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FIRST AID IN THE BUSH

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					FIRST AID IN THE BUSH

     Cathy Crittenden
    Guides Queensland
      Scroggin 2008
HAVE FUN – BE SAFE
                    What is it ?
 First Aid – the initial
  emergency care given
  immediately upon arrival at
  the scene to an ill or
  injured person.
      - continues until
  professional medical
  assistance takes over the
  care.
 The Australian Bush –
  rural undeveloped land or
  country areas in Australia.
        What do you need?
 Commonsense is the most important
 The ability to stay calm
 Basic first aid knowledge
 The ability to look outside the square
 Hiking first aid kit
 Knowledge of surroundings and resources
  available
 Another person
            LEGAL STUFF
 As a first aider you are under no obligation
  to help an injured person unless you owe
  that person a duty of care.
 You should always seek permission from a
  conscious casualty prior to rendering any
  assistance
 You can provide first aid in accordance with
  your level of training and experience.
                    000
 000 is the primary emergency number
 112 is an alternative for mobile phones




 CB radios channel 9 for 27MHz and channel
  5 for UHF.
              Heat exhaustion
   Heavy sweating        Skin may be cool and
   Paleness               moist
   Muscle cramps         Pulse will be fast and
   Tiredness              weak
   Weakness              Breathing will be fast
                           and shallow
   Dizziness
                          Untreated, it can
   headache               progress to heat stroke
   Nausea or vomiting
   fainting
Heat exhaustion treatment
     Heat exhaustion treatment
 Cooling measures
   - cool, non alcoholic beverages
   - rest – in the shade
   - cool the body – sit in the creek or sponge
  the victim. Do not allow too much cool.
   - lightweight, non restrictive clothing
   - quiet atmosphere and reassurance.
              HEAT STROKE
   Like heat exhaustion but worse
   Sweating has stopped
   Irrational or aggressive behaviour
   Staggering and fatigue
   Visual disturbances
   Collapse and seizures
   Unconsciousness
           HEAT STROKE
 Call 000 or whatever
 Same as heat exhaustion but also treat as
  shock and get them out quick
 Cold packs to areas with major blood
  vessels close to skin
 Give fluids if possible
                Cold injuries
 Occurs when there is freezing to tissue
 Can also occur when air temperature is not
  freezing and when there is a high wind factor or
  wet clothing.
 Chilblains – exposed to dry cold
         reddened tips, can have blisters
 Trench foot (immersion injury) – exposed to wet
  cold – blisters are deeper
 No permanent damage other than cold sensitivity
 No actual freezing of tissue
                  Frostbite
 Frostbite – area of the body freezes
           - ice crystals form in the cells
           - ice crystals cause cells to rupture
           - leads to cell death – no recovery
 Starts similar to chilblains then skin loses its
  blood supply, then loses feeling – numb.
 At this stage there will be loss of skin layers
  but no permanent damage.
                   Frostbite
 If freezing continues – skin becomes frozen & hard
  with blisters after 1-2 days.
 Blisters may become hard & blackened
 Most heal over 3-4 weeks leaving sensitivity to
  heat & cold.
 Further freezing involves muscles, tendons, blood
  vessels & nerves.
 Extremity is hardened, feels woody, deep purple
  or red with blisters
 Can take several months to determine extent of
  damage
           Treat cold injuries
 Do not thaw if there is risk of refreezing
 Immerse injured part in tub of hot water at
  40-42C
 Re warming will induce pain
 Avoid warming over a fire – can dry out
  injured tissue
 Blisters can be treated as a burn
 Seek medical advice when able
                   Burns
 1st degree – is superficial, red skin, painful
 2nd degree – red skin & blistering, pain more
  intense
 3rd degree – skin white & no sensation –
  skin death
 Burns result in infection & fluid loss
 Burns over 15% of body surface can lead to
  shock
                      Burns
 Burns to head & neck
  can result in swelling &
  lead to airway
  obstruction
 Burns extending
  circumferentially
  around a body part –
  can restrict blood flow
  to part below – require
  surgical release –
  escharotomy
            Treating Burns
 Remove any constricting jewellry
 Dowse affected area with cool water a.s.a.p
     how long? –20 minutes is good
 Immerse if possible
 NO ice or near freezing water
 Exposure to air causes pain
 Can use aloe vera gel, no creams or
  ointments unless mild 1st degree
              Treating Burns
 Air causes pain and burns leak
 Cover with non-adherent dressing –
          glad-wrap is good
          time to eat those sandwiches
 Give fluids & keep body warm
 Loss of fluid and severe pain = shock
 If the burn is large, a hospital visit maybe.
               SNAKEBITE

 Ouch – what was that?
 Usual treatment but immobilize and get to
  medical help
 Dial 000? Why not.
 Stretcher out if possible
 DO NOT wash the bite
                 Lacerations
 Stop bleeding
 Wash it – with what –
  water is good
 Cover it
 The cut is too big –
  tape it together – duct
  tape is good
 Splint it – maybe.
                Impaled Object
 Pull it out? – is it big or
  little
 Its big – oh dear it
  might bleed
 Stabilize it.
 Pad around firmly and
  tape in place.
 Clothes and duct tape
  are good – make a
  doughnut
              Fractures/Sprains
   Is the bone visible?
   Stop bleeding
   Clean
   Cover
   Stabilize
                  Transport
 Remove from the bush
 Make a transporter
 You have all that is
  required
 Wood and clothes if no
  rope. Even a sleeping
  bag can be used.
 How many first aid kits
  are in your group/
              RESOURCES
 Many first aid kits = one large kit
 If you are not too far out in the bush (day trip
  only) you will be nearer help but have less
  resources to use
 If you are further away (expedition) you will
  be further away from help but have more
  resources
 You can only do what you can with what you
  have so don’t stress!
That’s It

				
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posted:4/14/2010
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