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The Deep Dive

VIEWS: 541 PAGES: 42

									Forging new generations of engineers
 The Deep Dive

An example
 of design
 process in
   action.
          Working through a design process
1.    Define a Problem
2.    Brainstorm
3.    Research and Generate Ideas
4.    Identify Criteria and Specify
      Constraints
5.    Explore Possibilities
6.    Select an Approach
7.    Develop a Design Proposal
8.    Make a Model or Prototype
9.    Test and Evaluate the Design
      using Specifications
10.   Refine the Design
11.   Create or Make Solution
12.   Communicate Processes and
      Results                     – Engineering Drawing and Design (3rd edition)
      Working through a design process
1. Identify the need
2. Define the criteria
3. Explore/research/investigate
4. Generate alternate solutions
5. Choose a solution
6. Develop the solution
7. Model/prototype
8. Test and evaluate
9. Redesign and improve
1. Identify the Need
         • Client seeks out a designer with a
           problem to solve.
         • Personal need or want inspires the
           designer to take action.
         • Media exposure of a current
           problem inspires the designer to
           take action.
         • Designer uses market research to
           determine if a perceived need or
           want exists.
         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
1. Identify the Need
         • Client seeks out a designer with a
           problem to solve.
          ABC News went to IDEO, an
          industrial design firm, to solve
          their problem:
          “Take something old and
          familiar, like the shopping cart,
          and completely redesign it in
          just five days.”
         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
2. Define the Criteria
          • Designer interviews the client.
          • Designer interprets or redefines the
            problem to be solved.
          • Designer identifies what the solution
            should do and the degree to which
            the solution will be carried out (i.e.
            virtual model, prototype, or mass
            production).
          • Constraints are listed (i.e. budget
            and time are typical considerations).
          – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
   2. Define the Criteria
           Client: ABC News
 Target Consumer: Grocery Store Owners & Shoppers
          Designer: IDEO
Problem Statement: The old and familiar shopping cart is
                    inefficient, unsafe, prone to theft, and
                    unattractive.
 Design Statement: Design, prototype, and test an attractive
                    shopping cart that will deter theft, and
                    make the supermarket experience
                    easier, safer, and more efficient.
       Constraints: 5 days
                    Design must „nest.‟
3. Explore/Research/Investigate
          • Interview those affected by the
            problem, and sometimes role-play to
            determine what the user
            experiences.
          • Research solutions that may already
            exist; identify shortcomings and
            reasons why they aren‟t appropriate.
          • Compile and report findings to team.
          • Adjust the criteria (step #2) to reflect
            new knowledge learned if necessary.
          – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
3. Explore/Research/Investigate
          • There are 22,000 reported cases per
            year of children with hospitalized
            injuries from shopping carts.
          • Plastic carts have greater surface
            area, and are problematic during
            high winds. One cart was clocked at
            35 mph across the parking lot.
          • “Professional” shoppers leave their
            carts at strategic locations in the
            store.

          – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
4. Generate Alternate Solutions
          • Design team brainstorms ideas in
            an open forum.
          • Quick sketches are made and
            shared as ideas are generated and
            built off others.
          • No idea is a bad idea; playful and
            wild ideas are encouraged.
          • Judgment is withheld, and focus is
            maintained.
          • Results are compiled for later
            review.
          – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
4. Generate Alternate Solutions

          IDEO’s guide to brainstorming:
          • One conversation at a time.
          • Stay focused.
          • Encourage wild ideas.
          • Defer judgment.
          • Build on the ideas of others.


          – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
5. Choose a Solution
         • Brainstormed information is
           reviewed, and any lingering
           questions are answered.
         • Ideas are measured against the
           criteria that was defined in step #2.
         • Ideas are narrowed down through
           voting process, or by use of a
           decision matrix.
         • Final idea decided on, usually
           through group consensus.
        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
5. Choose a Solution

             “Vote with your Post-It.
             Not for an idea that‟s
             cool, but for an idea
             that‟s cool and buildable.
             If it‟s too far out there and
             it can‟t be built in a day,
             then I don‟t think we
             should vote for it.”

        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
6. Develop the Solution
         • Idea is explored in greater detail
           with annotated sketches.
         • Critical decisions such as material
           types and manufacturing methods
           are made.
         • Computer models are generated
           from detailed sketches to further
           refine the idea.
         • Working drawings are produced so
           the idea can be built.
         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
6. Develop the Solution
            It was decided that four
            different ideas would be
            explored, each addressing one
            of the four areas of concern:
             • Shopping
             • Safety
             • Checkout
             • Finding what you‟re looking for

         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
7. Model/Prototype
        • Scale models may be made to
          study, communicate, and possibly
          refine the idea.
        • Full-scale mock-ups may be made
          to study aspects such as shape,
          form, fit and texture.
        • A prototype is constructed from the
          working drawings, so the solution
          can be tested.


        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
7. Model/Prototype
         The shopping cart models and
         mock-ups were constructed
         from materials such as: copper
         wire, PVC pipe, modular
         aluminum extrusion, foam core
         board, duct tape, modeling
         foam, construction lumber,
         electrical conduit tubing, and
         even part of an existing metal
         shopping cart.
        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
8. Test and Evaluate
         • Experiments are designed and
           prototype is tested in controlled
           and/or working environment.
         • Performance data are gathered,
           results are analyzed and checked
           against established criteria (step
           #2).
         • Formal critique is conducted to flesh
           out areas of concerns, identify
           shortcomings, and to establish any
           need for redesign work.
         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
8. Test and Evaluate
           Each concern-area
           prototype was demonstrated
           to the group in a formal
           critique.
           It was decided that no one
           prototype did an adequate
           job of solving all of the
           problems.

         – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
9. Redesign and Improvement
        • Design changes are made and
          prototype is modified or rebuilt.
        • Refinements made until accuracy
          and repeatability of prototype‟s
          performance results are consistent.
        • Documentation is updated to reflect
          changes.
        • User‟s critique provides outside
          perspective to help determine if
          established criteria have been met.
        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
9. Redesign and Improvement
          The best elements from each of
          the four different concern-area
          prototypes were combined to
          form the final solution.
          The cart was redesigned, rebuilt,
          tested in an actual grocery store,
          and feedback was received from
          store employees.


        – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99)
    Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

1. “From the buildings in which we live and
   work, to the cars we drive or the knives and
   forks with which we eat, everything we use
   was designed to create some sort of
   marriage between _____form_____ and
   _____function_____.”
 Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

2. The folks at IDEO say that they aren‟t
   experts at any given area. But, they do
   claim to be experts on the ___design
   process___, which they apply to the
   innovation of consumer products.
 Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

3. After the team of designers is brought
   together, told what the problem is and
   that they have five days to pull it off,
   what phase of the design process do
   they immediately engage in?

  The Investigate and Research Phase
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

3. Give two examples of what the team
     members did during this phase.
  a. Some team members went to the
     local grocery store and observed its
     patrons.
  b. Some team members talked to
     shopping cart maintenance personnel.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

4. List the five rules-of-thumb that IDEO
   employees follow when they share ideas
   during the brainstorming phase.
  a. Have one conversation at a time.
  b. Stay focused.
  c. Encourage wild ideas.
  d. Defer judgement.
  e. Build on the ideas of others.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

5. Why should wild (and sometimes crazy)
   ideas be entertained during the
   brainstorming phase?
  Wild ideas can be built upon and may
  end up being better, more innovative
  ideas.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive
6. After the brainstorming phase was over,
   the team narrowed down the hundreds
   of ideas by _voting_ for those ideas that
   were not only “cool” but also _buildable_
   in a short period of time. What phase of
   the design process is this called?
  Select an idea
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

7. IDEO believes that the ideas and efforts
   of a _team_ will always be more
   successful than the planning of the lone
   genius.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

8. Once the ideas were narrowed down
   and divided into categories, the group
   was split into four smaller teams. What
   phase(s) of the design process was
   each of these groups responsible for?
  Develop the idea
  Model and Prototype
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

9. The leaders at IDEO believe that
   _playful_ behavior and a _fun_
   environment are two important reasons
   why their employees are able to think
   quickly and creatively to produce
   innovative results.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

10. Sometimes, people come up with
    great solutions by trying their ideas
    first, and asking for _forgiveness_
    later.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

11. Design is often a process of going too
    far and having to take a few steps
    back. What phase of the design
    process would the critique of the four
    mock-ups come under?
   Test and Evaluate
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

12. Upon critique of the four teams‟
    models, it was obvious that none of
    the teams had developed an optimum
    solution. However, the people at IDEO
    believe that it is important to _fail_
    often in order to _succeed_ sooner.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

13. What percentage of the entire week‟s
    time did it take to fabricate the final
    prototype?
   It took one day, or 20% of the total
   week‟s time.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

14. Instead of showering his design team
    with a tremendous amount of praise,
    what did the boss require his employees
    to do with their new design?
   Dave Kelly told his design team to take
   the new design to the local grocery
   store and test it out in its intended
   environment.
  Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive

15. Of all the things that we are
    surrounded by every day, what has not
    been placed through the design
    process?
   Only things that occur naturally (such
   as trees, rocks, etc.) did not go through
   the design process.
  Conclusion

1. What did you find to be the
   most interesting part of the
   team‟s effort?
 Conclusion

2. What advantages are there to
   having a design team with
   members that have non-
   engineering backgrounds?
  Conclusion

3. There was a point in the process
   where a “self-appointed group of
   adults” stepped in, stopped the
   ideas, and redirected the group to
   break up into teams. Why was
   this done?
  Conclusion

4. At the end of the video, Dave
   Kelly states, “Look around. The
   only thing that‟s not designed are
   the things we find in nature.” Can
   you think of anything that would
   contradict this statement?

								
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