Lara Held Endangered Marine Anim by fjzhangweiqun


									       Lara Held                                                    Endangered Marine Animal Puppets
       Washingtonville High School
       Washingtonville, NY                                                   Visual Arts, Theatre Arts,
                                                                                       Marine Sciences
       2004                                                                               Grades 10-12
       Trinidad’s Leatherbacks                                   1 month of daily 86-minute art classes
                                                               (project can be adjusted to fit into a 40-
                                                           minute period; puppets can be made smaller
                                                                     to shorten time allotment as well).

Unit: Environmental Sculpture

Overview: Inspired by Ms. Held’s Earthwatch expedition to Trinidad to work with endangered leatherback sea
turtles, students will research endangered marine animals from around the world. Students will combine this
scientific knowledge with an understanding of the history and various techniques of puppetry. Using plaster-
craft, paint, cardboard, felt, and fabric scraps students will design and create hand puppets representing a
chosen endangered marine animal. Puppet designs will be based accurate scientific research and information
about this chosen animal’s physical characteristics, habitat, and behavior. After individual puppets are
completed, students will work together in small groups to design a set (backdrop) and write a script for a
puppet show, which will highlight the situation of these endangered species and their particular ecosystems.

*Please note, students were allowed to choose either an endangered or a threatened marine animal for this

Learning Objectives:

   .   Students will learn to how to use the Internet and school library to research and gather data about
       endangered marine animals and ecosystems from around the world.
   .   Students will learn how to discuss, analyze, and share their research with one another.
   .   Students will learn about and discuss the endangered leatherback sea turtles as an example of an
       endangered species.
   .   Students will learn about Earthwatch Institute and Nature Seekers, as examples of proactive
       environmental and conservation organizations.
   .   Students will discuss the history of the art of puppetry from a variety of cultures, specifically the work of
       Jim Henson’s The Muppets.
   .   Students will learn how to synthesize their scientific research with their understanding of how to create
       a puppet in order to design a hand puppet of a chosen marine animal.
   .   Students will learn how to use plaster-craft and fabric to make a three-dimensional form.
   .   Students will learn to work together in a group to design a set and script for a theatrical performance.
   .   Students will learn to participate in a class critique of their work.

Students of art should be taught to understand how their creativity could be used to offer new perspectives and
positive solutions to the world’s problems. This project will enable students to learn about a specific
environmental issue and then respond creatively as individuals, as well as part of a collective class. We have
all read about endangered animals, viewed documentaries about the dwindling species of the rainforest, and
seen advertisements for “adopt-a-tiger” or “save the whales,” but how many young people have actually been
given the opportunity to do something proactive about these critical issues. Students will be introduced to a
general overview of endangered marine animals and ecosystems. Ms. Held’s experiences, and visual
documentation, with the leatherback sea turtles in Trinidad will inspire the students to learn about an
endangered marine animal of their choosing. Students will have the opportunity to research and learn about
their chosen animal and then share this with their classmates. A discussion of the history of puppetry and the
art of Jim Henson’s The Muppets, along with their scientific research will serve as the foundation for a work of
art, an endangered marine animal puppet. The students will then come together and combine their knowledge,
efforts, and creativity to write, design, plan, and organize a day of puppet-shows at the two elementary schools
in my district. This opportunity will empower the students to use their artwork as a vehicle for educating their
school community and hopefully encourage other children, their parents, and their teachers to become
involved with local or international environmental organizations that seeks to ensure the safety and longevity of
endangered animals and their ecosystems.

New York State Learning Standards for the Arts:
Standard 1: Creating, Performing and Participating in the Arts
Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts and
participate in various roles in the arts.

Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation
in the arts in various roles.

Standard 3: Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art
Students will respond critically to a variety of works in the arts, connecting the individual work to other works
and to other aspects of human endeavor and thought.

 Standard 4: Understanding the Cultural Dimensions and Contributions of the Arts
Students will develop an understanding of the personal and cultural forces that shape artistic communication
and how the arts in turn shape the diverse cultures of past and present society.

Materials: plaster-craft, cardboard, newspaper, paper towel rolls, glue guns, duct tape, paper-pulp, white glue,
sequins, yarn, buttons, wire, duct tape, pencils, colored pencils, sketchbooks, acrylic paint, paint brushes, paint
palettes, felt, fabric scraps, needles, thread, fabric glue, masking tape, primed canvas.

Technology: Internet, Microsoft word, PowerPoint, LCD projector

Teacher Resources:
Baird, B. (1965). The Art of the Puppet. Ridge Press Book: New York, NY.
Earthwatch Institute Expedition Briefing 2004: Trinidad’s Leatherbacks
Ed Sullivan’s The Muppets DVD
Jim Henson’s The Best of the Muppets DVD
Jim Henson’s The Muppets in Space
Ripple, J. (1996). Sea Turtles: World Wildlife Library. Voyageur Press: Stillwater, MN.
Personal journal, field report, video, slides, and digital imagery of Earthwatch Expedition.
Sierra Club website
World Wildlife Federation website
National Geographic Magazines and website
Museum of Natural History website

Instructional Procedure:

   • Instructor will introduce the term “Environmental Art” and ask students to offer their own definitions.
      Instructor and students will discuss different environmental issues that have been or could be
      addressed through the visual arts.
   • This discussion will serve as foundation for the introduction to endangered marine animals. Instructor
      will ask students to define “endangered” and see what endangered marine animals they are aware of.
      Digital slide images will be shown of a variety of endangered marine animals.
   • Students will discuss what they know and what they’d like to know about these particular animals.
      Some suggested questions are:
           o Why do you think this animal is endangered?
           o Have you ever seen this animal?
           o What about its behavior or habitat is unique?

   • PowerPoint presentation: Ms. Held will introduce her experiences in Trinidad with a brief introduction to
   • Students will be introduced to the work of Nature Seekers, as a community-based non-profit, through
      Ms. Held’s digital images and clips of her video footage. Ms. Held will explain her role as a volunteer for
      a conservation organization and describe her experiences with the endangered leatherback sea turtles
      and their hatchlings. Students will be encouraged to think about how human impact has affected these
      marine animals.
   • Students will be encouraged to ask questions and share their own knowledge of sea turtles and/or
      Trinidadian culture.

   • The project goal will be explained to the students and they will be asked to choose a specific
      endangered marine animal from which they will create a puppet. Ms. Held will show her example of a
      leatherback sea turtle puppet.
   • Students will spend 1 class-period in the library collecting data and images of their chosen animals
      Students will be broken into groups and allowed to discuss and compare their findings. Students will be
      required to collect the following information:
          o Species name and geographic location
          o Since when has the animal been considered endangered and reasons for decline in population
             (i.e. poaching, habitat encroachment, disease etc.)
          o Description of habitat, physical characteristics, and general behavior
          o Niche, role in the food chain/ecosystem
          o Life span
          o At least three images of the animal.

   • Brief introduction of the history of puppet making. Instructor will show visual examples of puppets from
      Indonesia, Russia, United States, Turkey, India and several other countries. The class will discuss the
      purpose and significance of puppetry throughout history (storytelling, visual representation of culture,
      entertainment, education of family and cultural values, political propaganda, satire)
   • Through these visuals students will understand the different types of puppets: hand puppets,
      marionettes, shadow puppets, finger puppets, stick puppets.
   • Introduction to Jim Henson’s The Muppets:
          o Clips from Ed Sullivan DVD highlighting the early history of Jim Henson’s creations
          o An episode of The Muppets
          o Clip from the Muppet movie, “Muppets in Space”
   •   Students will discuss their own personal experiences with the Muppets (Sesame Street). We will
       discuss the effectiveness of Henson’s creations and the impact these characters have on young
       children and their understanding of the world. This will lead to a discussion of the importance of
       creating and sharing our endangered marine animal puppets.

   • Instructor will demonstrate the basic techniques for making a hand puppet:
         o Armature and Kinetics: Balloons taped to a paper-towel roll will be used to make the armature.
             Plaster-craft strips will cover the entire balloon. A string will be attached to the top of the head
             (which will allow students to open and close the mouth). Once the plaster-craft is dry, the mouth
             can be cut in half, thereby popping the balloon. A 3” wide hinge in the back of the head should
             be left uncut. This hinge can be reinforced inside and out with duct tape and then covered over
             with plastercraft. Pieces of cardboard can be fitted inside the upper and bottom section of the
             head to create a top and botton of the mouth. These cardboard pieces should be covered in
             plaster-craft. There are many way for creating mouth opening in these puppets, students should
             be encouraged to devise and explore other kinetic options (i.e. smaller opening in a snout
             manipulated with wire and string on the interior)
         o Paper Pulp: Instant papier-mache (paper-pulp) will be used to add details and features to their
             animal faces and inside of the mouth (ears, eye sockets, teeth, tongue etc.)
         o Wire: Wire may be attached using a hot glue gun to add whiskers or eyelashes.
         o Paint: The entire puppet should be covered with a coat of white acrylic gesso. Acrylic paint will
             be used to add color, texture, and details to the head and neck of the animal.
         o Felt and Fabric: Colored felt and fabric scraps will be used to cut and sew a body with arms
             (and legs and tail if desired). Yarn, beads, sequins, and buttons may be used to add detail and
             texture. Students will be instructed to leave appropriate opening so that a hand may fit inside
             the body of the animal. Stuffing and wire may be used in limbs or tails in order to position them
             and prevent them from drooping.
         o After viewing hand puppet making demonstration, each student will be required to create 2-3
             sketches of their hand puppet (different sides/views). Students will be encouraged to refer to
             their animal images and their research to help them incorporate significant physical
             characteristics of their chosen animal.
         o Students will break into groups and share their ideas before making a final design choice.
         o Following the steps above, students will begin work on their puppets.

   • Once the individual puppets are completed students will work in groups of four to decide on a theme
      and basic storyline for a puppet show about endangered marine mammals.
   • Students should consider the following:
          o Time of performance (no more than 15 minutes each)
          o Appropriateness of topic for age group
          o How to clearly communicate an important environmental message while providing fun and
              entertainment for the young audience.
          o Performance title
          o Developing a strong introduction, character development, devising a problem/issue/confilict that
              builds towards a climax or resolution, and conclusion (preferably one with a message or moral).
   • Student groups will put together a rough draft of a script. An entire period will be spent reading and
      editing these scripts (groups will exchange their script with another group to review and make
      suggestions). A class discussion will end the writing workshop to discuss the overall writing process

   • Once each group’s scripts are settled students will use acrylic paint and primed canvas to design a
      small and simple set for their performance.

   • Student groups will work closely with Instructor to organize an appropriate day(s) and time for the
      puppet show performances to take place. Instructor may wish to contact the elementary school
       teachers at the start of the project. This would enable the elementary teachers to incorporate lessons
       and activities related to endangered marine animals, so the children have basic knowledge that the
       puppet shows can build upon.

STEP 9: EVALUATION AND CRITIQUE (See Grading Rubric Attached)
   • Class discussion, critique, and project grades will be based upon the questions in the grading rubric.
      The assessment process is a collaboration between the instructor and the individual students.

Contact Information:
                         WASHINGTONVILLE HIGH SCHOOL

1. Environmental Art- Art made in, from, and about the environment and environmental

2. Natural Environment- the non-human environments of land, air or water, or any
   combination of the three.

3. Biodiversity- the variety of organisms present in a given ecological system.

4. Endangered Species- species that face a very high risk of extinction in the near future.

5. Threatened Species- those species likely to become endangered within the foreseeable

6. Ecosystem- systems of plants, animals, micro-organisms, and their relationship with each
   other and to non-living aspects of their environment (soil, water, air).

7. Habitat- the place and conditions in which a plant or animal species naturally lives.

8. Niche- the role of an organism within its ecosystem that determines its relations with other
   organisms and ensures its survival (i.e. food chain).

9. Jim Henson (1936 - 1990)- American artist and puppeteer. Famous for his legendary
   puppet creations such as “Sesame Street,” “The Muppets,” “Fraggle Rock,” and “The Dark

10. Armature- a framework that supports a sculpture while its being modeled

11. Puppet- a doll or figure representing a person or animal that is moved by using the hands
    inside the figure or by rods, strings, or wires attached to it.
                                   WASHINGTONVILLE HIGH SCHOOL
                                  ENDANGERED MARINE ANIMAL PUPPET:
                                         RESEARCH ACTIVITY

United States Federal Endangered Species Act, 1973: Specific legislation to protect biological resources in
the United States. The Fish and Wildlife Service, in the Department of the Interior, and the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration, in the Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the
Endangered Species Act. Species on the Federal endangered list are afforded the full range of protection
including prohibitions on killing, harming or otherwise "taking" a species. An “endangered” species is one that
is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A “threatened” species is one that
is likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Many species, however, will not recover, and could
be lost forever. Many other countries besides the Unites States have laws offering special protection to these
species to prevent this.

Using the library and the Internet as research tools answer the following questions about your chosen
endangered marine animal. See the endangered marine animal list and suggested websites attached.

   1. Which endangered or threatened marine animal would you like to make a puppet of?

   2. What specific type of marine ecosystem does this animal live in? (coral reef, kelp forest, tidal pools,
      sea-grass beds, mangrove habitats, estuaries, salt marshes, barrier islands, rocky shores, sandy
      shores, mud flats, or open seas)

   3. Describe this animal’s habitat within this ecosystem. What does it live in (a shell, a bed of sea kelp,
      under the rocks etc.)? Some animals may live or migrate through different habitats, try to be specific.

   4. What is your animal’s roll (niche) in this specific ecosystem? What does it eat? What eats it (natural
      predators)? How does its presence affect other animals in the ecosystem?

   5. What is this animal’s life cycle (how long do they live)?

   6. How many years does it take for this animal to reach sexual maturity (be ready to reproduce)?
      Remember animals that take a long time to reach sexual maturity have a harder time recovering from
      an endangered or threatened status.

   7. If you chose a mammal, how long are the offspring carried in the womb? If you did not choose a
      mammal, how does your animal reproduce?

   8.   Is your animal migratory? If so where does it travel? How often? Why?

   9. Is your animal a solitary animal or does it depend on a family or species group to survive (i.e. a school
      of dolphins)?

   10. What factors have caused your animal to become endangered or threatened? Please specify which
       factors are natural and which are caused by humans.

   11. How does the dwindling population of your animal affect the ecosystem in which is it a part of?

   12. What specific things are being done to help recover the population of your chosen endangered or
       threatened marine animal?

   13. Describe the important physical characteristics of your animal. Print three images of your animal that
      will help you design marine animal puppet.
A list of some of the endangered or threatened marine species from the United States and

1.  Dolphin, bottle-nosed
2.  Dolphin, spotted
3.  Dugong (aquatic mammal)
4.  Manatee
5.  Otter, southern sea
6.  Queen Conch (a marine invertebrate
    with a large, beautiful shell)
7. Seal, Caribbean monk
8. Seal, Guadalupe fur
9. Seal, Hawaiian monk
10. Seal, Saimaa
11. Sea-lion, California
12. Sea-lion, Steller
13. Whale, beluga
14. Whale, blue
15. Whale, bowhead
16. Whale, gray
17. Whale, finback

18. Whale, humpback
19. Whale, sperm
20. Seahorse, Knysna
21. Sea turtle, green
22. Sea turtle, hawksbill
23. Sea turtle, Kemp's ridley
24. Sea turtle, leatherback
25. Sea turtle, loggerhead
26. Sea turtle, olive ridley
27. Salmon, Atlantic
28. Salmon, sockeye
29. Sawfish, smalltooth
30. Shark, great white
31. Shark, mako
32. Shark, whale
33. Sturgeon, shortnose
34. Catfish
In order to do a search via search engines (i.e. google, yahoo) use the following key terms:
The name of your endangered/threatened marine animal; Endangered marine species; Endangered marine
animals; Endangered marine reptiles, mammals, birds, fish

Check out the following websites for information on endangered or threatened marine species: (an environmental organization Web directory) (This site is GREAT for solid, basic information
along with visual diagrams of each animal). (great for info on endangered marine


Harbor Seal

Sea Turtle

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