A guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports

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A guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports Powered By Docstoc
					        A guide to the Classification
              Systems used in
             Paralympic Sports
            Compiled by Jane Buckley (IPC Swimming Classifier)
                              2004 Update




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Please Note: The purpose of this guide is to provide s simplified overview of each of the
systems used in Paralympic Summer Sports. It is not a comprehensive explanation. It is
strongly advised that the individual sports system is consulted when a classification is
required.


Acknowledgements
Information on each of the sports was sourced from the following publications:

Atlanta Paralympic Organizing Committee
“Guide to Classification” 1996

Sydney Paralympic Organizing Committee
“Understanding Athlete Classifications & Disabilities”
Media Guidelines February 2000

Busan FESPIC Games Organizing Committee
“General & Functional Classification Guide” 2002

www.paralympic.org
This is the International Paralympic Committee’s Website. It provides links and direct
information on all the sports listed.

What is “Classification” ?

This term is used frequently when referring to Paralympic Sport. It is a way of grouping
athletes with similar function or ability for the purpose of competition. Classification exists to
try and create “fair” competition amongst athletes with different disabilities.

Over the years classification has evolved from being a pure medical test, to including
observing the athlete perform the sporting activity for most sports. This is at present only
used for the physically disabled. The term “Functional Classification” involves a medical test to
firstly establish that the athlete meets minimal disability or criteria for that sport (ie they are
disabled enough), then observation of the athlete performing the sport.

Classification is often filled with controversy, as someone will always feel that their disability is
just a little more unique than others. However, as I often point out to athletes (and parents)
that classification exists ultimately for ELITE COMPETITIVE SPORT. Ablebodied athletes do
not have different categories based on height, arm span or race which can be seen as a
distinct advantage in some sports. Some able bodied sports do have a form of classification
eg. weight categories in Weightlifting, Boxing etc. It must be kept in mind that a “perfect”
classification system in Paralympic sport will never be created, as there will be a range of
disability within each class. No two athletes either able bodied or disabled are exactly alike.

Two disability groups use only a “medically” based test to establish eligibility to compete. The
visually disabled (blind) are classified by an eyesight test – the athlete has to be legally blind
and there are 3 categories. The intellectually disabled have one category only – it does not
take into consideration any additional physical disability.

The systems used for each of the 18 Paralympic Sports and the relevant classes competing in
Athens will be described. There is obviously a different system for each sport, as each sport
will require different uses of athletic ability for performance. The appendix will cover
explanations for Visually Impaired (Blind), Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Intellectually Impaired.

NB: The system for the Intellectually Impaired is currently being reviewed and the
information contained in this booklet may not be valid.




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                                        ARCHERY
For archery the athletes are placed in 3 different classes:

Archery Standing = ARST (with sub class ARST-C)
Archery Wheelchair 1 = ARW1 (with sub class ARW1-C)
Archery Wheelchair 2 = ARW2

ARST
Archers in this class have no disabilities in the arms.
The legs show some degree of loss of muscle strength, coordination and /or joint mobility.
They compete standing.
ARW1
Archers in this class have disabilities in their arms and legs. They can have limitations in
range of movement, strength and control of their arms and poor or non existent control of
their trunk. Usually their legs are considered non-functional due to amputations and/or
similar limitations of movement, strength and control. They compete in a wheelchair.
ARW2
Archers in this class have paralysis in the lower part of the body,
including their legs. They compete in a wheelchair.




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                                              ATHLETICS
Track & Field (athletics) have athletes from all disability groups of Vision Impairment (IBSA),
Intellectually Disabled (INAS-FID), Cerebral Palsy (CPISRA), Amputees and other Disabilities
(athletes called “Les Autres” = the others) and athletes who have a spinal cord injury.

The classes are structured according to the disability type:

Class 11,12,13            Vision Impairment

Class 20                  Intellectual Disability

Class 31-38               Different Levels of Cerebral Palsy

Class 42-46               Different levels of amputation and other disabilities (Les Autres)

Class 51-58               Different levels of spinal cord injury

The letter “T” indicates track events and the letter “F” indicates field events. The lower class
number identifies the most disabled within the disability group. The higher class number
indicates a lower level of disability up to the required minimum disability standard. (The term
W/C refers to Wheelchair)

TRACK CLASSES
T11     B1 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

T12     B2 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

T13     B3 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

T20     Athletes with Intellectual Disability see INAS-FID (appendix)

T31     CP2 (Lower), see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Wheelchair

T32     CP2 (Upper), see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Wheelchair

T33     CP3, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Wheelchair

T34     CP4, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Wheelchair

T35     CP5, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Ambulant

T36     CP6, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Ambulant

T37     CP7, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Ambulant

T38     CP8, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Ambulant

T42     Single above knee amputation (or combined arm/leg amputation).

T43     Double below knee amputation (or combined arm/leg amputation).

T44     Single below knee amputation or an athlete who can walk with moderately reduced function in one or both legs.

T45     Double above elbow or double below elbow amputations.

T46     Single above elbow/Single below elbow amputation or an athlete who has normal leg function but impairment in the
        arms/trunk.

T51     Wheelchair athlete who has mild weakness in shoulders, limited ability in straightening elbows and wrist function. No
        finger, trunk or leg function.

T52     Wheelchair athlete with good shoulder, elbow and wrist function. Limited finger movements. No leg or trunk function.

T53     Wheelchair athlete with normal arms and hands. No or limited trunk function. No leg function.

T54     Wheelchair athlete with normal arms and hands, trunk function may be impaired. Some may have some leg function.




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FIELD CLASSES
F11     B1 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

F12     B2 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

F13     B3 athletes – see IBSA classes (appendix)

F20     Athletes with Intellectual Disability see INAS-FID (appendix)

F32     CP2 (Upper), see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Wheelchair

F33     CP3, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Wheelchair

F34     CP4, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Wheelchair

F35     CP5, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Ambulatory

F36     CP6, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Ambulatory

F37     CP7, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Ambulatory

F38     CP8, see CP-ISRA Classes (appendix) Ambulatory

F42     Single above knee amputation (or combined arm/leg amputation) or comparable leg impairments.

F43     Double below knee amputation (or combined arm/leg amputation) or comparable leg impairments.

F44     Single below knee amputation or an athlete who can walk with moderately reduced function in one or both
        legs.

F45     Double above elbow or double below elbow amputations.

F46     Single above elbow/Single below elbow amputation or an athlete who has normal leg function but impairment
        in the arms/trunk.

F51     W/C athletes from T51 and from CP2 (see appendix)

F52     W/C athletes from T52 with no leg or trunk function.

F53     W/C athletes who have mild limitation of hand function – no leg or trunk function.

F54     W/C athletes with normal arms and no leg or trunk function.

F55     W/C athletes, normal arms, with ability to rotate the spine – no leg function.

F56     W/C athletes, normal arms, with ability to rotate the spine and can move backwards and forwards– no leg
        function.

F57     Normal arms, hands, near normal trunk. Increased leg function to F56.

F58     Normal arms, hands and trunk. More leg function than F57.




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                         WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL
To be eligible to play wheelchair basketball a player must have an objective and measurable
permanent physical disability in their lower limbs which prevents them from running, jumping
and pivoting as an able-bodied player. By classification, players are assigned a point value
from 1.0 through to 4.5 according to their level of physical function. These points are then
added together in a game situation where a team is not permitted to exceed 14.0 points for
the five players on court at any given time. This ensures that any player regardless of degrees
of disability, has an integral role to play within the team structure. Observed trunk
movements and stability during actual basketball participation, not medical diagnosis, forms
the basis of player classification. There are situations where a player does not fit into the
exact categories for classification. In these cases the Classifiers may assign a player a half
point above or below a certain class. This creates players with 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 points. The
team total of 14.0 points on court does not alter when this occurs.

1 point player No lower limb and little or no trunk movement. Rebound overhead single handed.


2 point player No lower limb but partial trunk control in a forward direction. Rely on hand grip to
               remain stable in a collision.
3 point player May have some limb movement more control of their trunk. Can rebound overhead
               with 2 hands.
4 point player Normal trunk movement but some reduced lower limb function as they unable to
               lean to both sides with full control.
4.5 point        These players have the least disability on court. Usually have minimal lower limb
player           dysfunction or single below knee amputation. Normal trunk movements in all
                 directions.




                                         BOCCIA

                    There are 4 classes (see CP-ISRA classes in appendix)

                        BC1 – CP1 + CP2 compete (with assistance).

                     BC2 – Only CP2 compete – no assistance permitted.

                 BC3 – Severe CP1 compete with use of an assistive device.

    BC4 – Non CP players with a severe locomotor dysfunction of all four extremities. (Not
                             eligible for assistance by an aide)




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                                        CYCLING
CY              B1/B2/B3 (see IBSA in appendix). The athletes compete together in an open class
(Blind &        on tandem cycles.
Visually
Impaired)
LC1             The athletes have only minor or no leg disabilities and no other disabilities. The
                class can include athletes with an amputation of more than half-foot (forefoot) or
                a leg length difference of 7 –12 cm.
LC2             The athletes have a disability on one leg, but they are able to pedal normally
                using both legs (with or without prosthesis). The class can include athletes with a
                single above or below knee amputation or a leg length difference of more than
                12cm.
LC3             The athletes have a disability on at least one leg and pedal only with the other
                leg. The class can include athletes with a loss of muscle strength in both legs or
                the limited flexion ability of the knee less than 50 degrees.
LC4             This class is essentially for athletes with more severe disabilities usually affecting
                both lower limbs, with or without upper limb disability.

Division 1      CP 1 to 4 together, see CP-ISRA classes (tricycle)


Division 2      CP 5/6 together, see CP-ISRA classes (tricycle)


Division 3      CP 5/6 together, see CP-ISRA classes (bicycle)


Division 4      CP 7/8 together, see CP-ISRA classes


(LC=Locomotor Disabled Cyclist)

HANDCYCLING
Handcycling athletes compete in three functional divisions in IPC cycling competitions, with
separate events for men and women. Handcycling is for athletes who normally require a
wheelchair for general mobility, or athletes not able to use a conventional bicycle or tricycle
because of severe lower limb disability.

HC division A – classes HC 1 & 2           More severely disabled athletes with complete loss
                                           of trunk and lower limb function, together with
                                           other severe and complex disabilities. eg.
                                           tetraplegia C7/C8 or like condition)
HC division B – classes HC 3; 4 & 5        Athletes with complete loss of lower limb function
                                           and limited trunk stability

HC division C – classes HC 6; 7 & 8        Athletes with complete lower limb function loss,
                                           but minimal other functional disabilities, or partial
                                           lower limb function loss combined with other
                                           disabilities to make conventional cycling not viable.




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                                    EQUESTRIAN
Grade 1               The athletes are mainly wheelchair users with either poor trunk balance or
                      limitation of function in all arms and legs. Athletes with no trunk balance but
                      good arm functions are also eligible in this class.



Grade 2               The athletes are mainly wheelchair users or those with severe movement
                      disabilities involving trunk balance, but with good to mild arm functions.
                      Athletes with loss of function of both arm and leg on one side of the body
                      are also eligible in this class.


Grade 3               The athletes are mainly able to walk without support. They may have either
                      disabilities in both arm and leg on one side of the body, moderate disabilities
                      in both arms and legs or a severe arm disability.



Grade 4               The athletes have a disability in only one or two extremities or some visual
                      impairment (B2, B3 – see IBSA Classes).




                                       FENCING
Only athletes in a wheelchair can compete in this sport. At the Paralympic Games only
category A & B compete.
             A Category
Class 3       The athletes have good sitting balance of the trunk without support of the legs
             (double above knee amputations with short stumps). The arm used for fencing is
             functional.
Class 4      The athletes have good sitting balance and support of the legs. The arm used for
             fencing is functional.

             B Category
Class 2      The athletes have bad or fair/moderate sitting balance. The athletes with bad
             sitting balance have no problem with the fencing arm. The athletes with good
             sitting balance have a minimally affected fencing arm.
             C Category
Class 1A & Athletes with no sitting balance who have a handicapped playing arm. The
1B         weapon is fixed to the hand with a bandage.




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                              FOOTBALL (SOCCER)
7 a side
Athletes with the classes CP5, CP6, CP7 and CP8 are eligible to compete (see CP-ISRA –
appendix). One player from classes CP5, CP6 must be on the field at all times (if not the team
will have to play with 6 players instead of 7).

5 a side
Athletes with the class B1, B2, B3 are eligible to compete (see IBSA – appendix).
The athletes compete together in an open event. During competition all athletes have their
eyes covered. Goalkeepers may be sighted and in such cases, must not have been registered
with FIFA in the last five years.



                                       GOALBALL
Athletes with the class B1, B2, B3 are eligible to compete (see IBSA – appendix).
The athletes compete together in an open event. During competition all athletes have their
eyes covered.



                                           JUDO
Athletes with the class B1, B2 and B3 are eligible to compete (see IBSA – appendix).
The athletes compete together in an open disability class being placed in the same weight
divisions that operate in Olympic judo.




                                  POWERLIFTING
In powerlifting, athletes with amputations and other (Les Autres) disabilities can compete
together with athletes with Cerebral Palsy, Wheelchair Athletes and short stature athletes
(dwarfs), divided into different weight classes.

To become eligible in International Powerlifting competition, the athletes have to meet
minimum disability criteria as outlined in the relevant publications of ISOD, CP-ISRA and
ISMWSF. Additionally the competitor must have the ability to fully extend the arms, with no
more loss than 20 degrees of extension in either elbow, to perform an approved lift according
to the IPC Powerlifting rules.
Amputees and                          Amputation through or above the ankle of one leg. Slightly
Les Autres (ISOD)                     reduced function in the legs or slight balance problems.

Cerebral Palsy                      Minimal but obvious impairment of functions, evidence of
(CP-ISRA)                           spasticity and/or involuntary movement in at least one limb.
Wheelchair                          Athletes must have at least 10% loss of function of their lower
Athletes (ISMWSF)                   limbs.




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                                          SAILING

Sailing is a multidisability sport where athletes from all the disability groups with the
exception of the Intellectually Disabled can compete together.

The system is based entirely on the functions required to compete in Sailing.

In the Sailing System four functional classes have been
identified:

Stability
Hand Functions
Inability
Vision

In each functional class the athletes are categorised under one of several categories
depending on their functional limitations, and are finally rated according to a point system,
from 1 point describing the most limited functional ability, up to 7 points describing the
highest level of functional ability. Each crew of three sailors is allowed a maximum of 14
points. In Individual contests sailors must meet the minimum criteria for disability; that is,
upon evaluation of their functionality they must be awarded 7 points are fewer.


                                        SHOOTING
         The Shooting classification is divided into two main classes:
SH1                     Pistol and Rifle competitors that do not require a shooting stand.
With Subclasses
A, B,& C
SH2                     Rifle competitors who have no ability to support the weight with their arms and
With Subclasses         therefore require a shooting stand.
A, B,& C
A third specification SH3 is allocated when one valid class only is used for competition.
Competitors are given a SH3x. Seated shooters are defined by a sub class of a, b, or c.


                                       SWIMMING
Swimming is the only sport that combines the conditions of amputation (limb loss), cerebral
palsy (coordination and movement restrictions), Spinal Cord Injury (weakness or paralysis
involving any combination of the limbs) and other disabilities (such as Dwarfism (little
people);
major joint restrictions, across classes.

Classes 1-10 – are allocated to swimmers with a physical disability
Classes 11-13 – are allocated to swimmers with a visual disability
Class 14 – is allocated to swimmers with an intellectual disability

The Prefix S is for the class allocated for Freestyle, Backstroke and Butterfly
The Prefix SB is for the class allocated for Breaststroke
The Prefix SM is for the class allocated for Individual Medley.

The range is from the swimmers with least ability for the stroke (severe disability) (S1, SB1,
SM1) to those with the most physical ability (minimal disability) (S10, SB9, SM10)

In any one class some swimmers may start with a dive or in the water depending on their
condition. This is factored in when classifying the athlete.

The examples are only a guide - some conditions not mentioned may also fit the
following classes:


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CLASS       Examples of Swimmers                                  Explanation
S1          Swimmers with very severe coordination problems       Swimmers in this class would
SB1         in four limbs or have no use of their legs, trunk,    usually be wheelchair bound and
SM1         hands and minimal use of their shoulders only.        may be dependent on others for
            These swimmers usually only swim on their back.       their every day needs.


S2          An example is a swimmer able to use their arms        Similar disabilities to Class 1 but
SB1         with no use of their hands, legs or trunk Or have     these athletes would have more
SM2         severe coordination problems in four limbs.           propulsion by use of their arms
                                                                  or legs.
S3          Swimmers with reasonable arm strokes but no use Swimmers in this class again
SB2         of their legs or trunk; Swimmers with severe    have increased ability when
SM3         coordination problems in all limbs and Swimmers compared to those in Class S2.
            with severe limb loss in four limbs.
S4          Swimmers who use their arms and have minimal       Increasing ability compared to
SB3         weakness in their hands but have no use of their   Class S3.
S4          trunk or legs; Swimmers with coordination problems
            affecting all limbs but predominantly in the legs;
            Swimmers with limb loss to 3 limbs.
S5          Swimmers with full use of their arms and hands but
SB4         no trunk or leg muscles; Swimmers with
SM5         coordination problems.

S6          Swimmers with full use of their arms and hands,
SB5         some trunk control but no useful leg muscles;
SM6         Swimmers with coordination problems (usually
            these athletes walk); Swimmers with major limb
            loss of 2 limbs; Little People / Dwarfs (< 130cm
            females & <137cm males).
S7 SB6      Swimmers with full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function; Coordination
SM7         or weakness problems on the same side of the body; Limb loss of 2 limbs.
S8          Swimmers with full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function; Swimmers
SB7         with coordination problems mainly in the lower limbs; Both legs amputated just
SM8         above or just below the knee; Single above elbow amputation.

S9          Swimmers with severe weakness in one leg only; Swimmers with very slight
SB8         coordination problems; Swimmers with one limb loss. Unless there is an underlying
SM9         medical condition usually all of these athletes will start out of the water.
S10         Swimmers with very minimal weakness affecting the legs; Swimmers with restriction
SB9         of hip joint movement; Swimmers with both feet deformed; Swimmers with one leg
SM10        amputated below the knee; Swimmers missing one hand. This is the class with the
            most physical ability.

S11         These swimmers are unable to see at all and are considered totally blind. (see IBSA
SB11        B1 – appendix)Swimmers must wear blackened goggles if they swim in this class.
SM11        They will also require someone to tap them when they are approaching a wall
S12, SB12   These swimmers can recognise the shape of a hand and have some ability to see.
SM12        There is a large range of vision ability within this class. (see IBSA B2 - appendix)
S13, SB13   Swimmers who are the most sighted but are legally considered to be blind. (see IBSA
SM13        B3 – appendix)
S14, SB14   Swimmers who have a recognised intellectual impairment according to international
SM14        standards as recognised by the World Health Organization. (see INAS-FID –
            appendix)




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                                   TABLE TENNIS
The Table Tennis classification System is comprised of 10 functional classification classes and
one class for athletes with intellectual disability.
TT1            Elbow and hand extension are achieved by a swinging movement initiated from the
               shoulder. Coordination of arm movement is significantly different from non impaired
               arm. Athletes with Cerebral Palsy (CP) demonstrate severe stiffness in the whole body,
               reducing speed and precision of arm movement and reducing sitting balance
TT2           Elbow extension is sufficient and hand movements are well coordinated but without
              normal power. CP’s are the same as TT1 with almost a normal playing arm.

TT3           Minimal loss of function in playing hand. Slight changes in body position are secured by
              the free hand propping, holding or pushing the wheelchair or thigh. Lower part of body
              keeps in contact with the back of the seat. Backward movements of the arm are reduced
              because of body balance. CP’s will have minimal limitations in their arms.

TT4           Normal arm and body movements. Body movements to increase reach are only possible
              by using the free arm to prop, hold or push on the wheelchair or thigh. When starting
              with one hand forward, the body cannot lean forward optimally eg. Double above knee
              amputees with short stumps.
TT5           Athlete may bend forward and backward without using the non playing arm. Significant
              pushing actions with thighs or even feet. Wheelchair handling is optimal because of
              good body positioning back and forward. Some sideward movement is possible.

TT6           Combination of disabilities in the playing arms and legs. CP: moderate stiffness and loss
              of precision more in the legs than in the arms or involuntary movements in the whole
              body.
TT7           Both arms are affected. Single (playing arm) or double above or below elbow amputation
              or combination of both. CP: moderate involuntary movements.
TT8           Severe disability in one or both legs. Single above knee or double below knee
              amputation. CP: some loss of precision and some stiffness in legs or arms.

TT9           Good dynamic Balance. Minimum disability in one or both arms or differential length in
              legs. Single below knee amputation. CP: slight loss of precision on one side of the body.


TT10          Normal function in playing arm. Minimal loss in free arm. Amputation of the free arm up
              to 1/3 of the forearm. CP: minimal involuntary movements.

TT11          Intellectually disabled athletes according to the INAS-FID definition.



                              WHEELCHAIR TENNIS

The only eligibility requirement for individuals to become competitive wheelchair tennis
players is that they must be medically diagnosed as having a mobility-related disability. In
other words they must have substantial or total loss of function in one or more extremities. If,
as a result of these functional limitations, this person would be unable to play competitive
able bodied tennis (that is having the mobility to cover the court with adequate speed), then
this person would be eligible to play competitive wheelchair tennis.
There are two classes:
      One Class is for lower limb disability according to a set list of requirements by the
         International Tennis Federation.
      The second class Called a QUAD class if for individuals with an upper limb disability
         eg. Equivalent to a C8 tetraplegic with defined functional limitations with their ability
         to serve and perform arm strokes



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                               SITTING VOLLEYBALL

Athletes in Sitting Volleyball only need to reach the criteria for minimum disability level related
to the skills/functions to perform volleyball. Examples include amputation of fingers,
shortening of one arm/one leg to a certain percentage, fusion of ankle or wrist as well as CP7
and CP8 (see CPISRA classes) and other comparable disabilities. Sitting Volleyball is played by
amputees and athletes with other disabilities (Les Autres). Each team may have a maximum
of one minimum disability player on court at any one time; the rest of the team must all have
a higher level of disability.


                               WHEELCHAIR RUGBY
The athletes are grouped within a point system ranging from 0.5 points, describing the most
limited functional ability, up to 3.5 points describing the highest level of functional ability. A
maximum total of 8 points (for four players) is allowed on court during a game.

Wheelchair rugby players show different levels of limitations of movement, strength and
control in arms, trunk and legs. It is mainly played by athletes with spinal cord injury involving
both their arms and legs to some degree or other disabilities causing different levels of
paralysis like Cerebral Palsy, Polio etc.
0.5       Not a major ball handler. Scoops ball onto lap. Forward head bob is present when
          pushing/pulling back part of the wheel. Poor balance.
1.0      Weak chest pass or forearm pass. Has a longer push on wheel (combination of pull and
         push). Forearm or wrist catch. Weak or non-existent chest pass.
1.5      Asymmetry is persistent in arms. Predominantly uses the stronger arm. Good blocker. Good
         shoulder strength.
2.0      Good chest pass. Good Ball handler. Can hold the ball with wrists firmly.
2.5      Asymmetrical hands or arms. Major ball handler. Fairly fast play maker.
3.0      Can dribble the ball well with one hand. Very good at ball handling.
         Can begin to grip the push rim in order to manoeuvre the wheelchair.

3.5      Has some trunk function, therefore very stable in wheelchair.
         Usually has very good ball control. Major ball handler and very fast play maker.




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                                        APPENDIX
INTERNATIONAL BLIND SPORTS ASSOCIATION CLASSES (IBSA)

There are 3 classes for athletes with a visual disability

B1
An athlete in this class will either have no light perception at all in
either eye or may have some light perception but an inability to
recognise the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction

B2
The athlete will have the ability to recognise the shape of a hand and the ability to perceive
clearly will be up to 2/60. The visual field of the athlete is less than 5 degrees.


B3
The athlete will have the ability to recognise the shape of a hand and the ability to perceive
clearly will be above 2/60 and up to 6/60. The visual field of the athletes varies between more
than 5 degrees and less than 20 degrees.

Explanation:

2/60 = a person can see at 2 metres what is normally seen at 60 metres.

Diminished Visual Field: Looking through a doorway with one eye closed compared with
looking through the same door, now closed, using the keyhole.


INTERNATIONAL SPORTS FEDERATION FOR PERSON WITH AN
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (INAS-FID)

To become eligible to compete in the Paralympic Games, all athletes with an Intellectual
Disability have to reach the minimum disability criteria, which, in accordance with the World
Health Organization (WHO) definition, is determined by:


An IQ score below 75
        (when IQ 100 is the score of the average person)


Limitations in 2 or more adaptive skills areas
         (communication, self care, social skills, home living, health and safety)


Onset acquired before the age of 18




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CEREBRAL PALSY INTERNATIONAL SPORT AND RECREATION
ASSOCIATION (CP – ISRA) CLASSES

CP-ISRA have created 8 classes to describe athletes with Cerebral Palsy. The classes CP1,
CP2, CP3 and CP4 describe athletes using a wheelchair during competition. The classes CP5,
CP6, CP7 and CP8 describe athletes who don’t use a wheelchair during competition. The
range is from CP1 athletes who are the most disabled to CP8 who are the least disabled but
still qualify under the requirements of CP-ISRA.

CP1     The athletes use electric wheelchairs or assistance for
        mobility. They are unable to propel a wheelchair
CP2     Athletes are able to propel a wheelchair but have very poor useful strength in their arms,
        legs and trunk.

CP3     The athlete shows fair trunk movement when pushing a
        wheelchair, but forward trunk movement is limited during forceful pushing.

CP4     The athlete has minimal limitations or control problems in their arms and trunk while pushing
        a wheelchair.
CP5     The athlete may need assistive devices for walking but not in standing or throwing. The
        athlete may have sufficient function to run but demonstrates poor balance.

CP6     These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they show involuntary movements
        with all four limbs affected. They usually walk without assistive devices

CP7     These athletes have movement and coordination problems on one half of their body. They
        have good ability in their dominant side of their body. ( ie hemiplegia)

CP8     These athletes have minimal involvement in one limb only




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