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Forging new generations of engineers The Deep Dive An example of design process in action. Working through a design process 1. Define a Problem 2. Brainstorm 3. Research and Generate Ideas 4. Identify Criteria and Specify Constraints 5. Explore Possibilities 6. Select an Approach 7. Develop a Design Proposal 8. Make a Model or Prototype 9. Test and Evaluate the Design using Specifications 10. Refine the Design 11. Create or Make Solution 12. Communicate Processes and Results – Engineering Drawing and Design (3rd edition) Working through a design process 1. Identify the need 2. Define the criteria 3. Explore/research/investigate 4. Generate alternate solutions 5. Choose a solution 6. Develop the solution 7. Model/prototype 8. Test and evaluate 9. Redesign and improve 1. Identify the Need • Client seeks out a designer with a problem to solve. • Personal need or want inspires the designer to take action. • Media exposure of a current problem inspires the designer to take action. • Designer uses market research to determine if a perceived need or want exists. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 1. Identify the Need • Client seeks out a designer with a problem to solve. ABC News went to IDEO, an industrial design firm, to solve their problem: “Take something old and familiar, like the shopping cart, and completely redesign it in just five days.” – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 2. Define the Criteria • Designer interviews the client. • Designer interprets or redefines the problem to be solved. • Designer identifies what the solution should do and the degree to which the solution will be carried out (i.e. virtual model, prototype, or mass production). • Constraints are listed (i.e. budget and time are typical considerations). – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 2. Define the Criteria Client: ABC News Target Consumer: Grocery Store Owners & Shoppers Designer: IDEO Problem Statement: The old and familiar shopping cart is inefficient, unsafe, prone to theft, and unattractive. Design Statement: Design, prototype, and test an attractive shopping cart that will deter theft, and make the supermarket experience easier, safer, and more efficient. Constraints: 5 days Design must „nest.‟ 3. Explore/Research/Investigate • Interview those affected by the problem, and sometimes role-play to determine what the user experiences. • Research solutions that may already exist; identify shortcomings and reasons why they aren‟t appropriate. • Compile and report findings to team. • Adjust the criteria (step #2) to reflect new knowledge learned if necessary. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 3. Explore/Research/Investigate • There are 22,000 reported cases per year of children with hospitalized injuries from shopping carts. • Plastic carts have greater surface area, and are problematic during high winds. One cart was clocked at 35 mph across the parking lot. • “Professional” shoppers leave their carts at strategic locations in the store. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 4. Generate Alternate Solutions • Design team brainstorms ideas in an open forum. • Quick sketches are made and shared as ideas are generated and built off others. • No idea is a bad idea; playful and wild ideas are encouraged. • Judgment is withheld, and focus is maintained. • Results are compiled for later review. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 4. Generate Alternate Solutions IDEO’s guide to brainstorming: • One conversation at a time. • Stay focused. • Encourage wild ideas. • Defer judgment. • Build on the ideas of others. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 5. Choose a Solution • Brainstormed information is reviewed, and any lingering questions are answered. • Ideas are measured against the criteria that was defined in step #2. • Ideas are narrowed down through voting process, or by use of a decision matrix. • Final idea decided on, usually through group consensus. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 5. Choose a Solution “Vote with your Post-It. Not for an idea that‟s cool, but for an idea that‟s cool and buildable. If it‟s too far out there and it can‟t be built in a day, then I don‟t think we should vote for it.” – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 6. Develop the Solution • Idea is explored in greater detail with annotated sketches. • Critical decisions such as material types and manufacturing methods are made. • Computer models are generated from detailed sketches to further refine the idea. • Working drawings are produced so the idea can be built. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 6. Develop the Solution It was decided that four different ideas would be explored, each addressing one of the four areas of concern: • Shopping • Safety • Checkout • Finding what you‟re looking for – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 7. Model/Prototype • Scale models may be made to study, communicate, and possibly refine the idea. • Full-scale mock-ups may be made to study aspects such as shape, form, fit and texture. • A prototype is constructed from the working drawings, so the solution can be tested. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 7. Model/Prototype The shopping cart models and mock-ups were constructed from materials such as: copper wire, PVC pipe, modular aluminum extrusion, foam core board, duct tape, modeling foam, construction lumber, electrical conduit tubing, and even part of an existing metal shopping cart. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 8. Test and Evaluate • Experiments are designed and prototype is tested in controlled and/or working environment. • Performance data are gathered, results are analyzed and checked against established criteria (step #2). • Formal critique is conducted to flesh out areas of concerns, identify shortcomings, and to establish any need for redesign work. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 8. Test and Evaluate Each concern-area prototype was demonstrated to the group in a formal critique. It was decided that no one prototype did an adequate job of solving all of the problems. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 9. Redesign and Improvement • Design changes are made and prototype is modified or rebuilt. • Refinements made until accuracy and repeatability of prototype‟s performance results are consistent. • Documentation is updated to reflect changes. • User‟s critique provides outside perspective to help determine if established criteria have been met. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) 9. Redesign and Improvement The best elements from each of the four different concern-area prototypes were combined to form the final solution. The cart was redesigned, rebuilt, tested in an actual grocery store, and feedback was received from store employees. – ABC News Nightline: The Deep Dive (2/99) Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 1. “From the buildings in which we live and work, to the cars we drive or the knives and forks with which we eat, everything we use was designed to create some sort of marriage between _____form_____ and _____function_____.” Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 2. The folks at IDEO say that they aren‟t experts at any given area. But, they do claim to be experts on the ___design process___, which they apply to the innovation of consumer products. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 3. After the team of designers is brought together, told what the problem is and that they have five days to pull it off, what phase of the design process do they immediately engage in? The Investigate and Research Phase Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 3. Give two examples of what the team members did during this phase. a. Some team members went to the local grocery store and observed its patrons. b. Some team members talked to shopping cart maintenance personnel. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 4. List the five rules-of-thumb that IDEO employees follow when they share ideas during the brainstorming phase. a. Have one conversation at a time. b. Stay focused. c. Encourage wild ideas. d. Defer judgement. e. Build on the ideas of others. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 5. Why should wild (and sometimes crazy) ideas be entertained during the brainstorming phase? Wild ideas can be built upon and may end up being better, more innovative ideas. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 6. After the brainstorming phase was over, the team narrowed down the hundreds of ideas by _voting_ for those ideas that were not only “cool” but also _buildable_ in a short period of time. What phase of the design process is this called? Select an idea Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 7. IDEO believes that the ideas and efforts of a _team_ will always be more successful than the planning of the lone genius. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 8. Once the ideas were narrowed down and divided into categories, the group was split into four smaller teams. What phase(s) of the design process was each of these groups responsible for? Develop the idea Model and Prototype Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 9. The leaders at IDEO believe that _playful_ behavior and a _fun_ environment are two important reasons why their employees are able to think quickly and creatively to produce innovative results. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 10. Sometimes, people come up with great solutions by trying their ideas first, and asking for _forgiveness_ later. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 11. Design is often a process of going too far and having to take a few steps back. What phase of the design process would the critique of the four mock-ups come under? Test and Evaluate Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 12. Upon critique of the four teams‟ models, it was obvious that none of the teams had developed an optimum solution. However, the people at IDEO believe that it is important to _fail_ often in order to _succeed_ sooner. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 13. What percentage of the entire week‟s time did it take to fabricate the final prototype? It took one day, or 20% of the total week‟s time. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 14. Instead of showering his design team with a tremendous amount of praise, what did the boss require his employees to do with their new design? Dave Kelly told his design team to take the new design to the local grocery store and test it out in its intended environment. Activity 3.4.2 The Deep Dive 15. Of all the things that we are surrounded by every day, what has not been placed through the design process? Only things that occur naturally (such as trees, rocks, etc.) did not go through the design process. Conclusion 1. What did you find to be the most interesting part of the team‟s effort? Conclusion 2. What advantages are there to having a design team with members that have non- engineering backgrounds? Conclusion 3. There was a point in the process where a “self-appointed group of adults” stepped in, stopped the ideas, and redirected the group to break up into teams. Why was this done? Conclusion 4. At the end of the video, Dave Kelly states, “Look around. The only thing that‟s not designed are the things we find in nature.” Can you think of anything that would contradict this statement?
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