A Guide to OIE Laboratory Twinning Projects
Introduction to Twinning
Contents The rapid cross continental spread and wide
occurrence of major animal diseases, such as
Introduction to Twinning ........................................... 1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI),
OIE Standards (the Codes and Manuals) ................ 3 bluetongue and foot and mouth disease has
highlighted the need for a global approach to
Scope of the Twinning project .................................. 3
Transboundary Animal Disease (TAD) diagnostics,
Principles for selecting Parent and Candidate surveillance, and control. It is clear that, with the
Laboratories ............................................................ 4 current levels of global movements and trade, an
Roles of the Parent Laboratory, Candidate outbreak of a TAD – in any one country - can be a
Laboratory and the OIE............................................ 4 threat to the whole international community.
Submission of proposals for OIE-supported Successful containment and control of TADs and
Twinning projects ..................................................... 5 widely disseminated diseases will only be achieved
through a global rapid response.
Project plan .............................................................. 6
Exception report ....................................................... 6 For control to be effective it is essential that,
through accurate diagnosis, disease is detected
Budget request ........................................................ 6
early, promptly reported to the international
OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE financial community, and that standardised, internationally
support ..................................................................... 7 approved control measures are applied
Assessment of laboratory material needs ................ 7 appropriately with minimum delay.
Guidance for training ................................................ 7 Accurate and early disease detection allows
Monitoring ................................................................ 8 measures to be implemented at a time when the
disease situation is more amenable to control,
Reporting requirements............................................ 9
ensuring that resources are used more efficiently
Financing arrangements and payments .................. 9 and that direct losses are kept to a minimum. Early
Verification of expenditure........................................ 9 warning of a possible risk situation allows
neighbouring regions to be vigilant and ultimately
Premature termination of project .............................. 9
reduces the risk of further disease spread.
Project closure ........................................................ 9
On a regional level, early detection and effective
Post-project review................................................... 10
control depends on access to expertise and reliable
Annexes laboratory diagnostic facilities. On a global scale
there is a need for such facilities and expertise to
Annex 1: Mandatory documents............................... 11 be distributed evenly so that all countries and
Annex 2: Project plan ............................................... 11 territories can readily access it.
Annex 3: Budget template ........................................ 12 To allow safe trade in animals and animal products,
Annex 4: The final project report .............................. 13 trading countries must have confidence in
surveillance programmes and testing regimes used
Annex 5: Timeline for Twinning projects................... 13
to support claims of disease freedom. This requires
expertise and reliable internationally approved
diagnostic procedures and tests.
International standards and guidelines for the A recent example of the successful application of
control, detection and diagnosis of major animal Twinning on a large scale was the European Union
diseases are developed and set by the OIE on the (EU) enlargement programme. Over 1000 Twinning
basis of scientific principles. This supports the projects were implemented to assist accession
requirement of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary countries in meeting and maintaining the standards
Agreement of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) required for entry into the EU.
that ‘sanitary measures should be scientifically
justifiable’. All Members of the OIE are obliged to The OIE laboratory Twinning programme will create
comply or move towards compliance with these opportunities for developing and in-transition
international guidelines and standards that are countries to develop scientifically competent
prescribed in the OIE Codes and Manuals for laboratory diagnostic methods and progress towards
terrestrial and aquatic animals. The standards for meeting the standards of the OIE. This will be
diagnostic tests are laid down in both the achieved through individual Twinning projects. The
Terrestrial and Aquatic Diagnostic Manuals. OIE eventual aim is to create more OIE Reference
Reference Laboratories uphold these and act as Laboratories in areas that are currently under-
centres of expertise for specific diseases, whereas represented.
OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise
in a specific designated sphere of competence (for Although the ultimate aim is for Candidate
example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.). OIE Laboratories to reach OIE Reference status, it is
Standards are continually reviewed, through acknowledged that this will be beyond the scope of
debate, and then adopted by consensus of the some projects. In such cases, Twinning will bring
International Committee at the OIE General Session the laboratory closer to OIE Reference Laboratory
each year. status by improving standards in specific selected
Through the strength of their veterinary services,
Members of the OIE need to be scientifically Each Twinning project is a partnership between an
competent and have sufficient capacity to: OIE Reference Laboratory (or an OIE Collaborating
Centre demonstrating specific laboratory expertise
• Debate the scientific justification for standards to OIE standards) and a Candidate Laboratory. The
on an equal footing with other Members. Reference Laboratory provides the Candidate
Laboratory with technical support, guidance and
• Where appropriate, conduct risk analyses as a
basis for establishing and justifying national
Objectives for each Twinning project are jointly
• Readily apply the guidelines and standards. agreed by the OIE and the two participants. The
guiding or parent OIE Reference Laboratory and its
At present the expertise and diagnostic capacity designated expert will be the driving force, ensuring
provided through Reference Laboratories is located the success of the project. The flow of expertise
mainly in developed countries. This bias leads to a would favour the Candidate Laboratory, but the
geographical distribution favouring the northern relationship should be mutually beneficial. Links
hemisphere. There is a need for a more even spread should be formed between staff at all levels.
both in terms of geography and countries’
development status. The concept should be flexible and adaptable to a
range of situations, from, as a first step, helping to
Capacity and expertise needs to be extended to reporting reliable diagnostic results to eventually
developing and in-transition countries so that they achieving the level required to become an OIE
can become self-sufficient in effective surveillance Reference Laboratory. Twinning aims to harmonise
and control, and able to provide reliable evidence procedures but not necessarily replicate them and
to certify animals and animal products as ‘safe for needs to be adapted to existing systems in the
trade’. Candidate Laboratory.
Twinning The benefits from the Twinning project should be
sustainable, remain long after the project has
Twinning essentially involves creating and closed and lead to the maintenance and further
supporting a link that facilitates the exchange of development of expertise in the region. Ideally the
knowledge, ideas and experience between two relationship between the two laboratories should be
parties. It has been adopted by the OIE as a a long and lasting one.
method for improving laboratory capacity and
expertise in developing and in-transition countries. To increase the chances of success the project
should focus on limited, well defined, achievable
and measurable outputs. Clear-set benefits are OIE Reference Laboratories are designated to
realised throughout the project allowing it to be pursue all the scientific and technical problems
divided into stages with set outputs from each relating to surveillance and control of a named
stage. Progress can be monitored through disease on the OIE list. The Expert, responsible to
achievement of these goals. the OIE and its Members with regard to these
issues, should be a respected and active scientist.
The World Fund for Animal Health and Welfare, The Reference Laboratory provides scientific and
managed by the OIE and supported by donors, will technical assistance, advice and training for OIE
provide financial support for Twinning projects. Member laboratories. They may also coordinate
This is to support and sustain the link between the scientific and technical studies in collaboration
two participating laboratories for the duration of an with other laboratories or organisations (see OIE
approved project and ensure an effective transfer of Mandate and Internal Rules for Reference
expertise and capacity to the Candidate Laboratory. Laboratories available on the OIE website at
It is not an objective of Twinning to fund the http://www.oie.int/eng/OIE/organisation/en_LR.htm?e1d8.
purchase of laboratory hardware. However, the
Twinning project may include an assessment of the OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise
needs for such hardware, so that other resources – in a specific designated sphere of competence (for
beyond those provided for Twinning – can be example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.).
Scope of the Twinning project
Twinning is part of the wider OIE initiative to
improve the capacity of Veterinary Services in The scope of subjects covered by Twinning is wide;
developing countries; it therefore has synergy with objectives of individual projects may range from
the OIE Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) improving capacity in a specific technical area to
programme. improving capacity for a group of diseases. For
example, one laboratory may have a requirement for
OIE Standards improving its capacity to sequence avian influenza
type A viruses, whilst another laboratory may wish
OIE Standards are recognised by the World Trade to improve its pig viral diagnostics. The project
Organization as reference international sanitary should always be relevant to the needs of the
rules and are laid down in four texts: the Terrestrial area/region in which the Candidate Laboratory is
Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic situated. The length of the project will depend on
Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, the the project’s scope; OIE Twinning projects have a
Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of minimum duration of 1 year and a maximum of
Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The Codes 3 years.
relate to rules that Members can use to protect
themselves from the introduction of diseases and To maximise the impact of the project it is
pathogens via trade, without setting up unjustified important to select realistic, achievable objectives
sanitary barriers. The OIE standards for laboratory where significant improvements can be made.
testing and vaccination of terrestrial and aquatic Choosing objectives that are too ambitious will
animals are laid out in the Manuals. introduce a risk of project failure and may further
reduce the operational performance of a laboratory.
Early, rapid and accurate detection of disease It is important to focus on improving specific
followed by immediate reporting to the international techniques within the Candidate Laboratory’s
community are primary and essential steps for technological capability. This will form a solid
effective control of TADs. For most OIE listed platform on which to build.
diseases, clinical diagnosis alone is not sufficient
to confirm infection in animals. Reliable laboratory Although some Twinning projects will result in the
diagnostics are therefore essential for disease Candidate Laboratory reaching OIE Reference
control and safe trade. Laboratory status, this will not be possible or
advisable in all cases. In some cases Candidate
Assurances about the quality and validity of Laboratories may attain OIE Standards only in
laboratory results can be provided when laboratories specific areas of work, for example a limited range
comply with OIE Standards. These Standards also of diagnostic tests.
ensure international harmonisation of laboratory
diagnostic techniques; they are upheld by OIE
Principles for selecting Parent and Roles
The OIE Reference Laboratory (Parent
The success of a Twinning project depends on the Laboratory)
selection of appropriately matched laboratories and
well defined achievable objectives. The Parent OIE Reference Laboratory and the
designated expert(s) from that laboratory are the
The project relies on the support and governance of driving force, ensuring the success of the Twinning
National Veterinary Services. It is essential that the agreement.
Delegates overseeing the two laboratories involved
and the respective laboratory Directors support and The expert at the Parent Laboratory is the project
agree to such a Twinning arrangement. manager. He/she may decide to nominate a project
leader who will be responsible for the activities of
Twinning aims to expand the OIE Laboratory the Parent Laboratory.
network of expertise to areas where there is a need.
The need may be influenced by the disease The Parent Laboratory agrees on the project
situation, features of animal production systems in proposal and work plan with the Candidate
that area, or it may be based on a risk assessment. Laboratory and submits this to the OIE Central
Candidate Laboratories should be in a region where Bureau in Paris.
expertise and capacity is currently deficient.
The Parent Laboratory is responsible for the
A tried and tested relationship has a good chance implementation and use of the financial resources
of being sustainable and successful. Twinning supporting the Twinning project.
between laboratories that already have a good
relationship should be encouraged. Candidate Laboratory
A Parent Laboratory must have the required level of The Candidate Laboratory should be fully
expertise and capacity relevant for the Twinning committed to improving its capacity and expertise
project. A Parent Laboratory must be an OIE with the eventual aim of reaching OIE standards, in
Reference Laboratory for the disease in question or compliance with the Terrestrial or Aquatic Manuals.
an OIE Collaborating Centre with specialist
laboratory expertise to OIE Standards. Although the Parent Laboratory is the driver of the
project, the Candidate Laboratory, being the
Candidate Laboratories should have the real beneficiary, owns the end result that has been
potential to make significant improvements in achieved through the partnership.
terms of capacity and expertise. They will need
adequate facilities and infrastructure, and the will The expert (or someone he/she nominates) at the
to improve. The resources for administering the Candidate Laboratory is project leader for activities
project and for training must be considered at both of the Candidate Laboratory.
the Parent and Candidate Laboratory.
The partnership will require effective and reliable
communication links between the two laboratories
The OIE Central Bureau provides support and
coordination for the overall Twinning programme.
The Scientific and Technical Department will
The location of the Candidate Laboratory is
collate the proposed projects and applications for
important. It should be located where transport
referral to the Biological Standards Commission or
links are reliable and where there are unlikely to be
Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission.
serious delays in transporting material across its
national borders. It is important that diagnostic
The OIE will make sure that technical and financial
material and equipment can be transported to and
controls, outlined in the mutual agreement between
from the laboratory safely and effectively with
the participating laboratories, are applied and
comply with the requirement of the donors
If the project is to succeed, goals that are set at the
outset must be realistic and attainable.
The OIE will initiate and facilitate negotiations
between the OIE and potential financial donors to
The selection of Twinning partnerships should be
further assist Twinning projects.
transparent and open.
The Biological Standards Commission or in the Delegates of the Member Countries or Territories
case of aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal and Directors of both institutes.
Health Standards Commission is responsible for
reviewing and approving applications for Twinning • The details of the Delegates, laboratories and
projects. the responsible experts at the Parent and
Candidate Laboratories. If the responsible expert
The OIE World Fund for Animal Health and Welfare leaves or is replaced, the OIE needs to be
provides financial support for OIE Twinning informed of this and agree to the change.
• Curriculum Vitae of the experts at the Parent
Submission of proposals for OIE- and Candidate Laboratory.
supported Twinning • A project plan (including timetable and all the
points covered in Annex 2).
Initial approach and project brief
• A budget proposal (Annex 3).
A Candidate or Parent Laboratory may express
interest in taking part in a Twinning project. This The application dossier should be submitted in one
initial approach should be accompanied by a of the official languages of the OIE (English,
‘project brief’, which may be in the form of an French or Spanish). A hard copy and an electronic
email or letter to the OIE Central Bureau. This is a copy should be sent to the Director General of the
brief description of the reasons for the project and OIE.
the benefits that the project will provide. It should
summarise the justification or ‘mandate’ for the Consideration of selection criteria guidelines and a
project. This should also be sent or copied to the statement of clear, measurable and achievable
Delegate(s) overseeing the laboratory. objectives will improve the chances of a successful
If the Candidate Laboratory has a good relationship
with a relevant OIE Reference Laboratory or has a The budget proposal should be drafted in
particular laboratory that it wishes to twin with then accordance with the template (Annex 3). There will
this should be clearly stated. The Parent Laboratory not be scope for funding expenditure outside of the
must be an OIE Reference Laboratory or agreed final budget.
Collaborating Centre with relevant expertise.
Evaluation of proposal
In other cases, where a Parent Laboratory has not
been indicated by the Candidate Laboratory and the The proposal will be considered by the Biological
initial interest is supported, the OIE may suggest a Standards Commission or, in the case of aquatic
suitable Parent Laboratory, depending on the animal diseases, the Aquatic Animal Health
specific request, location, and disease situation. Standards Commission. In certain circumstances
where the OIE agrees that there is an urgent need
Following receipt of the project brief, the OIE will to approve a Twinning project, the procedure may
advise on further action. be ‘fast-tracked’. In such cases this will involve
referral to the elected President of the Biological
Project proposal Standards Commission or, in the case of aquatic
animal diseases, the President of the Aquatic
Any Candidate or Parent Laboratory that has the Animal Health Standards Commission.
support of the Delegate can submit a project
proposal to the OIE following submission of a To cater for the variable nature of Twinning
project brief. The OIE may advise on factors that projects, the evaluation process will consider each
make it unlikely for the application to be application on a case-by-case basis.
successful; this might include duplication with an
existing or proposed Twinning project in the region. Feedback following evaluation and project
The potential Parent Laboratory should submit the
project proposal to the Director General of the OIE.
The OIE will consider each proposal and respond by
accepting the proposal, seeking further clarification
The Twinning proposal should include:
or rejecting the proposal. In the case of the latter,
the OIE may give a reason for the failed
• An official letter signed by the official OIE
If the proposal is accepted then the project should An example might be a dramatic increase in sample
be initiated without undue delay. shipping costs.
Project plan The OIE will consider the report and communicate
on further action.
The project plan describes what the project
objectives are exactly and how they will be met, at Budget request
what cost, when and by whom. It houses the details
of the project and will be a reference point A budget for the project is agreed between OIE and
throughout the project. the Twinning participants. An initial draft budget is
jointly submitted by the Parent Laboratory and
The plan should emphasise the key areas of work Candidate Laboratory as part of the project
where improvements will have a significant impact proposal. It must reflect the subjects and activities
on the overall benefits of the project. outlined in the project plan.
The project should be divided into stages with The budget should fit the template in Annex 3 and
defined measurable outputs from each stage. should be subdivided into subjects and activities. A
Examples may include the completion of a subject is a general item (e.g. training) whereas an
workshop or the attainment of a certain level of activity is more specific (e.g. a workshop); each
competence in a laboratory procedure. At the end activity forms a budget line. An activity should be
of each stage it is important to hold a review to an isolated cost, i.e. separate and not linked to any
assess project progress and address any other costs in the budget plan.
outstanding issues. This would include checking
that targets have been met, assessing budgetary The budget should be in the currency of the
expenditure, considering project risks and planning Candidate Laboratory country.
for the next stage. Any lessons that have been
learned should be used to improve the project. For Following review of the draft budget by the OIE, it
future reference, it is important to summarise the will be accepted, returned with comments or
review in a brief written report. rejected. If it is accepted, the draft becomes the
final version. If it is returned with comments, the
In some cases changes will need to be made to the Parent Laboratory has the opportunity to consider
plan as priorities shift or as project issues arise. and submit a revised version.
Examples may include the validation of a new
technology or procedure (e.g. a better laboratory A budget will only be allocated to activities for
test) not accounted for in the project plan, which financing is requested and where those
developments in the disease situation, or changes activities are eligible for funding.
to the political, commercial or legislative
environment. The project plan is a dynamic The following are examples of eligible costs:
document and needs to be continually updated.
Any changes to the project plan should not take • Travel costs and per diem for experts visiting the
expenditure outside the project budget. Parent or Candidate Laboratory to participate in
activities directly related to the Twinning
Significant changes to the project plan, affecting project. Travel costs, including per diem, must
the overall project or budget, should be submitted be in line with current OIE rules (contact OIE for
to the OIE for approval before being adopted. guidance).
An outline of what the project plan should include • The costs of laboratory reagents that are directly
is shown in Annex 2. linked to the Twinning project. This includes
reagents used for practical training activities,
Exception report assessments, and ring trials.
If a serious ‘exceptional’ issue is encountered that • Shipping of diagnostic material directly related
affects the overall project or budget, the OIE should to the Twinning project.
be notified immediately by way of an ‘exception’ or
‘deviation’ report. The report should provide a full • Training activities and material such as
description of the problem and identify stationery specifically for seminars, excluding
recommended actions. certain items such as printers, IT equipment,
paper, ink for printers. Details of the training
activity and specific costs must be submitted.
It is not an objective of Twinning projects to When planning a workshop it is important that
directly provide funds to equip laboratories with participants are chosen for their experience and
hardware or building materials. However, a expertise or are chosen from a specific related area
Twinning project may include an assessment of the of work. Learning material must be relevant. The
laboratory’s needs for additional hardware. objectives of the training activity should be clearly
defined at the outset so that suitable participants
The OIE will provide guidance and advice for can be selected. In deciding on suitability of
participants wishing to make an application for participants, it may help to review an applicant’s
Twinning. However there will not be financial CV or a brief biography.
support for the preparation of proposals.
Links between staff
OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE
To maximise the benefits and to avoid the risk of
financial support knowledge gaps, it is important that strong links are
formed between staff of the Parent and Candidate
Some laboratories may wish to apply for OIE Laboratory at every level. Whilst the experts are
Laboratory Twinning without making a request for involved with high level expertise and management,
financial support from the OIE; for example they other laboratory staff, researchers and technicians
may receive funds from their own country. In such have hands-on, day-to-day experience in essential
cases a budget does not need to be submitted. technical and practical activities. Knowledge will
However the project should comply with all other be shared more effectively through direct links
aspects of OIE Laboratory Twinning, in particular between people.
monitoring of outputs and performance.
Assessment of laboratory material
needs The approach to training and the training material
should take into account factors such as the
During the Twinning project, the Parent Laboratory language spoken in the laboratory, cultural issues,
may make an assessment of the material needs of technological capability and budget. Some of these
the Candidate Laboratory. This will take into will be limiting factors and will need to be
account the expertise at the Candidate Laboratory, considered in the early planning stages of the
the level of expertise required to use the equipment project.
and the capability to maintain and run the
equipment. Training trainers
Funding for purchase of laboratory hardware will It is important that people are trained in a way that
not be provided by the OIE Twinning budget. allows them to disseminate expertise to their
However, an assessment of material needs may colleagues and to stimulate debate in their own
help the Candidate Laboratory to source other region. This involves selecting suitable attendees
external funding or use existing funds to maximum with good communication skills who are in a
benefit. position to pass on their knowledge. The training
activities should take this into consideration, when
Guidance for training relevant, by incorporating teaching skills into the
work programme and sharing training material
suitable for wider dissemination.
Training will be an inherent part of the Twinning
project and must contribute to the overall
objectives of the project. The nature of training Assessment
activities may include day-to-day communication
on specific issues, sharing of scientific It is essential to assess that training is meeting the
communications, comments on draft papers, short expectations of the participants. This may be
secondments between laboratories, participation in achieved through a pre- and post-training
technical meetings and conferences, and structured questionnaire that allows suggestions about how
workshops. Training should focus on developing training could be improved. Accurate and useful
self reliance in the Candidate Laboratory. feedback is more likely when questions are
carefully considered and participants have the
Training activities should be regularly evaluated to opportunity for anonymity and are provided with a
assess that the objectives are being met so that set convenient time to complete the questionnaire.
improvements can be made, when necessary. This should be done as close to the training as
possible or during the training period.
To assess whether training is having the desired Monitoring expenditure
effect it may be helpful to evaluate the level of
competence of those being trained. This Actual spending should be documented regularly
assessment may be informal. throughout the project (see ‘verification of
During a secondment, a member of staff at either
laboratory spends time at the other laboratory on It is important to be realistic and have an
detached duty. Examples include for ‘hands on’ awareness of factors that may hamper project
training or for the assessment of material needs progress and increase project costs. These risks
and working practices in the Candidate Laboratory. may be present from the beginning of the project or
Secondments that are part of the Twinning project arise after it has started.
must have direct benefits for the Twinning project.
Every Twinning project is likely to encounter project
Secondments should be well planned. Specific risks. An awareness of potential project risks is the
needs should be discussed in advance of the first step to avoiding them.
secondment period to allow a plan to be
constructed and, if necessary, materials to be Before starting and during the project it is
sourced. The maximum length of a secondment important to:
supported by OIE is usually 3 months, with the
possibility to repeat this once. • Identify project risks;
• Consider the impact that they may have on the
Monitoring project if they occur;
Monitoring is essential to ensure that the project • Consider how likely they are to occur;
remains within its scope, realises its benefits and
• Consider what action can be taken to minimise
uses its financial resources effectively.
Monitoring performance • Document tentative contingency plans to be
used should an identified risk occur.
To ensure that the project achieves its objectives in
the set period it is important to regularly monitor An example of a project risk may be the occurrence
progress and take corrective action when necessary. of a disease outbreak in the country of the Parent
Underperformance needs to be identified as early Laboratory, which would require prioritisation of
as possible to minimise the impact on the project. resources for controlling the outbreak. This could
Performance should be monitored by the have a big impact on the project if it were to occur
achievement of predefined set goals within the before a training workshop or if the outbreak were
project timeframe. prolonged. The likelihood of this occurring may be
difficult to predict, or in some cases it may be
To facilitate monitoring, the project plan can be easier to predict where reoccurrences of disease are
divided into stages; at the end of each stage a frequent or if the disease occurs seasonally. Action
product is delivered. Examples of a product or may include planning alternative training
output may include completion of a workshop, arrangements or scheduling training for times when
publication of a training manual, or attainment of a outbreaks are less likely to occur.
certain level of competence in a diagnostic
procedure. These should be set to a timetable. The above example of a project risk has potential
benefits in terms of training. It might provide the
At the end of each stage a review should take place opportunity for the Candidate Laboratory to gain
led by the expert (or someone he/she nominates) at experience in scaling-up diagnostic capacity and
the Parent Laboratory; this can be brief and working in the face of a disease outbreak. The point
informal. The review provides the opportunity to is that the risk should be considered before it
‘take stock’, summarise the achievements of the occurs. In this example when an outbreak occurs,
previous stage, and, if targets haven’t been met, to there may not be time to plan who should visit from
understand why so that action can be taken. It is a the Candidate Laboratory, for how long and what
good idea to document this and it is important to activities they will participate in. However with prior
reflect any necessary changes in the project plan. consideration and planning, the secondment may
be relatively straightforward to arrange at short
Other risks that need to be considered may include transferred to the Parent Laboratory when the
political factors, such as the frequent replacement project is initiated. The remaining budget will be
of the Chief Veterinary Office or Chief Executive of transferred to the Parent Laboratory over the course
the laboratory concerned. of the project, following receipt of interim, annual
and final reports.
Many, but not all risks can be identified prior to
starting the project. It is important to regularly Any budget that remains unspent at the close of
monitor risks and evaluate them as they arise. A the project must be refunded to the OIE.
convenient time to do this is at the end of each
defined stage of the project. Verification of expenditure
If a risk becomes an issue that may affect the
It is important that financial expenditure complies
whole project or budget then the OIE must be
with the project plan, budget and eligibility rules.
notified immediately (see Exception report).
In certain circumstances the OIE may require that a
Reporting requirements post-project audit is carried out. Therefore, all
financial records and detailed accounts, including
As a minimum the Parent Laboratory should – after evidence of expenditure (receipts etc.) must be
agreement with the Candidate Laboratory – submit kept available for at least 5 years after the project
the following reports to the OIE Scientific and has closed.
Technical Department in the OIE Central Bureau,
Paris. These should be typed in one of the official The OIE may request verification of expenditure at
languages of the OIE (English, French or Spanish). any point during the project. It is very important
that financial records are kept up to date and that
• An interim report, within the first year, but at receipts of expenditure are available for a random
least 4 months after the project has started – a exceptional audit.
brief summary reflecting project progress
following initiation and expenditures to date. Any audit (exceptional or post-project) will be
carried out by authorised OIE staff or an
• Annual reports, within 1 month of the end of independent financial expert appointed by the OIE
each year from the project start date. or by a Donor in agreement with the OIE.
• A final report, as soon as possible on completion Premature termination of the project
of the project. The final reports should be jointly
prepared by the Parent and Candidate In the unlikely event that the project needs to be
Laboratory, co signed and submitted to the OIE terminated prematurely, the OIE, Candidate or
Central Bureau. The final report should include Parent Laboratory may initiate this by providing
the items listed in Annex 4. 3 months notice to the other parties, in writing.
• Post-project review, 6–12 months after project In the event of premature termination, payments for
closure. costs actually incurred or indissolubly committed
up to and including the date of termination will be
Annual and final reports must include details of reimbursed by the OIE. No payments other than
actual expenditure. these will be due to the Parent or Candidate
In addition to these reports it is recommended that
end-stage reports are documented.
Financing arrangements and payments The Parent Laboratory should immediately inform
the OIE in writing that the project has closed.
Funds will be transferred to and managed by the Within 1 month of this date, the Parent Laboratory
Parent Laboratory; payments will be made when the should submit a final report jointly prepared with
project is initiated, following an interim the Candidate Laboratory.
report/request, and after receipt of each annual
report and a final report. The size of the payments, The final project report will be the most
as a proportion of the total budget, will be comprehensive of all reports submitted over the
calculated on a case-by-case basis. As a general course of the project and should include all the
rule approximately 50% of the total budget will be information listed in Annex 4.
Post-project review opportunity to assess the medium– to long–term
benefits of the project.
The post-project review takes place 6–12 months
after the project has closed. This is important The post-project review will involve input from both
because it will identify whether the benefits of the laboratories and a report will be circulated to the
project have been achieved and whether any OIE. A representative from the OIE may attend the
unexpected problems have arisen. It provides the post-project review.
Annex 1: Mandatory documents
• Project proposal dossier – including: • Project reports – as a minimum:
• Official letter signed by Delegates of both • An interim project report
OIE Members and Directors of both institutes
• Annual project reports
• Details of the experts (including their CVs)
• A final project report
• Post-project review
• Project plan
• Budget proposal • Notification of project closure
Annex 2: The Project Plan
The project plan should include the following: • A work plan showing who is involved in which
task, including administration and budget
• Details of the two Delegates whose laboratories management.
will be participating and the Directors of the two
laboratories. • A training plan.
• The names and addresses of the two institutes. • Time tables and measurable outputs (targets)
for each stage.
• Names and contact details (address, telephone,
email and Fax) for the expert taking • Any foreseeable risks to the project.
responsibility for the project at the Parent
Laboratory and the expert taking responsibility • A communication plan – including laboratory to
at the Candidate Laboratory. In addition to the laboratory, laboratory to OIE, frequency of
expert at the Parent Laboratory, if a project project updates/end stage reviews.
leader has been nominated, they also should be
identified. • Provisions for shipment of samples in
accordance with the requirements for postage
• Name(s) of the disease(s) and topic(s) that will and packaging of biological materials described
be covered by the Twinning project. in chapter 1.4.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal
• Proposed start date and length of the project.
• A budget broken down into specific subjects and
• A short and concise summary of the objectives. activities (see template at Annex 3 for
• Detailed description of how each objective will
Annex 3: Budget proposal for an OIE Laboratory Twinning
• Recipient (laboratory A)
• Animal Disease (name of disease) Boxes to be filled in by the applicant
• Currency (specify)
• Application (name)
Prepared by (contact details)
Budget Proposal for an OIE Laboratory twinning between
(name of laboratory A), (name of country A)
(name of laboratory B), (name of country B)
Unit Amount Nb. Sub-total
Expert 1 (name)
Travel (From A to B or from B to A) -
Daily Allowance (from day of arrival to day of departure) -
Expert 2 (name)
Travel (From A to B or from B to A) -
Daily Allowance (from day of arrival to day of departure) -
Meetings / Workshops
(up to 10 persons, max. 2 meetings per year)
Number of invitees
Organisation cost -
Per diems -
Number of invitees
Organisation cost -
Per diems -
Consultant fees -
(e.g. Preparation of call for tender for laboratory equipment)
Laboratory Material Needed for Training including reagents, -
Hardware equipment is NOT eligible
Annex 4: The final project report
The final report must be submitted within 1 month • Description of activities including training,
of the project closing. It should be jointly prepared, secondments, workshops, joint research and
and signed, by the Parent and Candidate publications, sharing of diagnostic material,
Laboratories then submitted to the OIE Scientific assessments, project reviews.
and Technical Department by the Parent
Laboratory. • Situation in Candidate Laboratory at the end of
the project including the ability to maintain and
The final project report should cover the following: sustain the achieved objectives.
• Summary of the project aims and objectives set
• A final report of expenditure.
out at the start, including the justification for
• Lessons learned to improve future projects.
• Description of situation in Candidate Laboratory
at the beginning of the project and the priority • Recommendations for future projects.
areas that were selected for improvement.
• Mid– to long–term strategy for the Candidate
• Any changes that were made to the initial Laboratory and sustaining the link between the
project plan, such as a change in direction or two laboratories.
Annex 5: Timeline for Twinning projects
1. Expression of interest by Candidate Laboratory; the project plan. Ideally there will be a brief
email or letter with brief description and written report at the end of each project stage.
justification for Twinning project.
As a minimum there must be an interim report in
2. Comments from the OIE on further action. the first year, at least 4 months after the project
has been initiated, there should be an annual
3. Submission of formal application dossier to the reports, a final report and a post-project review.
in OIE response to initial interest.
7. Project closure, immediate notification to OIE.
4. Project initiation.
8. Final project report within 1 month of project
5. Length of project up to an initial estimated closure.
period of 3 years.
9. Post–project review 6–12 months after project
6. Interim and annual project reports. The closure.
frequency of project reports will be described in
de la Santé
12 rue de Prony 75017 Paris France • tel.: 33(0)1 44 15 18 88 • fax: 33(0)1 42 67 09 87 • firstname.lastname@example.org • www.oie.int