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					                                    Conceptions of Privacy

                                                     August 30, 2007




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   1
                                          Avoiding Plagiarism




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   2
Research and Communication Skills



              CMU Policy on Cheating and Plagiarism
      CMU Policy*:
                Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, failure
                to indicate the source with quotation marks or
                footnotes where appropriate if any of the
                following are reproduced in the work submitted
                by a student:
              1.      A phrase, written or musical.
              2.      A graphic element.
              3.      A proof.
              4.      Specific language.
              5.      An idea derived from the work, published or
                      unpublished, of another person.
              *http://www.cmu.edu/policies/documents/Cheating.html

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   3
Research and Communication Skills



                                                    This is serious
       Consequences of plagiarism in this class range
        from zero credit for entire assignment to failing
        the course to recommendation of university
        disciplinary action
       Publishers and professional societies have
        plagiarism policies too
       The Internet makes it easy to plagiarize
              • Students are frequently cutting and pasting off the
                Internet without proper quotation and/or citations
              • Students are buying papers off the Internet
       The Internet also makes it easy to catch
        plagiarism
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   4
Research and Communication Skills



                                          Avoiding plagiarism
       If you use someone’s specific words, put them in
        quotes and cite the source
       If you use someone’s ideas expressed in your
        own words, cite the source
       If you paraphrase, summarize in your own words,
        but still cite source
              • Don’t use same sentence structure with a few word
                substitutions
              • If you use some of the source’s words, put them in
                quotes
       When in doubt, put it in quotes and cite the
        source!

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   5
Research and Communication Skills



              Good resources on avoiding plagiarism
       http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QPA_plagiarism.html
              • Includes nice examples of good and bad paraphrasing
       http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html
              • Includes good suggestions for how to avoid accidental plagiarism in your
                writing
       http://www.georgetown.edu/honor/plagiarism.html
       http://sja.ucdavis.edu/avoid.htm




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   6
               Creating a Bibliography and Citing
                            Sources




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   7
Research and Communication Skills



        Creating a bibliography and citing sources
      Do you know how to create a properly
       formatted bibliography?
      Why is a list of URLs not a proper
       bibliography?




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   8
Research and Communication Skills



                                                     Citing sources
       Whenever you take words, images, or ideas from another source you
        need to cite that source
              • Direct quotes and paraphrases
              • Images, photographs, tables, graphs
              • Ideas, measurements, computations
       Also use citations as evidence to back up assertions
       If you use somebody else’s words, you must quote them
              • Short excerpts appear in quotes
              • Long excerpts (3 or more lines) are introduced and then appear as
                indented text, often in a smaller font, single spaced
              • If you leave out words in the middle use …
              • If you leave out words at the end use ….
              • If you substitute or add words, put them in square brackets []
              • If you add italics say [emphasis added]

       Failure to cite sources = plagiarism


Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   9
Research and Communication Skills



                                                      Paraphrasing
       Usually paraphrasing ideas is preferable to
        quoting unless
              • Exact wording is important
              • You are quoting famous words
              • You are critiquing or comparing specific words rather
                than ideas
              • The original words say what you want to say very well
                and succinctly
       Usually paraphrasing lets you convey an idea
        more succinctly because you can focus on the
        part of the idea most relevant to your paper
       If you end up using some of the original words in
        your paraphrase, use quotes around those words
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   10
Research and Communication Skills



                                               Forms of citation
      Full bibliographic citation inline
              • Typically used on a slide
      Footnote or endnote
              • Used in legal writing, many books, some
                conferences and journals
      Inline short citation with bibliography,
       references cited section, or reference list
              • Used by most technical conferences and
                journals, some books, most dissertations



Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   11
Research and Communication Skills



                                                Citations in text
       Format depends on style you are using
              • Usually a number or author and date, sometimes a page number
                reference too

       Citation usually goes at the end of the sentence
              • Privacy is not “absolute,” (Westin 1967).
              • Privacy is not “absolute,” [3].

       If Author is mentioned, in sentence, name does not
        appear in citation
              • Westin (1967, p. 7) claims that individuals must balance a desire
                for privacy with a desire to participate in society.

       Multiple citations can appear together
              • [3, 4, 5]
              • (Westin 1967; Cranor 2002)

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   12
Research and Communication Skills



                                                            Footnotes
      Used heavily in legal writing
      Usually used sparingly in technical writing
      Each footnote appears only once
      If you reference the same source multiple
       times you must repeat the reference
       information, however you can abbreviate it
       on second and subsequent references and
       use ibid to indicate same as previous
       reference
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   13
Research and Communication Skills



                                   Creating a bibliography
       Similar rules apply to other forms of citation (footnotes,
        etc.)
       Pick an appropriate style and use it consistently
        throughout your paper
              • Most conferences and journals have style requirements
              • Popular styles: Chicago/Turabian, MLA, APA, APSA, ACM, IEEE

       Complete bibliographic entry includes author, title, date,
        publisher, place of publication, pages, volume number,
        etc.
       Bibliographic entries should be ordered - usually either
        alphabetically or in order referenced in the text



Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   14
Research and Communication Skills



                                     Word processing tools
      Microsoft Word
              • Word has built in support for footnotes and
                endnotes
              • Use cross reference feature for numbered
                reference lists
              • Third party bibliographic add-ons may be
                useful

      LaTeX
              • Built in support for footnotes and endnotes
              • Use Bibtex!

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   15
                                              Semester Project




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   16
                                                             Overview
      Individual or small group (up to 3 students)
      Pick your own project or one that I suggest
      All projects have final paper, presentation,
       and poster as deliverable
      Some projects may have other deliverables
       such as software, user interface designs,
       etc.
      http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawte
       ch-fa07/project.html
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   17
                                                      Past projects
       http://lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa05/poster.html
       http://lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa04/poster.html
       Several past projects have been turned into a thesis or published paper
              •    The Real ID Act: Fixing Identity Documents with Duct Tape. I/S: A Journal of
                   Law and Policy for the Information Society, Fall/Winter 2005 (Serge Egelman).
              •    How Technology Drives Vehicular Privacy. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for
                   the Information Society, 2(3), Fall 2006, 981-1015 (Aleecia McDonald).
              •    Scrubbing Stubborn Data: An evaluation of counter-forensic privacy tools.
                   IEEE Security & Privacy, September/October 2006 (Matthew Geiger).
              •    Peripheral Privacy Notifications for Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the
                   2005 Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, 7 November 2005,
                   Alexandria, VA (Braden Kowitz).
              •    Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness. In Proceedings of the 2005
                   Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET2005), 30 May - 1 June 2005,
                   Dubrovnik, Croatia (Ponnurangam Kumaraguru).
              •    PANAMA: Privacy Assured Name-Addressable Messaging Architecture For
                   Unlinkable Instant Message Conversations. INI Thesis 2005 (Ryan Mahon).



Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   18
Research and Communication Skills



                              Selecting a research topic
       Brainstorm
              •    What are you interested in?
              •    What would you like to learn more about?
              •    What topics might be relevant to your thesis work?
              •    What topics might be relevant to your future career?
       Select a small number of candidate topics (Oct 2)
       Read
              •    How much information seems to be available?
              •    Is this topic over done?
              •    What open questions are there?
              •    Do you still find this topic interesting?
              •    Do you have the skills necessary to pursue this topic?
       Focus (October 11 - one paragraph description)
              •    Select a topic
              •    Define a focused research question
       Read some more
              •    Conduct a “literature review”
              •    Adjust your topic as needed
       Write a project proposal (October 25)


Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   19
                                                What is privacy?




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   20
                                        Discussion questions
       What does privacy mean to you?
              • How would you define privacy?
              • What does it meant to you for something to be private?

       How has your privacy been invaded?
              • Describe an incident in which your privacy was
                invaded by a friend or family member
              • Describe an incident in which your privacy was
                invaded by a stranger
              • Describe an incident in which your privacy was
                invaded by an institution
              • What is the funniest invasion of privacy that ever
                happened to you or someone you know?

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   21
                                        Discussion questions
      Should everything be private all the time?
      Should everyone have an absolute right to
       control what information about them is
       private?
      What are the costs of privacy?
              • Personal costs?
              • Societal costs?




Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   22
                                                Nothing to hide?
      What is the “nothing to hide” argument?
      How is it used to argue for limited privacy
       rights?
      What counter-arguments are there?
      Solove, Daniel J., "'I've Got Nothing to Hide' and Other
         Misunderstandings of Privacy" . San Diego Law Review, Vol. 44,
         2007 Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=998565


            “Privacy’s function…is not to protect the presumptively innocent from
            true but damaging information, but rather to protect the actually
            innocent from damaging conclusions drawn from misunderstood
            information.” -- Lawrence Lessig, Privacy and Attention Span 2001

Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   23
                                     Britney Spears:
                                  “We just need privacy”

                  “You have to realize that
                  we're people and that we
                  need, we just need privacy
                  and we need our respect,
                  and those are things that
                  you have to have as a
                  human being.”
                                                     — Britney Spears
                                                                    15 June 2006
                                                                    NBC Dateline

                 http://www.cnn.com/2006/SHOWBIZ/Music/06/15/people.spears.reut/index.html
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology • Carnegie Mellon University • Fall 2007 • Lorrie Cranor • http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/   24
Only a
goldfish can
live without   Is this true?
privacy…
               Can humans
               live without
               privacy?