale city,[citation needed] because
of its clean streets, the Tivoli gardens, the Amalienborg Palace (home of the Danish monarchy),
The Little Mermaid among other things. Copenhagen also houses Parken Stadium, the biggest
football stadium in Denmark and home of FC Copenhagen and host of the Eurovision Song
Contest 2001.

The most popular sport in Denmark is football (soccer). The lengthy coastline also provides good
opportunity for sailing and other water sports. The "Around Zealand Regatta" is a yacht race that
begins in Helsingør and continues for 2–3 days. Because of the level terrain, another common
sport is cycling, and of late Copenhagen has been nicknamed the "City of Cyclists" for the
frequent use of bicycles for transportation and the designated roadtracks for cyclists. Indoor
sports such as badminton, handball and various forms of gymnastics are also popular because of
the lengthy winters.

Denmark has also been noticed internationally on the music scene, with acts like Aqua,
Whigfield, Michael Learns to Rock, Dizzy Mizz Lizzy and D-A-D in the 90's, as well as acts like
Kashmir (band), Junior Senior, Safri Duo, Mew, Infernal, The Raveonettes and Tina Dickow in
the millennium. Metallica drummer, Lars Ulrich, is Danish as well. Also the heavy metal
musician King Diamond (Kim Bendix Petersen) was born and raised in Hvidovre, Copenhagen.
However the country also has a large national music scene, and in 2001, Copenhagen hosted the
Eurovision Song Contest, and again in 2006, it hosted the MTV European Music Awards.

Denmark has a long tradition of acting and film, and has bred many names on the international
acting scene, historically as well as today. Modern figures include Mads Mikkelsen, Iben Hjejle,
Connie Nielsen, Jesper Christensen, Brigitte Nielsen, Sven-Ole Thorsen, Viggo Mortensen, and
many others. Perhaps the biggest Danish film maker of all time was Carl Theodor Dreyer.
Modern film makers known internationally include Lars von Trier, Bille August, Thomas
Vinterberg, Susanne Bier and Ole Bornedahl.

Food
The cuisine of Denmark, like that in the other Scandinavian countries (Sweden and Norway), as
well as that of northern Germany, its neighbor to the south, is traditionally heavy and rich in fat,
consisting mainly of carbohydrates, meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural
past, as well as its geography and climate of long, cold winters.

Traditional Danish food includes frikadeller (fried meatballs, often served with potatoes and
various sorts of gravy), karbonader/krebinetter (another sort of fried meatballs), steaks and so on.
Mostly eaten with potatoes, which used to be very popular in Denmark. Fish is also widely eaten,
especially on the west coast of Jutland. Today, to save time and money, the younger generations
increasingly eat pasta, Shawarma, Chinese food and pizza.

A favourite condiment, remoulade, is eaten with french fries, on fried plaice, on salami, spring
rolls etc.

Especially on Christmas Eve (24 December) a Danish variety of rice pudding, risalamande (rice
with almond), is eaten: stirred cold rice porridge, crushed almond and whipped cream with
vanilla flavour with only one whole hidden almond. The person with the almond receives a small
prize (mandelgave (literally almond gift)).[30]

Military
The armed forces of Denmark are known as the Danish Defence Force (Danish: Det Danske
Forsvar). During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence (FM) in Denmark employs, in four
branches, 15,450 in the army, 5,300 in the navy, 6,050 in the air force and more than 55,000 in
the Home units following completion of their conscript service. Women are eligible to volunteer
for military service as of 1962, though the first woman in the military appeared in 1971. There
are 955,168 males and 935,643 females aged between 18 and 49 fit for military service. (2005
est).[28]
Копенгаген
                                                            Фотогалерея

Информация о городе


Ни один город на свете не расскажет Вам столько сказок,
сколько их рассказывает своим гостям Копенгаген, город
трубочистов, Снежной Королевы, Оле-Лукойе и Принцессы
на горошине. Основанный в 1043 году, Копенгаген
является столицей старейшего европейского королевства
и, благодаря датскому сказочнику Гансу Христиану                Русалочка
Андерсену, этот город стал олицетворением его сказок,
волшебства и чудес.

Копенгаген - древний город и самое большое удовольствие
в нем можно получить от прогулок по набережным вдоль
каналов, по узким средневековым улицам и площадям, где
выступают уличные артисты, особенно если разумно
совместить это с отдыхом в пивных ресторанах и вкусить            Замок
знаменитое датское пиво "Карлсберг" и "Туборг". Чтобы         Фредериксборг
ощутить своеобразие Копенгагена нужно отправиться к
Нюхавн (Новой Гавани) - живописнейшей части города. Это
километровый канал, вдоль которого непрерывной чередой
тянутся кафе, пабы, рестораны. На водах канала,
освященного ярким светом многочисленных ресторанов,
покачиваются шикарные яхты с высоким лесом мачт. Их
вальяжные владельцы переместились в рыбные таверны,
расположенные в аккуратных цветных домиках на                  Новая Гавань
набережной.
                                                               Ещё фото в
После Нюхавн по набережным можно выйти к
                                                                галерее »
Амалиенборгу - красивейшему и знаменитому дворцовому
ансамблю и посмотреть смену королевского караула,
облаченного в строгую форму и пушистые шапки, мех
которых давно заменен искусственным. Каждый полдень
рота лейб-гвардейцев в старинной форме звонко стучит
каблуками по мостовой. Очевидцы утверждают, что смена
караула в Копенгагене проходит более торжественно, чем
в Лондоне. Дворец Амалиенборг является официальной
резиденцией датских королей. Эту функцию дворец
выполняет уже более 200 лет. Кстати, сегодняшние
датские правители, в отличие от британских "коллег"
весьма демократичны и либеральны: они сами водят
машину, никогда не опаздывают на работу и запросто
общаются со своими поданными.

Неподалеку расположена Мраморная церковь, построенная
в 1894 году в стиле Барокко, рядом с ней - менее заметная
православная церковь Александра Невского, построенная в
1864 году.
Одно из самых чудесных мест Копенгагена - парк Тиволи в
центре города. Парк Тиволи, поражающий несметным
количеством ресторанов и весьма скромными
аттракционами, был построен в 1843 году. Отгороженный
от города высоким забором и освященный по вечерам
миллиардами электрических лампочек, Тиволи полностью
сохранил дух XIX века. Разноцветные леденцы, оловянные
солдатики и прочие игрушки ручной работы пользуются
колоссальным спросом не только у детей, но и у взрослых,
заставляя повернуть время вспять. А в летние месяцы на
многочисленных музыкальных площадках парка
устраиваются фестивали джазовой и латинской музыки.

Круглые сутки бурлит жизнь на улице Строгате, самой
длинной торговой улице датской столицы. Бродячие актеры
разыгрывают неуклюжих туристов, заставляя потешаться
над своими шутками и остротами огромную, разноязыкую
толпу. Ресторанчики на этой улице угощают, в основном,
блюдами китайской и турецкой кухонь, оставив лишь
небольшое пространство датским поварам.

Пройдя эту улицу, вы окажитесь на самой красивой и
помпезной площади Копенгагена - Новой королевской
площади. Бывшую королевскую резиденцию
Шарлоттенборг теперь занимает Королевский театр,
открытый в 1722 году. Здесь же расположена и Академия
Художеств.

Что касается музеев, то обязательно стоит посетить
Глиптотеку, в которой собрана богатая коллекция
французской и датской живописи XIX - XX веков, а также
Национальный музей и музей скульптуры Торвальдсена,
который незаслуженно обделен вниманием туристов. На
близлежащем причале организуются водные прогулки по
Копенгагену, который раскрывается совершенно в новом
свете с темных вод своих каналов. Кораблики отходят
каждые полчаса до 6 часов вечера.

Но сколько достопримечательностей не перечисляй, а
Копенгаген во всем мире узнают по грустной русалочке,
присевшей на камень у самой кромки воды и безнадежно
ждущей своего принца. Этот персонаж, известный всему
миру по одноименной сказке Андерсена, стал символом
датской столицы лишь в начале XX века. Тогда один
сентиментальный американский журналист рассказал всему
миру о неприметной статуе морской красавицы,
воплотившей в себе чудо превращения в прекрасную
девушку.
Одним из самых шокирующих мест в Копенгагене можно
назвать Христианию, самый настоящий город в городе.
Расположенная на острове Амо, уникальная Христиания вот
уже более двадцати лет служит прибежищем для
бунтующей датской молодежи.

Датская кухня очень разнообразна. В ней сочетаются
блюда из мяса, рыбы, морепродуктов. Датчане едят много
картофеля и хлеба, различных колбас, овощей и фруктов.
Традиционные национальные блюда: рагу из свинины с
горячей красной капустой, курица соленая с ананасом,
свинина с яблоками и черносливом, овощи с салом-шпик
по-датски. В Копенгагене можно найти превосходные
рестораны для гурманов, где подают как национальные
блюда, так и блюда французской и европейской кухни.

Полезные советы

  Районы, пригороды


  Достопримечательности

  Знаменитая Русалочка




  Русалочка - персонаж одной из сказок Андерсена - вот уже почти сто лет служит
  символом Копенгагена. Маленькая бронзовая фигурка сидит на камне рядом с
  берегом старой гавани. Сюда обязательно привозят всех гостей города. К
  сожалению, такая популярность иногда оказывается губительной. Незадолго до
  нашего приезда кто-то отпилил и похитил голову русалочки, а затем потребовал за
  нее выкуп. Была поднята на ноги вся полиция, в конце концов, голову нашли и
  пришили на место. Так что популярность бывает опасна. В Копенгагене есть и
  памятник и самому великому сказочнику, который любил прогуливаться по улицам
  города.



  Музеи

  Музей Глиптотека
Парки

Парк отдыха Тиволи

								
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