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“It tried to bite me_ I was spea

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									                                                               Andre Hartman
                                                                 Shark Man        Text by Daniel Beecham
                                                                                  Photos by Edwin Marcow & Daniel Beecham




                                                                                  Nowadays, sharks are big               “It tried to bite me!             ed sharks behaviourists in the
                                                                                                                                                           world. However, his knowledge
                                                                                  business and many divers              I was spear fishing at             does not stem from specimens
                                                                                  and scientists have made              the time and carrying              studied in a lab or facts and
                                                                                  a name for themselves                  a lot of fish. It came            figures in scientific journals. It
                                                                                  by making new discover-                                                  comes from spending time in the
                                                                                                                         in and tried to take              water, with no cage for protec-
                                                                                  ies about shark behav-                                                   tion, with one of the ocean’s top
                                                                                  iour and biology. There is             me. I saw it coming,
                                                                                                                                                           predators.
                                                                                  however one man who                    so I gave it the gun.                Andre was born in Bellville,
                                                                                  for many shark enthu-                  It didn’t like it, so it          Cape Town, in 1953. His relation-
                                                                                                                                                           ship with White Sharks started in
                                                                                  siasts needs no intro-                     swam away”                    1977 when he first encountered
                                                                                  duction. A true pioneer,                                                 them in open water.
                                                                                  Andre Hartman is the               top underwater photographers             “It tried to bite me! I was spear
                                                                                  original shark wrangler            and cinematographers face             fishing at the time and carrying
                                                                                                                     to face with Carhcarodon car-         a lot of fish. It came in and tried
                                                                                  who, in an age of misun-                                                 to take me. I saw it coming, so I
                                                                                                                     charias, the Great White Shark.
                                                                                  derstanding, has pushed                                                  gave it the gun. It didn’t like it, so
                                                                                  the boundaries of shark                Andre Hartman, with his thick     it swam away”
                                                                                                                     bushy beard, his coarse South         Many South African spear-fish-
                                                                                  diving to learn more               African accent and his towering       ermen encounter large sharks,
                                                                                  about a species that has           physique, looks like a true sailor.   including Great Whites. The ani-
                                                                                  been misunderstood for             He has enjoyed a long and illus-      mals are attracted by blood and
                                                                                  too long.                          trious relationship with the ocean    the distress of speared fish.
                                                                                                                     working in the navy as a com-            The diver must use his spear
                                                                                                                     mercial salvage diver and as a        gun to fend off the shark. Some
                                                                                  He has made discoveries that       Springbok champion spear fish-        spear-fishermen choose to carry
                                                                                  have questioned our under-         erman.                                a power-head, or bang-stick, for
                                                                                  standing and has made many of         Andre is a hero in his home-       extra protection, which is used in
                                                                                  the most memorable shark pho-      town of Gansbaai. His discover-       extreme circumstances.
                                                                                  tographs and documentaries         ies have earned him a reputa-            “I was petrified of the things.
                                                                                  possible by bringing the world’s   tion as one of the most respect-      I was spear fishing for South

                                                                                  Andre Hartman

49   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005   EDITORIAL   FEATURES   TRAVEL   NEWS   EQUIPMENT   BOOKS    SCIENCE & ECOLOGY               EDUCATION           PROFILES         PORTFOLIO           CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                         Andre Hartman - Shark Man
profile
Africa at this time, but before I got my
                                                                             above it, review its outline from   sharks on long decompression stops in        quent the waters year round; it’s one of
                                                                             above, and then I can go and        mid water, however it was through diving     the few places in the world where divers
Springbok colours. We used to run into                                       map it out. With every dive, you    and spear-fishing around Dyer Island that    can observe white sharks hunt, interact
these animals all the time. We needed                                        add more detail to the map.         Andre grew to better understand and          and breach.
to learn more about them, which places                                       That was basically my job. It       appreciate the White Sharks.                    “I decided to start up a business here
to avoid, how to push them off with a                                        was frightening diving on those       “I first came to Dyer Island in 1986. I    because I had seen how many tourists
spear gun or how to use a power-head                                         wrecks, knowing that there were     saw the White sharks here when I was         were attracted to the sharks at Aliwal
to scare them away. I never shot a shark                                     such large white sharks around      spear fishing. I again had to fend them      Shoal near Durban. So, my friend, Jean
with a power-head myself though.”                                            and knowing so little about         off. I was taking the fish to the boat.      Pierre Botha, and I went into business.”
   Andre also worked as a commer-                                            them.”                              There was blood in the water, and a             Their company, Marine Dynamics, grew
cial salvage diver on numerous wrecks                                                                            shark investigated me assertively. But I     in popularity very quickly and earned a
around the Cape, playing a major role                                        Appreciating Great                  thought: How nice they are here! “           reputation for being the premier boat
in exploring, mapping and salvaging his-                                     Whites                                It was in 1996 that Andre realised the     charter for diving the island. Many sea-
toric shipwrecks such as the British steam-                                  Andre continued to encoun-          commercial potential of Dyer Island          soned professional photographers and
er ‘Joanna’ and the HMS Birkenhead,                                          ter white sharks underwater         where large numbers of Great Whites fre-     cinematographers, including crews from
famed for the tragic loss of 445 men                                         throughout his commercial div-
some of which were taken by white                                            ing career, often encountering
sharks. The accident also gave birth to                                                                                 Andre Hartman accidentally discovered an unusual trance-like behavior of the Great
                                                                                                                                      White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, when it is touched on the nose
the phrase ‘women and children first’,
which after the sinking, became naval
protocol throughout the world.
   “I have a very good memory under-
water. When I see things like a school
of fish in a hole, even 10 years later I
can go back and find it. So, when I
see something like a wreck, I first swim




    50   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005    EDITORIAL    FEATURES   TRAVEL   NEWS   EQUIPMENT      BOOKS        SCIENCE & ECOLOGY               EDUCATION           PROFILES        PORTFOLIO          CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                                       Andre Hartman
                                                      Shark Man
                                                     the BBC, National       reached into the water from the back           Andre is a man who has lived along-
                                                     Geographic and          deck of the boat one day to push the        side the white sharks all his life. He is a
                                                     The Discovery           shark away by the snout. To his amaze-      character who will go down in history as
                                                     Channel to name         ment, it lunged out of the water with its   the man who introduced the world to
                                                     just a few, travelled   huge jaws agape, and then swooned           the true character of the Great White
                                                     to dive with Andre      backwards into the water. The sharks        Shark, a man who continues to try and
                                                     using his unique        seemed to be in a form of trance, but       learn more about the most misunder-
                                                     knowledge and           Andre believed that when the shark’s        stood fish in the sea.
                                                     experience to get       snout was touched, it experienced sen-         To me, the man is a true diving leg-
                                                     shots that had never    sory overload.                              end. When I think of Great White Sharks, I
                                                     been seen before.          The Ampullae of Lorenzini, electro-      can’t help but think of Andre Hartman.
                                                        As well as work-     receptors in the snout, are so sensi-
                                                     ing as guide to         tive that there is a rush of information    For more information about Andre
                                                     the world’s top         putting the animal into temporary sen-      Hartman, please visit: www.andrehart-
                                                     underwater image        sory overload. The shark is almost over-    man.com ■
                                                     makers, Andre is        whelmed by the experience, and only
                                                     himself an accom-       comes back to its normal state after a      Disclaimer: “Don’t try diving with Great White
                                                     plished cameraman       few moments when the overload has           sharks without a cage on your own. These
                                                     shooting with Sony      passed.                                     great animals are top predators in their own
                                                     VX1000 and VX2000          Andre continues this exer-               environment and could kill you in an instant.
                                                     cameras. He also        cise today. One must see to
                                                     produces and mar-       believe it.
                                                     kets his own inde-
                                                     pendent produc-         Guiding divers                                                    OUR WORLD-UNDERWATER XXXVI
                                                     tions.                     Today, Andre continues
                                                                             to guide divers around the
                                                     Understanding           island running trips for shark                                 Mark your calendar for Febuary 24, to 26 2006 when the 36th Annual OUR
                                                     Great Whites            enthusiasts and seasoned                                       WORLD-UNDERWATER Consumer Dive & Travel Exposition will be
                                                      The more time          professionals alike. Many                                            held just minutes from Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport.
                                                      Andre spent around     people decide to go, meet                                      The Donald E. Stephens Convention Center will host the event featuring:
                                                      the sharks, the bet-   and dive with Andre after                                                          �� Over 200 dive industry exhibitors
                                                      ter he understood      seeing him in one of the                                                         �� Diving workshops, clinics & seminars
                                                      them. It was during    many documentaries in                                                       �� Today’s finest underwater films & photography
                                                      the early years he     which he has starred along-                                                  �� Children under 8 are FREE with paying adult
                                            spent working around the         side various top wildlife pre-
                                                                                                                                                            �� FREE, Saturday Children’s Film Festival
                                            island that he discovered        senters and scientists.
                                            what many consider to be            After meeting Andre, and                                             For details & tickets visit www.ourworldunderwater.com
                                            one of the most amazing          diving with him, I learned
                                            spectacles in the natural        more about sharks than I ever                                               SAVE $2.00 ON YOUR ADMISSION TO THE SHOW
                                            world.                           thought I could. As much as                                                  SUBMIT THIS AD WITH YOUR TICKET ORDER
                                               Often, whilst diving with     they amazed me, I couldn’t                                                               (sorry no copies accepted)             CODE: XR

                                            Great Whites, the animal         help but be equally intrigued
                                            would attempt to bite the        by Andre’s reaction to the
                                            out-board motors of the boat.    animals. I revelled in anticipa-
                                            Sharks often ‘investigate’       tion as the shark’s fin broke
                                            metal objects in the water,      the water, excitement as it
                                            attracted by the electronic      lunged for the bait and won-
                                            impulse emitted by the metal.    der as it effortlessly slid back
                                            Concerned about the shark        into the deep. After all these
                                            damaging his motors, as          years of working with sharks,
                                            well as harming itself, Andre    Andre is still in awe of them.



51   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005   EDITORIAL   FEATURES     TRAVEL       NEWS       EQUIPMENT           BOOKS          SCIENCE & ECOLOGY              EDUCATION            PROFILES         PORTFOLIO              CLASSIFIED
                              THE FACTS AND VIEWPOINTS IN THIS SECTION ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE VIEWS
                              OF X-RAY MAG. EQUIPMENT PRESENTED IN THIS SECTION HAS NOT BEEN TESTED BY
                              X-RAY MAG STAFF, NOR ARE THE ITEMS WARRANTED, INFORMATION PROVIDED IS




                                                                                                                                                           Freedom fins
                              CONDENSED FROM MANUFACTURERS DESCRIPTIONS. TEXTS ARE USUALLY EDITED
                              FOR LENGTH, CLARITY AND STYLE LINKS ACTIVE AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATIONS

                              POINT & CLICK
                              ON BOLD LINKS
                                                                                                                                                            The thrust fin from Freedom Fins is attached
                                                                                                                                                            to the lower leg; not the feet and ankles. This




                            Equipment
                                                                                                                                                             attachment location produces considerably

  Edited by
                                                                                              What’s hot...what’s next                                       more force than conventional fins because
                                                                                                                                                              the ankles and wrists are the weakest joints in
  Andrey Bizuykin                                                                                                                                              the body.With a flick of the release snap, the
  & Peter Symes                                                                                                                                                 fins fold, facilitating seamless transition from
                                                                                                                                                                 shore or boat to water. FreedomFins are boat
                                                                                                                                                                  ladder friendly and enable good walking
                                                                                                                                                                                           www.freedomfins.com
Dive Xtras           X-Scooter Standard
                     Body Frisco model is the
X-Scooter            Standard power motor
                     with a standard
                     body length.
                                                                                                                                             Oceanic HUD mask
        This version uses one bat-                                                                                                             The HUD contains a miniature liquid crystal display
       tery (not included) giving the                                                                                                          (LCD) panel, multi-element optics, microprocessor,
       diver an burntime of 1 hour.                                                                                                             depth transducer, wireless cylinder pressure receiver,
      Saltwater resistant powder coated                                                                                                         diver replaceable battery, and controlling software - all built
     aluminum body and tail cone. Can be                                                                                                         directly into a dive mask. .Oceanic’s wireless transmitter module
    Interchanged with one piece body length to Long or Xtra                                                                                      attaches to the regulator first stage and transmits the diver’s cyl-
   Long and additional battery packs www.dive-xtras.com                                                                                           inder pressure to the mask. While the HUD Mask will have immediate
                                                                                                                                                   military applications, recreational divers will also benefit from this jointly
                                                                                                                                                   created technology as Oceanic plans to release a consumer version next
                                                                                                                                                    year. www.oceanicworldwide.com

                   Mako fins from Aeris                                                                   Cochran EMC-14
                                   There were a lot of news from Aeris.                                  Cochran has added a new computer, the EMC-
                                       Let’s start with the Mako fin. The                                14 to their product line. Many of you familiar
                                              engineered channels and                                    with the “Captain” which has been sold as a
                                                    side rails direct water                              simple computer for the past many years will be
                                                         flow off the tips of                             pleased to see its “big brother” return in the form
                                                      the fin without allow-                              of the EMC-14. As with the Captain, it has user-
                                                     ing water to “spill” off                             replaceable batteries but now it can be ordered
                                                     the sides of the blade                                as a single-mix Nitrox computer. Please have a
                                                        and reduce power.                                  look because it generated a lot of excitement at
                                                 www.diveaeris.com                                          the DEMA show.            www.divecochran.com




 Report &                 Comment                                                                                        was disasterously slow and boring—and         be fiend-                                                      minisubmarine – which is an
                                                                                                                         obviously in the wrong location. Or is the    ishly hard to                       interpret              instant eyecatcher. Talk about
 DEMAshow 2005 - Las Vegas                                                                                               dive industry finally back on the upbeat?     correctly but it             seems that the     a Ferrari-effect. Most boys at the show,
                                                                                                                         Cautiously I would like to say the latter.    world has now finally adapted mentally          regardless of age, must have drooled.
 This year’s DEMAshow was a great show.                                                                                  This show was very busy, there were many      to a post 9/11 reality and started being          As regards to new equiment, the industry
 Plain and simple. And what a pleasure it                                                                                new products and most of us who exhib-        outgoing again. On the travelfront most         has, for some years, seem to be struggling
 was attending.                                                                                                          ited were bogged down by streams of           destinations seem cautiously optimitic          with their products being mature – I mean,
    What happened? Was it because so                                                                                     customers in our booths. The overall senti-   being in positive mood but without stak-        how much can you keep on improving
 many attendees were coming back after                                                                                   ment seemed to be energetic and opti-         ing too much yet on major developments.         on a snorkel? - and to come up with true
 skipping last year’s show in Houston which                                                                              mistic with a lot of thumbs up. Trends can    Set aside, maybe, Ocean Hunter’s new            novelties. At the moment the cutting edge


  51   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005         EDITORIAL                  FEATURES                  TRAVEL             NEWS       EQUIPMENT           BOOKS         SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                  EDUCATION             PROFILES      PORTFOLIO           CLASSIFIED
                                                                               Special Ops                                                                                                             Aquatek CCR
                                                                                The Special Ops Watch is the world’s first
                                                                                 and only electromagnetic rechargeable                                                                                   Voyager from Aquatek is
                                                                                 watch with LED lighting system. It’s pow-                                                                                 a mechanical design with
                                                                                  ered by a rechargeable lithium ion cell                                                                                  manual CCR setpoint con-
                                                                                  battery. To recharge, simply place the                                                                                    trol. O2 is injected into the
                                                                                   Special Ops Watch on the included                                                                                         lid after the axial scrub-
                                                                                   electromagnetic induction charger                                                                                         ber unit which comes with
                                                                                    overnight. The Special Ops Watch is                                                                                      a clear canister. Without
                                                                                    equipped with overcharge protec-                                                                                         tanks and absorbant it

Submerge              Top
                                                                                     tion and low battery alert and is
                                                                                      water resistant up to 330ft. The band
                                                                                                                                                                                                            weights 14 kg/31 lbs. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Voyager is CE certifiied to
Underwater            rated u/w
                      scooters with out-
                                                                                       links are individually connected with
                                                                                        allen keys, making them easy to adjust
                                                                                                                                                                                                       40m with EANx and 100m with
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Helium.           www.rebreather.it
Propulsion            standing endurance dif-
                      ferent models of this make
                                                                                         www.specialopswatch.com/products.htm

                      were recently used during a 14km
                      cave dive in Mexico. The UV-18
                      model comes in at GBP 2500 incl.
                      VAT and airfreight. More details at:
                      www.silent-submersion.com
                                                                   Apeks WTX
 Nemo                                                              With the WTX series the manufacturer
                                                                   of the renowned regulators have
                                                                   announced a new selection of BCD
                                                                   products. Stainless steel plates, har-
 Mares Nemo                                                        nesses, buoyancy cells and acces-
 Dive Computer                                                     sories comes as modular compo-
 & watch. A cut-                                                   nents that can be assembled into
 ting-edge dive                                                    numerous combinations from highly
 computer and an
 elegant watch.
 Now in steel with
                                                                   technical BC rigs or scaled
                                                                   down to make a travel
                                                                   friendly rig that any diver would
                                                                                                                                                                  Haskel
                                                                                                                                                                    Now, those fine people at Haskel can say what                 they
 black PVD treat-                                                  want to use. Made out of 1000D                                                                   want but pretty it ain’t, their new booster. But who cares? Haskel
 ment with sap-                                                    Armorshield Cordura                                                                              are known for their quality products. Their newest series of elec-
 phire coated glass. Elegant and a complete                                       www.apeks.co.uk                                                                    tric driven gas boosters offers contamination-free operation at
 dive computer, offering all functions for dives                                                                                                                     lower cost and smaller size than metal diaphragm compres-
 with or without decompression. It can also be                                                                                                                        sors. The new EDA Series eliminates oil migration in applications
 used for Nitrox mixtures. For freediving enthu-                                                                                                                      using all inert gases including nitrogen, helium, argon, CO2 and
 siasts, it also offers the special “free-dive”                                                                                                                        air. The booster’s design includes separation; therefore, only
 mode. www.mares.com                                                                                                                                                   cleaning is necessary in order to use it for Oxygen service.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      www.haskel.com


                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Interview with
   DEMAshow 2005 (cont’d)                                                                      neutral bouyancy such            as the          I would also like to rec-         A good                                 Al Hornsby
                                                                                               those from Fouth Element,      Radiotor as       ommend to checking          collection of
  seem to lie in the continued application of
                                                                                               well as the new strechables from Bare.           out WETPIXELS report          videoclips
  hi-tech in dive equipment both electron-                                                                                                                                   from DEMA
                                                                                                                                                on the show and new
  ics of course, like in the new Oceanic HUD                                                                                                                                    2005 are
                                                                                               Interested in rebreathers? Rebreather            photography equip-
  mask, new computers and rebreathers                                                                                                                                          available
                                                                                               World has a in depth going show report           ment presented here
  but also in the application of new fabrics                                                                                                                                   at OCEAN
                                                                                               on these matters on their site at www.           this year.
  in suits and garments. These recent years                                                                                                                                       REALMs
                                                 X-Ray Magazine publisher Peter Symes (left)   rebreatherworld.com - it is worth a visit           Link to wetpixel.
  has seen some interesting developments                                                                                                                                          website
                                                 with OCEAN REALM Magazine’s Ken English       (just click on this link). Down the same vein,   com’s show-report.
  in, for example, thin but warm wetsuits with   and publisher Richard Stewart (right)


    52   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005     EDITORIAL          FEATURES         TRAVEL        NEWS       EQUIPMENT           BOOKS          SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                  EDUCATION              PROFILES    PORTFOLIO          CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ���������������
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    �����������������������������������������
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ����������������������������������������
unreal... Undersea Hunter Gets New Submarine




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    �����������������
                                         gers down to a depth of 475m (1500      from inside the acrylic sphere that




                                                                                                                                                                                                             ����
Have you ever wondered what lies
deeper that you can go on your           ft). It is the first deep submersible   offers the viewers an unparalleled         �


scuba set. Did you ever dream of         designed and developed with the         and unobstructed 360’ view of              �


sailing in a submersible? Well, now      ocean enthusiast and underwater         the undersea world. DeepSee has
                                         explorer in mind and as a dedicat-      a dive autonomy of 6 hours at a
                                                                                                                            �

the dream is possible. The famous
liveaboad Undersea Hunter now has        ed filmmaking observation vehicle.      speed of up to 1.7 knots.
                                                                                                                           ��




                                                                                                                                                                        ����������������������������������
DeepSee which is a custom built          DeepSee is equipped with a High            www.underseahunter.com.
                                                                                                                           ��




                                                                                                                                                                        �������������������������������
one-atmosphere submarine, capa-          Definition video camera, and an
                                                                                                                           ��




                                         impressive array of HID lights, that




                                                                                                                                                                        �������������������������
ble                   of carrying one                                            Note: We could only find the info using
                                                                                                                           ���




                         pilot and       will document all the DeepSee           Internet Explorer, not Netscape/Firefox    �




                            two pas-     dives. Passengers can use their
                                sen-     own video or camera equipment




                                                                                                                                                             �����
                                                      With the SCUBuzz, there is no
                                                      more tank banging. SCUBuzz
                                                      is an underwater signaling
                                                                                           ScubBuzz
                                                      device worn like a wristwatch. Simply, with the push of a
                                   Hoseless air-                                button, your dive buddy has your
                                 integrated                                       attention without any annoy-




                                                                                                                                                  ����������������������������
                               technology, so                                       ing noises. SCUBuzz is a 2 way                                                                                                                                                              ���� ����� ������� �������




                                                                                                                                                  ���������������������������
                              small and stylish                                      alert system used to alert divers                                                                                                                                                                 ����� ���� �������� ���� ��� ������
                             you can wear                                               from either the surface to a




                                                                                                                                                  ������������������
                                                                                                                                                                Aeris
                                                                                                                                  �������������
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ������� ��� ��� ���� ������ ���� �����
                            it on your wrist                                               diver below or from diver
                           to dinner. AERIS                                                  to diver while under                                                                                                                                                                      ������� ��������� ��������� ��������
                          “Distinguished by                                                    water. An ultrasonic                                                                                                                                                                    ��� ��������� �� ���� ��� ����������
                         Design” technology                                                      radio transmitter                                                                                                                                                                     ������������� �������� ���� �� ���
                      enables more fea-                                                            and receiver are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ���� ����� �������� ����� ��������
                 tures to be loaded into this                                                       built into each
    Aeris        handsome and functional                                                            SCUBuzz to allow                                                                                                                                                                   ���� ����� ������� ��������
                 “wristwatch style” dive                                                            both sending and
    Epic         computer.                                                                          receiving an alert.
                 www.diveaeris.com                                                                www.scubuzz.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ���������


    53   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005    EDITORIAL         FEATURES        TRAVEL        NEWS        EQUIPMENT           BOOKS           SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                                                                                                              EDUCATION   PROFILES   PORTFOLIO             CLASSIFIED
The latest Scubapro bundle

S555 on MK17
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                                                                                                                                       Sounding like something coming
A powerful all-rounder, S555 is an air balanced high                                                                                   out of a Science Fiction movie,
performance second stage; the ideal choice for                                                                                         Jetboots are an unique hands-
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with superior breathing performance, coupled                                                                                           swimmers and divers engaged
with a captivating design. This second stage                                                                                           in recreational, commercial, or
incorporates diver adjustable Venturi Initiated                                                                                        military dive activities. Coming in
Vacuum Assist (VIVA), also known as dive/pre-                                                                                          January, a new, less expensive
dive control switch. The balanced flow valve                                                                                           version of Jetboots especially for
initiates effortless and instant air flow. The anti-                                                                                   the recreational diver.
freeze components for cold water performance                                                                                                          www.jetboots.com
make it remarkably durable and reli-
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     www.scubapro-uwatec.com




                                    Looking good for                                           AquaSketch
                                         your money                                 AquaSketch represents a leap forward
                                                                                    in underwater communication. Not                                                               Spacy
                                                  Still scratching your head,       only does it simplify the                                                                      The Neptune Space is a progression of
                                                  not knowing what to give         task of writing and drawing                                                                     Ocean REEF’s current full face mask, the
                                                  her for X-mas? Diving equi-      underwater but it also offers                                                                   Neptune II NIRA, which was introduced in
                                                  ment or something fancy to       unlimited paper capacity                                                                        1998. In Neptune Space the regulator has
                                                  wear? Don’t despair, this       making it unnecessary to                                                                         been moved closer to the visor, reducing
                                                  fashionable hydroskin rash      waste time erasing during a                                                                      the mask’s profile and reducing the breath-
                                                  vest from Fourth Element        dive. Holds up to ten feet of                                                                    ing effort; the inhalation effort required for
                                                  may just be the answer to      waterproof vellum. Charts,                                                                        the Neptune Space is 20% less than that of
                                                  all your problems. Nothing     graphs, dive logs or any tech-                                                                    the Neptune II NIRA.
                                                  quite does it like a soft      nical or visual computer input                                                                    www.oceanreefgroup.com
                                                  package under the tree.       can also easily be printed on
                                                  www.fourthelement.com         the vellum. www.aquasketch.com


                                                                                                                      Academy in St. Petersburg, Russia.   received plain water. Upon            indicated. Diversitea is marketed
                                                                                 Pressrelease from Diversitea:
                                                                                                                         A controlled study was con-       ascent, the mice who received         through live-aboard dive boats,
                                                                                                                      ducted where two groups of mice      Diversitea had a mortality rate of    dive shops, the Internet, vacation
                                                                                 Russian Navy says                    were taken to 200 meters (657        28%, and the control group mor-       resorts and specialty retail and gift
                                                                                                                      feet) in a hyperbaric chamber        tality rate was 84%.                  stores.
                                                                                 Diversitea has positive              over a period of 20 minutes, then       This led the testers to conclude
                                                                                 effect                               brought up to surface pressure in    that Diversitea Herbal Supplement     This release has not been edited
                                                                                                                      five minutes.                        Tea appears to have a posi-           or validated by X-Ray Magazine.
                                                                                 Diversitea Herbal Supplement            One group was given Diversitea    tive effect on the reduction of       More info about Diversitea on
                                                                                 Tea for Divers was recently tested   for two weeks before being sub-      Nitrogen waste in the body, as less   www.diversitea.com
                                                                                 at the Makarov State Maritime        merged and the control group         formal experiments had previously


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                   Ecology

  Text by
  Michael Arvedlund, PhD
ILLUSTRATIONS BY GUNILD AND PETER SYMES
                                          Dolphins                               A few things you probably didn’t know about them

When you are on the                           Usually after a few minutes, the dol-      much – or how little - do we actually          culture. The latter is currently the subject
way back to the harbor                        phins disappear again. If you enter the    know about dolphins: their biology,            of a lot attention and debate among sci-
                                              water, they also usually disappear. Only   ecology and behavior?                          entists as it is argued that animals with a
after the afternoon dive,                     recently did I experience swimming                                                        culture should have this quality included
wild dolphins often swim                      together with some of these dolphins:      In captivity     Much of what we knew          as regards to conservation issues.
in front and along the                        two young dolphins were simply to          was about dolphins was, until quite               Fortunately, in recent years field based
dive boat. They seem                          curious about the noise the bunch of       recently, entirely based on studies of ani-    studies have been on the increase which
                                              snorkellers and divers made, and came      mals in captivity and only from the spe-       have provided us with many new insights
to love following boats.                      within a distance of less than a meter.    cies of bottlenose dolphin, i.e. “Flipper”,    into the fascinating lives of dolphins. We
Sometimes they then per-                        My biggest surprise was to see how       Tursiops spp, and the orca or killer whale     will present some of the known facts as
form for us, in form of huge                  fast these beautiful animals actually      Orcinus orca.                                  well as some of the many newest find-
                                              swim underwater. One of these young            From these studies we know they talk,      ings.
jumps out of the water
                                              dolphins tried to teach me her kind        i.e. they have a language and there
and “tail shows”, keep-                       of swimming, but quickly gave up on        are even different dialects among some         Dolphin Sonar     Dolphins contain a
ing the tail up for minutes                   such a clumsy student. This recent first   groups of orca, that they have com-            unique sensory organ which is used
remaining still in the water.                 encounter made me think about how          plicated relationships and they have a         for hunting and communication: the




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 ecology                                                                                                                                                                               Dolphins

  organ for echolocation, which              are capable pick up minute              discriminate between the densi-       increased as a function of time.       animals in coastal areas and up
  also bats possess. Echolocation            objects with their echolocation         ties of objects. They can appar-         But with the dolphins, what         to hundreds in oceanic waters.
  is also known as “dolphin sonar”.          with outstanding accurateness. It       ently even distinguish between        happens is that they control their        Spinner dolphins inhabit tropi-
  By listening to the echoes of the          is still not quite clear how the dol-   different species of fish. This is    level of their emissions so that as    cal and subtropical zones with
                                                                                     of course used when they hunt:        they close in on a target, they        herd sizes that range from 2 to 300
Brain
                                                                                     echolocation is used in the detec-    reduce the amplitude of their sig-     in coastal areas and up to thou-
                  Nasal                                                              tion and tracking of prey. Some       nal, so that they try to keep the      sands in oceanic waters. Spinner
                  sacs                                                               scientists think that the eco sound   amplitude of the echo relatively       dolphins rest and socialize during
                                                                                     can stun fishes: It is thought that   constant.”                             the day, feeding at night on fish
                                                                                     dolphins stun large schools of fish                                          in the open ocean, whereas bot-
                                                                                     with the sound beams and then                                                tlenose dolphins rest, socialize,
                        “Melon”
                                                                                     make the attack.                      Dolphin society                        and feed both during the day
                                                                                                                           Aspects of the social structure,       and night. Bottlenose and spinner           The dolphins sonar
                                                                                     Building knowledge                    language and learning abilities        dolphin acoustic emissions or pho-          clicks reflects off fish’
                                                                                  Much is still poorly understood          in dolphins                            nations can be classified into two          swimming bladders
                                                                                  about the echolocation ability                                                  general categories:                         sending the echo
                                                                                  in dolphins, but progress is made        The Mexican dolphin researcher            a) tonal whistles, and                   back to dolphin
                                                                                  every year. One of the leading           Dr. Carmen Bazúa-Durán recently           b) pulsed sounds
                                                                                  researchers within the field of          conducted a comparative study             or clicks.
                                                                                  dolphin echolocation is Dr. Au           on the ability of spinner- and bot-
                     Mandibular nerve                                             from the University of Hawaii. In        tlenose dolphin to whistle which
                                                                                  a recent interview he says the           seems to be a kind of “language”
                                                                                  following of some of his new             that at least some species of dol-
                                                                                  research results: “We recently           phins possess beside their sonar
It is theorized that the sonar “clicks” are being                                 discovered that by looking at            system. She tells the following
generated in the nasal sacs and then focused                                      echolocation signals from wild           about her and other researcher’s
through the “melon” which acts as a sort of                                       dolphins that they have a form of        recent findings of the social struc-
acoustic lens. The returning echo is then prob-                                   automatic gain control or a form         ture and language in dolphins:
ably being recieved through the lower jaw                                         of time varying gain. Now they do        “Bottlenose and Spinner dolphins
                                                                                           it very different than our      live in coastal and oceanic
                                                                                           sonar would do it. In tech-     waters of the world’s oceans.
                                                                  A dolphin is capable nological sonar, time var-          Bottlenose dolphins inhabit
                                                                                                                           tropical and temperate
  sound they produce, dolphins can
  locate objects and fish with amaz-
                                             phin sonar sys-
                                             tem works. The
                                                                  of creating an acous- ying the receiver,occurs
                                                                                                 gain usually
                                                                                           with                where       zones with herd sizes
  ing achievement. A dolphin is              echolocation           tical image of its     the gain of the receiver is     that range from 1 to 30
  capable of creating an acoustical          may be in its       environment, includ-
  image of its environment, includ-          lower jaw. If this
  ing other animals, by using the            jaw is covered        ing other animals
  pulses of ultrasonic sound which           experimentally,                                        A dolphin sonar click of a free-ranging
  bounce off surrounding objects,            dolphins have                                          bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
  almost like an x-ray image. Even           difficulties echo                                      Dominant frequency ~ 75-110 kHz, time
  when captive dolphins are experi-          locating. Another hypothesis                           duration ~ 25-50 µs)
  mentally blinded they are still able       says that the ear canals, even
  to echolocate to make their way            though this is a reduced organ in
  to whatever the target is. The             dolphins, are where the center
  echolocation, sounds like a bunch          of echolocation is. Dolphins can
  of clicks or squeaking sounds,             learn about its surroundings by
  however, they are beyond the               measuring how long echoes
  field of human hearing. Dolphins           take to come back. They can


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ecology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Dolphins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dolphins belong to the
Whistle spectrogram                   tours into classes and the extraction of                          together and cooperating “herding”                                                                                family Delphinidae. Most
Dolphin whistles have typically       acoustic parameters from each whistle                             females: small gangs of males kidnap                                                                              species of dolphins are larger
been characterized in terms of        contour.”                                                         females and keep them for a consider-                                                                             than porpoises, with the males
their frequency as a function of        The two American dolphin research-                              able time span for mating. Within the                                                                             usually being larger than the
time (spectrograms) which is also     ers Dr. Rachel Smolker and Dr. John. W.                           male individuals studied by Dr. Smolker                                                                           females. The family Delphinidae
referred to as ‘‘whistle contour’’.   Pepper recently documented a previ-                               and Dr. Pepper, the whistle repertoires                                                                           is the largest and most diverse
Whistles are frequency modu-          ously unknown whistle “union” phe-                                were more variable than expected,                                                                                 family of the cetacean order.
lated sounds with a fundamental       nomenon among adapted free-living                                 based on previous studies, mostly                                                                                 Scientists have discovered fossil
frequency usually below 20 kHz        male bottlenose dolphins. During a four                           performed with captive dolphins, but                                                                              records of ancient delphinids,
and harmonics up to 100 kHz and       year study period, three males formed                             became less so during the time span                                                                               which date back 11 million
durations between 0.05 and 3.2        an alliance, spending most of the time                            of the study. Among the individuals,                                                                              years. This family is composed
s. Whistles are considered signals                                                                                                                                                                                        of what we commonly call
used to regulate group organiza-                                                                                                                   Dolphins Parade, by Jean Lamy, oil on wood, 80 x 55cm                  dolphins. There are over 30 dif-
tion and function. The study of                                                                                                                    www.jean-lamy.com                                                      ferent species in this family, the
dolphin whistles has included the                                                                                                                                                                                         largest of which is the Orca, or
categorization of whistle con-                                                                                                                                                                                            killer whale. One of the smallest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          know dolphin is Hector’s dol-
                                                                                                                                                       the distinctiveness of indi-      close “alliance” and had         phins, Cephalorhynchus hec-
                                                                                                                                                       vidual whistling repertoires      all reached the same point       tori, with a length of only 1.4 m.
                                                                                                                                                       decreased such that the           on one particular shared         Delphinids are characterized by
                                                                                                                                                       three males were practi-          whistle form which they          sharp, cone shaped teeth; most
                                                                                                                                                       cally indistinguishable by        had only rarely produced         (but not all) possess a semi-
                                        Wavesample from 525ms to 680ms shows amplitude modulation in pilot whale                                       the end of the study. The         before the forming the alli-     circular fin on the back and a
                                        SOURCE: HTTP://HOME.SNAFU.DE/ULISSES/ANALYSIS/SPEC2.HTM#NEXT0
                                                                                                                                                       three males had formed a          ance.                            “melon”, i.e. a rounded waxy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          mass found in the head that is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          thought to play a part in the
                                                                                                                                                        Getting behind the technical terms:                               focusing of sound signals. This
                                                                                                                                                        What is amplitude modulation really?                              “melon” is joined to a distinct
                                                                                                                                                        The amplitude of a sound wave (below) is the maxi-                beak. Dolphins are found in
                                                                                                                                                        mum amount by which the instantaneous sound                       most sea of the world from the
                                                                                                                                                        pressure differs from the ambient pressure. One cycle             arctic to tropical regions.
                                                                                                                                                        corresponds to the frequency (tone)




                                                                                                                                                        Amplitude modulation (AM) is the process of varying         Modulated amplitude
                                                                                                                                                        the amplitude of a sound, often periodically. An exam-      Click here to hear example of AM.
                                                                                                                                                        ple of AM is the violinist’s Tremolo, where the amplitude   Requires Quicktime plugin and online con-
                                                                                                                                                        of the vibrating string is rapidly altered by a movement    nection. Example from Simon Fraser University
                                                                                                                                                        of the bow.                                                 500 Hz carrier, 50 Hz modulator, raising the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    depth of modulation from 0 to 100%.



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ecology                                                The only way to determine
                                                         a dolphin’s gender in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dolphins
                                                                                                                                                                                                           More than 30 species
Dolphin sex                                             wild is to see a clear view                                                                                                                        Dolphins, whales and por-
— now we got your attention, huh?                         of their genitals, or to                                                                                                                         poises are placed in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                           scientific order Cetaceans.
The staff at the Dolphin research center                observe an erection, act of               Playing games                                                                                            Cetus is Latin and is used in
in Florida, USA (www.dolphins.org) has                 intercourse, or a calf swim-               Much of the amorous                                                                                      biological names to mean
been breeding bottlenose dolphins for                                                             activity between dol-                                                                                    “whale”. It’s original mean-
many years and has become experts                      ming close to an adult pre-                phins includes chasing                                                                                   ing, “large sea animal,”
within this field. They tell the following of             sumed to be a female.                   each other around and                                                                                    was more general. It comes
sex and reproduction in bottlenose dol-                                                           raking each other with                                                                                   from the Greek word ketos
phins: dolphins have no secondary sex                                                             their teeth.                                                                                             (“sea monster”).
characteristics.                                   Females also have a set of slits hous-            Dolphins have a ten-                                                                                     Cetology is the branch
   The only way to determine a dolphin’s           ing the mammary glands. These slits            dency to get lazy look-                                                                                  of marine science associ-
gender in the wild is to see a clear view          flank either side of their genital slit.       ing eyes and lay on their                                                                                ated with the study of ceta-
of their genitals, or to observe an erec-          Occasionally females will have extra false     sides, sinking like a log,                                                                               ceans.
tion, act of intercourse, or a calf swim-          sets of mammary slits. These extra slits are   when they are feeling
ming close to an adult presumed to be a            generally non-functional and could be          amorous. This seems to                                                                                   Shapes and form
female.                                            a hold over from the dolphin’s terrestrial     be the height of erotic                                                                                  Cetaceans are the mam-
                                                   ancestor.                                      behavior for a dolphin.                                                                                  mals most fully adapted
Spotting the difference                                                                              The more dominant                                                                                     to aquatic life. Cetaceans
Males have two slits that look similar to an       Doing it anytime                               dolphin is usually found                                                                                 are nearly hairless, and are
exclamation point. The long anterior slit          There is no actual mating season for dol-      beneath the more pas-                                                                                    insulated by a thick layer
houses the genital region, while the small-        phins. They mate 365 days a year, just like    sive, which is playing the                                                                               of blubber. As mammals,
er posterior slit houses the anal region.          humans. Ninety percent of their mating         “floating log”.                                                                                          cetaceans have these
Two small pores are present on either side         activity, however, is foreplay. Intercourse                                                                                                             characteristics that are
of the genital-anal slit, which have been          only takes seconds.                                                                                                                                     common to all mammals:
considered possible vestigial nipples.                Males become sexually mature
Females have one continuous slit which             between 5 to 13 years of age. Females                                                                                                                    — They are warm-blooded
houses both the anal and genital open-             become sexually mature a little sooner                                                                                                                     animals.
ings, the anus being towards the posterior.        at around 9 - 14 years of age.                                                                                                                           — They breathe in air
                                                                                                                                                                                                              through their lungs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            — They bear their young
         It can be difficult to tell the difference between males                                                                                                                                             alive and suckle them
         and females but females have mammary slits                                                                                                                                                           on their own milk.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            — They have hair - though
          Male                                                                                                                                                                                                generally only a few
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ‘whiskers’.
                                                                                                  Whenever, whoever
                                                                                                  Dolphins are indiscrimi-                                                                                 Another way of discerning
                                          Navel                                                   nately amorous. They                                                                                     a cetacean from a fish is
                                                                                                  have sex with the opposite gender, the          this type of behavior to learn about sex as well         by the shape of the tail. The
                                    Genial slit                                                   same gender, and engage in mastur-              as to maintain strong social bonds for many sorts        tail of a fish is vertical and
                                                                                                  bation with inanimate objects. Female           of cooperative activities. Dolphins must maintain        moves from side to side
                                       Mammary                                                    dolphins have been observed suctioning          a streamlined body to move efficiently through           when the fish swims. The
                                           slits                                                  things (like plates) to their genital region    the ocean. Therefore, male dolphins have both            tail of a cetacean - called
                                                                                                  when they are feeling amorous. They also        their penis and testicles packed inside their body.      a “fluke” - is horizontal
                                                                                                  seem to enjoy buzzing on each others’           On mammals, testicles are usually found outside          and moves up and down
                                   Anus
                                                                                                  slits using echolocation. What are the          the body since sperm dies at body temperature.           instead.
                                                                                                  possible reasons for this type of behav-        Dolphins compensate for the extra heat that their
                                                                                                  ior—as it is not just leisure? It is believed   testicles must endure by utilizing a special feature
                                                            Female                                that dolphins may possibly engage in            of their circulatory system.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FREE back
Pregnancy                                                   in the mother’s womb. These                                                                                                                                        issues
Recent research indicates that bot-                          bands will slough off after mul-
tlenose dolphin pregnancy lasts about 12                      tiple weeks. Newborn dolphins
months. During this time, there is very little                  are very dark in color. It is pos-
room in the uterus for a baby to develop.                       sible that this dark shading is
As a result, and to make birth easier, the                           used for camouflage as                                                                                           Adolescent
tail fluke and dorsal are cartilaginous and                                the baby travels in                                                                                      dolphins also
are folded over in the uterus. The organs                                      the mother’s                                                                                    congregate in
are also located beneath the develop-                                           shadow. This                                                                            separate groupings called
ing baby, which could be the reason                                             coloration is        every twenty minutes or more                         juvenile pods. This will occur once a
for a female gaining more girth during            also sloughed off after multiple weeks.            for 24 hours a day. In the first few                  calf is old enough to leave its mother.
pregnancy and not developing a bulge.                                                                weeks of life this can be in more fre-               Each female dolphin seems to have a
Mothers double their intake of food fol-          Learning to breathe                                quent intervals. They nurse, on average,         unique mothering style. Each female dol-            CAYMAN ISLANDS, Bloody
                                                  When calves are new to the world, they                                                                                                                  Bay Wall, Freediving World Records, Coral
lowing the birth of their babies. Intervals                                                          a minimum of two years but have been             phin seems to have a unique mothering               Spawning, Innerspace, Wrecks of Narvik
between calves vary from about three to           have to get used to their bodies not only          observed to nurse up to four and a half          style. Some mothers are very protective             Norway, Siberian Cave Diving, Tagging
five years.                                       swimming, but also breathing. They have            years. Calves have many fringes along            parents, while others seem more relaxed             Whalesharks, Cabilao. Link: X-RAY #5
                                                  to get comfortable with where their blow-          the edges of their tongue, believed to be        with letting their calves explore. These
Calves                                            hole is. As a result, calves do something          an aid in nursing. Calves apparently roll        variations have also been observed in
Calves are usually born tail first, weigh 25-     called chin slap breathing, which involves         their tongue and clasp the fringes togeth-       the wild.
40lbs, and are generally three to four feet       taking its head farther out of the water           er in order to form a watertight funnel for
long. We can get an approximate idea              than necessary to breathe.                         the milk to flow through. Mothers take the
of how old a baby is by looking at the              Echolocation is an ability that babies           active role in nursing by squirting the milk     Dolphin Culture
dorsal fin. It is thought that the dorsal fin     have to learn how to use over time. For            into the baby’s mouth.                           – a case for better conservation?
stiffens within a few hours. The tail flukes      this reason babies end up with a few cuts
seem to take a bit longer.                        and scrapes within the first weeks of life.        Maternity pods                                   There is increasing evidence that culture
   A calf swims in a position next to its           Due to the need to look out for a                Groupings of females with calves are             is an important determinant of behavior             PACIFIC NORTH WEST AMERICA.
mother called the echelon position.               clumsy calf, you sometimes see mothers                         naturally occurring in the wild.     in some non-human species including                 Vancouver Island, Puget Sound, Neah
The calf swims in this position to catch          “steering” their calves away from                              The groupings are called mater-      great apes and whales and dolphins.                 Bay, Alaska, Honduras Sharks, Amous
                                                  what might be considered                                                                                                                                Nachoom, Jon Gross, Apeks, Fish Sense
mom’s slipstream, allowing the calf not                                                                          nity pods. It is important to have      Recently, a team of Canadian, British
                                                  a danger. Calves                                                                                                                                        Link: X-RAY #4
to work as hard in order to keep up with                                                                        other females available to a          and American researchers lead by Dr.
its mother. When calves are born they             nurse an aver-                                             mother dolphin. Female dolphins          Hal Whitehead of Novo Scotia, Canada,
have lighter colored bands spanning their         age of about                                              have been seen assisting in birth,        has argued that at least in some cases,
mid section. These are called                                                                             and more consistently as “baby-             there may be repercussions for popula-
fetal bands and are                                                                                     sitters” or “aunties” helping to rear         tion biology and conservation in dolphins
derived from being                                                                                    young dolphins. One of the best ways a          and whales. This may of course depend
scrunched up                                                                                         female dolphin can learn how to care for         on how “culture” is defined.
                                                                                                     a calf is to be around a baby and other             Dr. Whitehead and his team follows
                                                                                                     more experienced females. Adult male             the definition that “culture” is information
                                                                                                     dolphins generally do not appear around          or behavior, shared by a population or              MALAYSIA. Coralreeefs after the Tsunami,
                                                                                                     females unless mating. Male dolphins             subpopulation, which is acquired from               Whale beachings, Tragedy in South
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Africa, Nemo’s Nose: The Science of Fish
                                                                                                     tend to congregate in groups of two or           conspecifics through some form of social            Fashion, Ice Diving in Russia. Todd
                                                                                                     three and sometimes form what is known           learning’.                                          Essick Link: X-RAY #3
                                                                                                     as a pair bond.                                     A ‘‘population’’ could in these cases
                                                                                                                                                      include the whole species, and ‘‘subpop-
                                                                                                     Bonded for life                                  ulation’’ any subdivision of a population
                                                                                                     Pair bonded males will stay together for         which contains at least a few individuals
                                                                                                     an extended period, if not all, of their         in each set. Dr. Whitehead and his team
                                                                                                     lives. Male dolphins play no role in raising     argue that culture can affect behavioral
                                                                                                     their young. In fact, male dolphins have         and population biology, and thus conser-
                                                                                                     been known to be a threat to the calf.           vation issues, in ways that are importantly
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Diving in the Himalayas, Swimming
                                                                                                                                                                                                          with Orcas in Norway, El Dorado in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Philippines, Gaansbai in South Africa
                                                 NO
                                                   OA                                                                                                                                                     Link: X-RAY#2

     60   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005     EDITORIAL            FEATURES         TRAVEL         NEWS          EQUIPMENT           BOOKS         SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                  EDUCATION           PROFILES      PORTFOLIO           CLASSIFIED
different from those traditionally                                          “Dall’s Porpoise”
expected from a model that only                                               Carved and painted red cedar cutout
includes genetic inheritance.                                                       wall panel. By Odin Lonning. Read
Culture is very varied, and this                                                      more about his current works in
variation has implications for its                                                       both traditional and contempo-
interactions with conservation.                                                           rary media about his tributes
                                                                                            to the killer whale on his
                                                                                              website:
Horizontal or
                                                                                              www.odinlonning.com
vertical culture
For instance, contrasts have often
been drawn between horizontal’
cultures, where transmission is
between members of the same
generation, and vertical or
oblique cultures where animals
learn behavior from parents or
other members of previous gen-
erations.
   Horizontal cultural
transmission can be
                                               dolphins, and, com-
                                               pared to primates and
                                               songbirds, a lack of
                                                                             sophisticated non-
                                                                             human imitator. This
                                                                             social learning seems
                                                                             to have led to culture,
                                                                                                                                 ���                                                     �����������������




highly effective in                            knowledge on behav-           of various types. Among
quickly changing                               ior, communication            the baleen whales (subor-
population behavior         Culture is very and social structure,            der Mysticeti), there are several
in adaptive ways, an
example being the
                                                          strong evi-
                           varied, and this there is for cetacean
                                               dence
                                                                             known cases of horizontally trans-
                                                                             mitted cultures.
rapid decrease in the        variation has cultures in the four best
use of certain chemi-      implications for studied species , and            Humpback song                                                                     �������������������������������������
cals by humans once                            some most interest-          The best understood horizontal
they are shown to be        its interactions ing speculations for           culture of cetaceans is the mat-
toxic.                      with conserva- some of the others - for         ing song of the male humpback
   Conversely, vertical                        instance on spinner          whale.
cultures, like some reli-         tion.        dolphins, Stenella lon-         At any time during the winter
gions, can be highly                           girostris.                   breeding season, all the males
conservative and can                              Sophisticated social      in any ocean sing more or less
constrain adaptive                              learning abilities exist,   the same elaborate song, but
responses to environ-                           at least in bottlenose      this communal song evolves over
mental change.                       dolphins and orcas.                    months and years. Songs in differ-
                                                                            ent oceans at any time are differ-
Cetacean Culture                      Social learning                       ent but follow the same general
Dr. Whitehead and his team            Of the several types of social        syntactical and evolutionary rules.                                                                              �������������
argues that by these criteria,        learning which have been rec-            Horizontal cultures are also
culture is quite common among         ognized, imitation is often singled   found in the suborder Odontoceti,
animals, especially those that are    out as being particu-                                   the toothed
more cognitively advanced, such       larly significant for the                               whales and dol-
as the dolphins.                      propagation of cul-        Of the several types of phins. An exam-
   However, in most of the species
possessing recognized cultural
                                      ture.
                                        The bottlenose dol-
                                                                  social learning which ple is the dead-
                                                                                              salmon carrying
capacities, only a small propor-      phin can imitate both      have been recognized, fad of the well-
tion of behavior seems to be          vocally and nonvo-         imitation is often sin- studied southern                                                                            ����������������
determined by social learning,        cally and has been                                      resident, fish-eat-
and much of this may be func-         shown to understand        gled out as being par- ing, orcas of the
tionally neutral.                     the broad concept            ticularly significant Puget Sound                      ���� ��������� ��������� ����� ������� ���� ���������� ��������� �����������        ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
   Despite difficulties in studying   of imitation. Some                                      area of the
the behavior of the whales and        consider it the most       for the propagation of northeast Pacific.                �������������������������������������������������������������������������
                                                                                                                          ������� ������ ��� �������� ���������� �� �� ������� �������� ����� ���� ��������
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ������� ����� ����� ������ �������� ����� ���� ����� ������������ ��� ����
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ����������������������������������������������
                                                                         culture.                                         ������������������������������������                                                ���������������������������������������������



    61   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005    EDITORIAL        FEATURES         TRAVEL         NEWS        EQUIPMENT           BOOKS       SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                                   EDUCATION                   PROFILES              PORTFOLIO                  CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                    CORAL_Dirt_Day_8.25x10.875.qxd 11/19/04 1:25 PM Page 1


The famous K-Pod                       Cooperation with humans                  has been suggested that this divi-
It began with a female in K-Pod        In Brazil there are at least two         sion was originally cultural. At low-
carrying around a dead salmon          cases where some, but not all,           er levels, ‘‘communities’’, ‘‘clans’’
in 1987, spread to the other two       bottlenose dolphins in a com-            and ‘‘pods’’ of orcas may differ
pods in the southern resident          munity have a long-standing and          in vocalizations, foraging behav-
community over a 5–6 week              complex cooperative relationship         ior and social behavior, but often
period and then stopped. It was        with local fishers which are almost      have overlapping ranges.
noted a few times the following        certainly vertically transmitted
summer, and then never again.          between generations of both dol-         Sperm whales too
Probably more significant from         phins and fishermen.                     The complex, stable and sympat-
the conservation perspective are          The population of orcas off the       ric vocal and behavioral cultures
vertically or obliquely transmitted    west coast of Canada is clearly          of orca groups have no known
cultures.                              structured at a number of hier-
                                       archical levels, and much of this
                                                                                parallel outside humans. The
                                                                                closest analog is with the sperm
                                                                                                                                                                         It’s called
Populations of all the                 structuring seems to be cultural. At     whale, whose society is also ar-
                                                                                ranged into a multi-level hierar-
well-studied odon-
tocetes are cultur-
ally struc-
                                       the highest level, different types
                                               of orca (‘‘residents’’ and       chy, at least two levels of which
                                                                                may support cultural differences
                                                                                                                                                                   Earth Day.
                                                            ‘‘transients’’)
tured                                                             are sym-      among sympatric groups: the ap-
                                                                     patric,    proximately 10-member ‘‘social
                                                                       but      units’’ and ocean-wide ‘‘clans’’
                                                                                with thousands of members each.
                                                                                    Dr. Whitehead and his team
                                                                                concludes that we have heard
                                                                                                                                                     That’s not to say
                                                                                arguments that if we are at the
and
subpopu-                                                            show
                                                                                stage of conserving non-human
                                                                                cultures, then the real conserva-                                  we need to treat it
lations with distinct                                      sufficient differ-   tion battles have already been
cultural trait groups are                    ences in feeding behavior,         won. Dr. Whitehead and his team
often sympatric. Among the
bottlenose dolphins of Shark
                                           vocalizations, social systems,
                                        morphology, and genetics that
                                                                                disagree. For a range of non-
                                                                                human animals, culture is a vital                                            like Dirt Day.
Bay, Western Australia, there are      they may be incipient species. It        determinant of phenotype, and
at least four distinctive foraging                                              so how the animals interact with
specializations, at least some of                                               humans and our cultural artifacts.
which are likely transmitted verti-     For a range of non-human                Thus, culture should be an inte-
cally from mother to daughter.                                                  gral element of the conservation
Similar population structure by
                                        animals, culture is a vital             biology of these species: cultural
foraging specializations is found in    determinant of phenotype,               organisms behave very different
other dolphin communities, for           and so how the animals                 than those for which culture has
instance in cases of human dol-                                                 little significance.
phin fishing co-operatives.             interact with humans and
                                                                                                     At lower levels, “communi-
                                           our cultural artifacts                                   ties”, “clans” and “pods” of
                                                                                                   orcas may differ in vocaliza-
                                                                                                                                                          After more than thirty years, we thought it was time that the other 72% of the planet got some attention. Which is why we’re
                                                                                                   tions, foraging behavior and
                                                                                                       social behavior, but often                         asking people to Dive In To Earth Day the week of April 18 to 24. So grab some friends and install a mooring, do a reef survey,
                                                                                                      have overlapping ranges.                            or organize an underwater cleanup. Everybody into the water. For more information, visit www.coral.org or call (415) 834-0900.




    62   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005     EDITORIAL         FEATURES          TRAVEL        NEWS         EQUIPMENT              BOOKS       SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                          EDUCATION                         PROFILES                    PORTFOLIO                       CLASSIFIED
      O
Section pinions
                                                              Letters &
                                                                                                                                                        security, including vehicle checkpoints to       local communities are provided with both
                                                                                                     Holdays behind fences?                             get into the resort. But while the authorities   an income and a sense that tourists are
                                               All perspectives expressed in this                    I think not                                        are right to crack down on terrorism, and        guests who visit on an equal footing with
                                               section are those of the individu-
                                               al author and do not necessarily                                                                         the proposed fence will be out of sight of       locals. Creating resorts that facilitate such
                                               reflect the views of X-RAY MAG                        In an effort to improve security for tourists in   the tourist areas, do we really want to take     encounters will help to knock down any
                                               or its associates                                     Sharm El Sheikh, Egyptian authorities intend       a holiday behind a barricade? Sharm has          perceived divides between cultures rather
                                                                                                     to build a 20km fence around Sharm                 already turned into a tourist ghetto, where      than creating them in the first place is
                                                                                                     This summer three bombs exploded in                tourists and locals live separately and a        ultimately the way to overcome the “us



                               comments
                                                                                                     Sharm, killing 88 people, including 11             wall or fence will only make this division       and them” divide that is already afflicting
                 Edited by                                                                           Britons, wounding about 150 others. Yet this       more stark.                                      resorts such as Sharm. Fences are for pris-
               Peter Symes                                                                           hasn’t dampened our enthusiasm; Sharm                And if Sharm is fenced off, what’s next?       oners and prisoners we will not be.
                                                                                                     is more popular than eve and this winter           Terrorists may just target other nearby
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Jaime
                                                                                                     the tour operator Thomson will be flying           resorts such as Nuweiba, Dahab or Taba.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Huddersfield, England
                                                                                                     15 charters a week into Sharm, which is            We can’t erect fences everywhere, nor
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (no surname supplied)
Sinai: Build bridges, not barriers                                                                   more than double from last year. Only this
                                                                                                     year, the tourists will encounter heightened
                                                                                                                                                        should we. We need tourism where locals
                                                                                                                                                        and visitors are well integrated, where
                                                I am publishing the story of this special
I read in on X-ray magazine’s website
                                                safari trip in at least one magazine i am
about the new “Berlin wall” around              working for in Israel, and I hope it will help
                                                                                                                                                                    Enough of the hypocracy                    imported from South East Asia. There
Sharem El Sheikh. As an Israeli that is         people to make the decision, to fight their                                                                         Japan should admit its whaling pro-        have been some success in reducing
familiar with the conflict from within,         fears, get out of the sofa - in front of the                                                                        gram is a total farce. They have for       this number through farming turtles
and as a diving instructor, photogra-           T.V. where they show us mostly the bad                                                                              years maintained its scientific whaling    domestically in China and in mak-
pher, journalist and most of all nature         news, to go to Sinai to travel, to dive,                                                                            program is about real science, while       ing the Chinese government and
lover I would like to tell a short story.       to enjoy the beauty of nature and life,                                                                             it has been glaringly obvious to just      public more sensitive to the fact that
                                                together with our neighbours from the                                                                               about everyone else what was really        these species are threatened. But the
                                                other side of the border.                                                                                           going on. Now genetic testing has          reports that turtle markets in China
About one month ago I was leading A                                                                                                                                 confirmed that the blue whale, one         appear to be changing and that
group of nine Israeli divers on A diving           We are all sharing the same future. we                                                                           of the world’s most endangered spe-        the Chinese seem to be taking to
Safari to the Ras Mohamed National Park         all share the same beautiful Red Sea, and                                                                           cies, is being sold at Japanese fish       farmed turtles should be viewed with
in the south of Sinai. I went there with a      I believe after all we all love Dolphins.                                                                           markets. Blue whale is one of the spe-     extremely guarded optimism.
Israeli group under very strong recommen-       There are only a few extremists on each                                                                             cies Japan is not allowed to kill under    The demand in the market is still too
dations from the Israeli ministry of defence    side, and we shouldn’t give them the                                                                                International Whaling Commission           high to be met from China’s own
NOT to go down to Sinai during this time        pleasure and bring hate or fear into our                                                                            (IWC) rules.                               farming which has resulted in the
as there are many warnings about terrorist      hearts. They want us to stay home scared,                                                                                                                      recent inclusion of Red Crowned
organization that are intending to kidnap       and to hate the other side.                                                                                         Charles Hook                               Turtles (Kachuga kachuga) in the red
tourists in Sinai (and especially Israelis).       We should fight them without weapons,                                                                            San Diego, United States                   list of IUCN.
                                                only with our spirits and love and we will
  After many cancellations and doubts           win in the end. At least that what I felt                                                                                                                      Sonia Singhani,
we finally made the 3 hours drive from our      when those beutifull peaceful creatures                                                                             Turtles go into soup too                   Mumbai, India
border in Eilat to the harbor in Sharem El      were swimming with us right next to that                                                                            Dear X-Ray Magazine,
Sheikh safely. We went on board with the
lovliest egyptian crew and on the second
                                                huge broken war machine that lies on the                                                                            Thank you for taking such a clear          Pollux or Polluce?
                                                ocean floor.                                                                                                        stance on the issue with Disney serv-      Your article on the Polluce - page 56
day of the journey when we arrived to                                                                                                                               ing shark fin soup at their Hong Kong
                                                I don’t think Sinai is anymore dangerous                                                                                                                       - states:
the world famous Thistlegorm wreck, we                                                                                                                              resort. Unfortunately sharks are not
                                                then anywhere else on the planet, neither                                                                                                                         “Nigel Pickford lists it as the treasure
received the most beautiful gift we could                                                                                                                           the only species threathened by
                                                does Israel. please come and visit us!!!                                                                                                                         of Pollux in his authoritative Treasure
imagine from Nature: six wild dolphins                                                                                                                              culinary practices in the region. If
                                                For me it is very important that people                                                                                                                          Altas, so it is well known. However
came to play with us, and swam around                                                                                                                               endangered species of Indian turtles
                                                around the globe will know that there are                                                                                                                        there has been much confusion
us for long minutes which happennes very                                                                                                                            also seem to vanish, them being a
                                                many Israelies and Egyptians that are sick                                                                                                                       about the names Pollux and Pol-
rarely in the Thistlegorm. They where so                                                                                                                            delicacy in Chinese cuisine has very
                                                and tired of that war, and are searching                                                                                                                         luce. Pollux has to a large extent
close and so lovely as you can see in the                                                                                                                           much to do with it. The demand for
                                                for peace, underwater and above, and                                                                                                                             been the one that got stuck in the
picture



  No!
                                                                                                                                                                    turtle meat in the Chinese market has        minds of people but wrongly so. The
                                                            sometimes even find it...                                                                               reached such a level that it has land-       Pollux is a vessel that were lost in the
                                                           My best to you                                                                                           ed these species in serious trouble.         beginning of the 1800’s. One refer-
                                                                                                                                                                    Moreover, they make a detour via             ence tells that Ferdinand IV, King of
                                                           Yonatan Mir                                                                                              Kolkhata (Calcutta) and Bangladesh           the Two Sicilies, fleeing Napoleon’s
                                                           Eilat, Israel                                                                                            to reach Chinese kitchens. A survey          advancing forces as they were in-
                                                                                                                                                                    done in 1999 in South China had              vading Naples, loaded his treasures
                                                                                                                                                                    revealed that 70 per cent turtles were       aboard an English sailing ship, and
                                                           I believe our love for nature and
                                                           diving can be a bridge.

     63   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005      EDITORIAL            FEATURES           TRAVEL         NEWS   EQUIPMENT          BOOKS          SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                     EDUCATION              PROFILES         PORTFOLIO              CLASSIFIED
  sent it northwards, towards a friendly
  port.”
   I have Pickford’s book and it says
POLLUCE – it does however state 1806
and talk about fleeing Napoleon’s
forces. Could you please clear this up
for me? Could he have meant: 1841,
POLLUCE and the traditional story of
the 1841 Polluce?
   Help! I’m so confused!!                 paddles. It wasn’t a sailing ship of
                                           course but something else. It took us         Eating fish - or not
Kathy Cunningham                           more than a year to find out that a           Your editorial on our consumption
(no adress supplied)                       ship went missing between Marseille           of tuna and it is implications for
                                           and Naple just looking the timetable.         the dwindling stocks was right on.
Enrico Cappeletti replies:                 This ship was the Polluce belonging to
                                                                                         Finding substitutes or solutions will
                                           the Rubattino Company, Genoa, She
                                           was bought in Le Havre in 1839 and
                                                                                         not be easy.
Kathy, is a good question.                                                                  In the meantime there are ab-
 Even the great Pickford made a mis-       entered service on the line in April
                                           1841.                                         solutely no excuses that we don’t
take. I spoke few times with him and
he learned about the mistake. He              The story that circulated on Elba          put an immediate stop the indul-
mentions the POLLUCE- the ship went        was telling about a golden trolley. We        gence in exotic species just on
down june 17, 1841 at 11.45 pm. She        found out in Marseille in an old new-         culinary reasons when the fishing
had on board a lot of coins in silver      paper that Della Rocca princess had           practises wreck havoc with the
and gold.                                  onboard her trolley.                          ecosystems in the seas. Orange
   If you go in our website www.hdsi-          But there is more to the mystery          Rought costs about the same as
talia.com you can see all the pictures     about this ship. Why did Polluce
                                                                                         smoked salmon and is served up
I shot October 10 -31th during the sal-    already in 1859 come under the eyes
                                           of the treasure hunters? Why did the
                                                                                         in the smartest restaurants. But
vage operation of what was left after                                                    although Orange Roughy may
a group of illegal english treasure        owner try to salvage the ship in Oct
                                           1841? Why did English, Swiss, French          seem a luxurious treat for the well-
hunters. Polluce was a ship of Sardinia
Reign. She sailed on the Marseille-Na-     and Germans come to the waters                off, bringing it to the table comes
ples route twice a week. We spent          off Elba island water to give it a try?       at a horrendous price.
three year to understand that was          How come the greatest the treasure
the same ship that an anglo-italian        hunter in the world didn’t touch her
team broke to pieces.                      while someone in the United Kingdom
   Polluce is the name in Pickford’s       was was able to buy the histroical
Treasure Atlas. But the date is wrong.     information? Why aren’t there any
Pickford, as others before and after       evidence of the vessel in the Italian
him, relayed a story that went all over    historical database? How much was
                                           really on board? From what we can              Orange Roughy. Illustration from New
the island (Elba) about a Spanish sail-                                                   Zealand’s Ministry of Fisheries
ing ship that in 1806 carried a treasure   gather from the latest information it
belonging to the king of Naples. Few       was much more than first assumed.
                                               The four english divers went on           It is fished by bottom-trawling
miles from Elba—and this was at that
                                           trial in UK. They were fined for £ 2500,      in which trawls suspended from
time when Napoleon was exiled on
the island—she sunk herself in order to    that’s all. They smashed the only             factory-size fishing vessels are
not fall into the hands of the French.     treasure ship we had in our waters            dragged violently along the sea-
As this story goes this ship was Pollux,   and nobody can do anything about              bed while their metal plates, nets
or Polluce in Italian.                     what happened. They were backed               and rollers ploughs everything
   When we found the ship, it was          up by some Italian and one French             up in their path. But the hauls
                    made of iron              guy and they will go on trial in Janu-     bring up nothing more than a
                        and with                        ary 2006.
                                                                                         small catch of deep sea fish while
                                                              Next summer we will
                                                              go back to collect
                                                                                         breaking huge areas of tonnes
                                                               what is left. Mean-       of ancient coral. Like with the
                                                                while I have ten         shark fin issue please help pressure
                                                                  month to discover      fishmongers and restaurants not to
                                                                  what else might        stock these fish.
                                                                  be inside that ship.
                                                                                         Robert Smith
                                                              regards                    United Kingdom
                                                             Enrico Cappeletti

     64   X-RAY MAG : 8 : 2005       EDITORIAL            FEATURES            TRAVEL         NEWS         EQUIPMENT              BOOKS   SCIENCE & ECOLOGY   EDUCATION   PROFILES   PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED

								
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