# Alignment 101

Document Sample

```					   Pre-alignment: How
15 Minutes Can Save You
\$\$\$\$\$\$
Stan Riddle
What is coupling alignment?

   Coupling alignment
is shaft alignment. If
the shafts are
aligned, the
couplings will
normally go along for
the ride.
Types of Couplings

   Rigid – usually must        Flexible – uses one
be aligned to very           or more elements to
close tolerances.            connect the shafts.
Think of it as solidly         Mechanical
bolting one shaft to           Elastomeric
another.
 Metallic
These can tolerate
slightly more
misalignment,
thermal changes,
and shock.
Shaft Alignment
Every shaft, bent or straight, rotates
about an axis that forms a straight
line.
Co-linearity

Shafts in this same straight line are
considered co-linear, or in the same
straight line.
Types of Misalignment

Offset, or Parallel – the       Angular – the shafts are not in
shafts are parallel to each     the same plane, which causes
other, but are not co-          a difference in measurement
planar, or in the same          between measurements made
plane. This can be both         180 degrees opposite on the
vertical and horizontal.        coupling faces.

It’s almost always a combination of both!
Measurement Conventions

   Offset or Parallel
Misalignment is
measured in
thousandths of an
inch (0.000”), also
called mils.
   Angular Misalignment
is measured in
thousandths of an
inch (0.000”), or mils,
per inch of coupling
diameter.
Pre-alignment Steps

15 minutes or so of preparation time can save
you hours, and dollars, in alignment costs.
It can also save you a lot of unnecessary work
The following slides list some of the most
common errors made both before, and during,
shaft alignment.
Error #1

ASSUMPTIONS AND THE
LACK OF OBSERVATION
Example
Assumptions
   NEVER ASSUME IT’S LOCKED AND TAGGED!
   Don’t assume it’s aligned correctly, even if you did it the last time.
   Can the shafts be rotated together? Can they be rotated
individually? You may have to modify your alignment technique.
   Is there a soft foot issue? Check and minimize before alignment.
   Is there going to be thermal growth? How much? Which
direction? Is it going to get hotter, or colder?
   Is the coupling insert worn? Does it need replacement?
   Is there adequate spacing between the shafts? Between
couplings?
   Has pipe strain been minimized?
   Is the pump assembly sitting on isolators? Are they functioning
properly?
   Is the pump assembly sitting on an inertia block? Is it properly
affixed to the floor?
Assumptions
   Do you notice any cracks in the floor around the base? Can
you feel vibration in the floor?
   Does the coupling insert have excessive backlash?
   Are the coupling flanges tight to the shaft?
   Are set screws and bolts tight?
   Are keys in place?
   Are the hubs concentric? You may be able to align an
eccentric hub, but may cause vibration, and make you look
bad, if you miss it.
   Does the coupling guard clear the coupling?
   How clean is the area?
   Soft foot is not limited to just under the motor feet. It can
happen between a riser and frame, and between a frame and a
floor.
   Are there jackbolts? Are they screwed tight to the motor?
Error #2

You do not know what your
alignment target, or
tolerance, is.
Alignment Targets

   Does your company have an alignment
criteria, or tolerance?
   DON’T GO BY THE COUPLING
MANUFACTURER’S TOLERANCE!
 The coupling manufacturer’s tolerance
is based upon the amount of
misalignment the coupling will tolerate,
 NOT what the bearings and seals will
tolerate!
   Think of it like a rubber band…
Alignment Tolerances
Alignment tolerances are based on
many things, including:
•Coupling type
•Running speed
•Company guidelines
Most alignment tool manufacturer’s
also have tolerances. Consult your
Engineering department, or your
VibrAlign’s tolerance   alignment tool representative, for
table
Thermal Growth Targets

Machines that operate at a considerably hotter
or colder condition than the ambient room
temperature should be thermally compensated.

They will “grow” or
“shrink” as they heat up, or
cool off
The machine manufacturer’s specs are a good place to start

But, the machine manufacturer probably does not know:

•The exact temperature of the driver and driven machines
•Ventilation quality or cooling effects
•Piping strain influences
•Piping thermal changes
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

If you can’t
remember this
chart, remember
this:

1foot of steel get 100
degrees hotter, it grows
about 8 mils ( 0.008”)
However, this is not a magic formula!

   Machines do not usually heat or cool at the
exact same temperature top to bottom.
   You need to find a mean, or average
temperature of the machine – from the
centerline of the shaft, to the bottom of the foot.
The Best Way to Know Thermal Growth Changes…

   …is to measure them yourself.
   Measure the machine in the cold condition, and
pre-set it to the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
   Re-measure in the hot condition, if possible.
   Some lasers can do this calculation for you, or
you can simply plot it on paper.
   In addition, some laser alignment tool
manufacturers sell equipment that allow you to
measure the thermal changes.
Error #3
Not correcting for soft foot
Soft foot…

Soft foot occurs when machine    Soft foot is caused by deformed machine
feet do not rest flatly on the   base plates or by deformed machine feet.
machine base.

Soft foot can be offset, angular, or both.
Error #4 – Not knowing when to say when

   When the machine is aligned to within your
alignment tolerance, you are done.
   Don’t try to get it all the way to zero.
   You may cause more problems than you
correct.
   AND, you will certainly waste time.
Error #5 – Not roughing in

Straightedge, flashlight, feeler gauges,
taper gauge, outside caliper, etc…
A Quick Comment on Shims…
   Try to use a maximum of 4 or less shims under each
foot. It’s not always possible, but try to minimize the
number of shims per foot.
   Use pre-cut stainless steel shims.
   You can’t cut them for less than you can buy them.
   When you insert shims under the foot, slide them all
the way in, then back them out ¼”, so the bolt threads
don’t bend them.
   Don’t reuse painted, or badly bent shims.
   Be careful. A 0.003” shim can cut you like a knife.
Trust me on this one!
   Keep them neat.
Error #6 Not controlling backlash or unwanted movement

   Some alignment systems are sensitive
to backlash or “play” in the coupling.
Not only lasers, but indicators can be
misread due to backlash, especially if
there is any eccentricity in the coupling.
   Beware of bumping your indicators or
laser detectors.
   Beware of any binding or tightness in
the machines as they are rotated.
Error #7 – Incorrect sequence of moves

   Always correct vertical misalignment
first.
   Once the vertical (top to bottom, up and
down) is corrected, you can
theoretically move the machine side to
side as far as it will go, without
changing the vertical alignment.
   Then, correct misalignment in the
horizontal plane (side to side).
Now we’re ready to align!
You got to make the right
moves!
Regardless of the method
you use, alignment needs
to be done in four steps
Angular misalignment in the Vertical Plane

Side View
Parallel Offset in the Vertical Plane

Side View
Angular misalignment in the Horizontal Plane

Top View
Parallel Offset in the Horizontal Plane

Top View
THAT’S THE
WAY IT’S
SUPPOSED TO
HAPPEN!
So what do we do if it doesn’t?
   Check for soft foot.
   Check for bolt or base bound condition.
   Check to make sure you haven’t
bumped or moved your alignment tools
   Check for coupling backlash.
   Check for excessive vibration in the
area
   Re-measure, and see if your results are
repeatable.
Stan’s Tricks of the Trade
   A straightedge, an outside caliper, a Starrett taper gauge,
and a flashlight are good roughing-in tools.
   A can of compressed air, like those used for cleaning
electronics, is good to clean dirt out from under motor
feet.
   A 0-1” micrometer is great for measuring the thickness of
shim stacks.
   When aligning, excessive backlash can be compensated
with a few rounds of duct tape.
   Two dial indicator magnetic bases make great stops to
rest the laser tool or indicator brackets at the 3 and 9
o’clock positions. It gives you an extra set of hands.
Questions?

Stan Riddle
stan.riddle@vibralign.com

```
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
 views: 33 posted: 4/14/2010 language: English pages: 38