9th Physical Science Study Guide

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					9th Physical Science Study Guide                                                    name_____________________
Chapter 15 1&2

1.   What is a compound?


2.   How is a compound different from an element?



3.   What happens to the chemical and physical properties of an element when it combines with another element and becomes a
     compound?



4.   Give an example of 2 compounds whose elements properties change when they are combined. Explain how the
     properties change.




5. What is the compound sugar made of?      Are any of these ingredients sweet to the taste? Do any of these elements have
   any taste at all?




6.   What 2 things could you look for in an experiment to decide if a new compound had been made?




7. A recipe calls for a cup of sugar to be heated slowly over a low flame. What could happen to the sugar if it is heated over
   a high flame?




8. What is a molecule?



9. What is the definition for substance?



10. How many atoms are in a molecule?



11. What is a diatomic molecule? Draw 2 examples of diatomic molecules.
12. Does the phase of a substance change the makeup of the molecules in the substance?
    Explain.




13. What does the formula H2O tell you about the makeup of a molecule of water?



14. What does a molecule of sugar contain?




15. How many atoms does one molecule of ethyl alcohol contain? See p 277




16. List the number and type of each atom found in a molecule of ethyl alcohol.




17. What is the difference between a molecule of water and a molecule of hydrogen peroxide?




18. Water and hydrogen peroxide are so similar chemically, are they alike in their properties?




9th Physical Science Study Guide                                             name_____________________________
15 3-4

1. What is a mixture?


2. Give an example of a mixture and explain why it is a mixture.




3. Why do substances in a mixture deep their own properties?



4. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
5.    Which is easier to separate, a compound or a mixture?
      Explain.



5. How do you separate mixtures?


6. Give 2 ways that you could possibly use to separate a mixture.




7. List the 4 ways you can tell a mixture apart from a compound.




8. When you make pancakes, are you making a mixture or a compound?
   Explain.




Write out below the complete sentences from the CHECK section ( only 1-6) on page 281.
Use the back if you have to.




9th Physical Science                             name____________________
Study Guide 15 – 5
What are Ionic Bonds?
**use information from your teacher, not the book.
1. Define Crystal Lattice.



2. Define ion.



3. Define ionic bond.




4. What does it mean to say that atoms are neutral?




5. Are all atoms neutral?    Explain.
6. How does an atom become an ion?




7. How does an atom become an ion with a positive charge?




8. How does an atom become an ion with a negative charge?




9. Does a negative ion have more protons or more electrons?




10.   What holds particles of matter together?



11.   What happens to the electrons between atoms when an ionic bond forms?




12. What holds the atoms together if they have already exchanged some of their
   outer shell electrons?



13.   How strong is the force of attraction in an ionic bond?


14.   What forms the crystal lattice shape?




15.   How many different types of crystal lattices are there?   Explain.



16.   What are valence electrons?**



17.   What are electron dot diagrams?**




18.   Draw electron dot diagrams for period 2, groups 1,2,13,14,15,16,17, & 18.
19. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of NaCl.
   (sodium chloride)




20. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of NaF.
   (sodium fluoride)




21. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of LiCl.
   (lithium chloride)




22. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of MgS.
   (magnesium sulfide)
.




23. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of BeF.
   (beryllium fluoride)




24. Using electron dot diagrams draw the ionic bond between atoms of MgO.
   (magnesium oxide)




25.   At what point in the above drawing do the atoms become ions?
26. Draw the ionic bond between Na2S. ( sodium sulfide)           At what point do the
   atoms become ions?




9th Physical Science                                  name_____________________
Study Guide 15-6       Covalent Bonds

1. What is a covalent bond?



2. Generally speaking, what are the different ways that atoms complete their outer
   electron shells?



3. What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?




4.    Is water an ionic compound or a covalent compound?   Why?


5. Explain the covalent bond that holds a water molecule together.




6. Draw a molecule of water and make the electrons of the hydrogen atoms a different
   color. Draw it using the book method with +-n and all the energy levels, and also draw
   it using an electron dot diagram.




7. Copy Table 1 from page 284 that shows the differences between ionic compounds and
   covalent compounds.




8. How are ionic compounds and covalent compounds similar?
9. Do the atoms in a covalent compound become positively or negatively charged?       Explain.



10.      Read the skill builder on pg.285. Predict whether solutions of ionic or covalent
      compounds would be the best conductors of electricity. Explain your answer.


11.      Draw covalent bonds using electron dot diagrams for H2, O2, N2, H2O, CO2. CCl4, CH4




12.   After looking at the above covalent bonds, are covalent bonds usually formed
between metals and nonmetals or nonmetals and nonmetals?    What would you expect ionic
bonds to form between?

9th Physical Science                                      name_____________________
Study Guide 15-6       Covalent Bonds

4. What is a covalent bond?



5. Generally speaking, what are the different ways that atoms complete their outer
   electron shells?



6. What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?




4.      Is water an ionic compound or a covalent compound?    Why?


12.      Explain the covalent bond that holds a water molecule together.




13.      Draw a molecule of water and make the electrons of the hydrogen atoms a different
      color. Draw it using the book method with +-n and all the energy levels, and also draw
      it using an electron dot diagram.
14.      Copy Table 1 from page 284 that shows the differences between ionic compounds and
      covalent compounds.




15.      How are ionic compounds and covalent compounds similar?


16.      Do the atoms in a covalent compound become positively or negatively charged?
      Explain.



17.      Read the skill builder on pg.285. Predict whether solutions of ionic or covalent
      compounds would be the best conductors of electricity. Explain your answer.


18.      Draw covalent bonds using electron dot diagrams for H2, O2, N2, H2O, CO2. CCl4, CH4




12.   After looking at the above covalent bonds, are covalent bonds usually formed
between metals and nonmetals or nonmetals and nonmetals?    What would you expect ionic
bonds to form between?




9th Physical Science
      name__________________________
Study Guide 15 – 7-8
15-7WHAT ARE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS?
1. Define organic chemistry:

2. Define organic compound:

3. Define structural formula:

4. What are the 2 main groups of compounds?          Put an X and the percentage beside
   the on that is the most common.



5. What is the main deciding factor as to whether a compound is organic or
   inorganic? Which one is which?
6. Why is carbon the basic atom in organic molecules? If you can’t find your
   answer in the reading draw a carbon atom and look at the electrons in the outer
   shell.




7. What types of covalent bonds can carbon form?



8. Draw electron dot diagrams for the 3 photos at the top of page 286 that show
   the single bond, the double bond and the triple bond.   Also write the chemical
   formula for each of the molecules that you are drawing. (Label your pictures
   in case you need to draw them on the quiz.)
   Do this on a separate sheet of paper so you have more room.




9. What are the different shapes that carbon atoms can take when they join
   together?


10. What are structural formulas in common language- don’t use the definition
   from the book.


11. Use the structural formulas in Figure 2 to write the chemical formulas for
   methane, ethane, propane, and butane.




12.   Draw electron dot diagrams for methane and ethane



15-8 WHAT COMPOUNDS ARE NEEDED BY LIVING THINGS?
13.   Define amino acids:
14. Define carbohydrates:

15.   Define lipids:

16.   Define proteins:

17.   How do living organisms obtain the organic compounds they need?

18.   What are these organic compounds?


19. What are carbohydrates made of?       By looking at this list can you guess how
   carbohydrates get their name?
20. Anything that has _____________ or ______________ contains carbohydrates.
   What common foods fall into the carbohydrate family?


21.   What does the body use carbohydrates for?   Why are they important?



21.   What is the common name for lipids?


22.   What are lipids used for in the body?


23.   What foods are high in lipids?



24. What is cholesterol and what do high levels of this in the blood do to the
   body?


25.   Why do living things need lipids?


26.   What are proteins used for in the body?


27.   What are proteins made of?


28.   What are amino acids made of?


29.   What are amino acids commonly called?


30.   What foods are high in protein?


31.   What is the relationship between amino acids and proteins?