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A Guide to OIE Laboratory Twinning Projects

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					     A Guide to OIE Laboratory Twinning Projects

                                                                                    Introduction to Twinning
Contents                                                                            The rapid cross continental spread and wide
                                                                                    occurrence of major animal diseases, such as
Introduction to Twinning ...........................................            1   highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI),
OIE Standards (the Codes and Manuals) ................                          3   bluetongue and foot and mouth disease has
                                                                                    highlighted the need for a global approach to
Scope of the Twinning project ..................................                3
                                                                                    Transboundary Animal Disease (TAD) diagnostics,
Principles for selecting Parent and Candidate                                       surveillance, and control. It is clear that, with the
Laboratories ............................................................       4   current levels of global movements and trade, an
Roles of the Parent Laboratory, Candidate                                           outbreak of a TAD – in any one country - can be a
Laboratory and the OIE............................................              4   threat to the whole international community.
Submission of proposals for OIE-supported                                           Successful containment and control of TADs and
Twinning projects .....................................................         5   widely disseminated diseases will only be achieved
                                                                                    through a global rapid response.
Project plan ..............................................................     6
Exception report .......................................................        6   For control to be effective it is essential that,
                                                                                    through accurate diagnosis, disease is detected
Budget request ........................................................         6
                                                                                    early, promptly reported to the international
OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE financial                                       community, and that standardised, internationally
support .....................................................................   7   approved     control    measures  are     applied
Assessment of laboratory material needs ................                        7   appropriately with minimum delay.
Guidance for training ................................................          7   Accurate and early disease detection allows
Monitoring ................................................................     8   measures to be implemented at a time when the
                                                                                    disease situation is more amenable to control,
Reporting requirements............................................              9
                                                                                    ensuring that resources are used more efficiently
Financing arrangements and payments ..................                          9   and that direct losses are kept to a minimum. Early
Verification of expenditure........................................             9   warning of a possible risk situation allows
                                                                                    neighbouring regions to be vigilant and ultimately
Premature termination of project ..............................                 9
                                                                                    reduces the risk of further disease spread.
Project closure ........................................................        9
                                                                                    On a regional level, early detection and effective
Post-project review................................................... 10
                                                                                    control depends on access to expertise and reliable
Annexes                                                                             laboratory diagnostic facilities. On a global scale
                                                                                    there is a need for such facilities and expertise to
Annex 1: Mandatory documents............................... 11                      be distributed evenly so that all countries and
Annex 2: Project plan ............................................... 11            territories can readily access it.
Annex 3: Budget template ........................................ 12                To allow safe trade in animals and animal products,
Annex 4: The final project report .............................. 13                 trading countries must have confidence in
                                                                                    surveillance programmes and testing regimes used
Annex 5: Timeline for Twinning projects................... 13
                                                                                    to support claims of disease freedom. This requires
                                                                                    expertise and reliable internationally approved
                                                                                    diagnostic procedures and tests.



                                                                                                                                      1
International standards and guidelines for the         A recent example of the successful application of
control, detection and diagnosis of major animal       Twinning on a large scale was the European Union
diseases are developed and set by the OIE on the       (EU) enlargement programme. Over 1000 Twinning
basis of scientific principles. This supports the      projects were implemented to assist accession
requirement of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary          countries in meeting and maintaining the standards
Agreement of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)        required for entry into the EU.
that ‘sanitary measures should be scientifically
justifiable’. All Members of the OIE are obliged to    The OIE laboratory Twinning programme will create
comply or move towards compliance with these           opportunities for developing and in-transition
international guidelines and standards that are        countries to develop scientifically competent
prescribed in the OIE Codes and Manuals for            laboratory diagnostic methods and progress towards
terrestrial and aquatic animals. The standards for     meeting the standards of the OIE. This will be
diagnostic tests are laid down in both the             achieved through individual Twinning projects. The
Terrestrial and Aquatic Diagnostic Manuals. OIE        eventual aim is to create more OIE Reference
Reference Laboratories uphold these and act as         Laboratories in areas that are currently under-
centres of expertise for specific diseases, whereas    represented.
OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise
in a specific designated sphere of competence (for     Although the ultimate aim is for Candidate
example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.). OIE        Laboratories to reach OIE Reference status, it is
Standards are continually reviewed, through            acknowledged that this will be beyond the scope of
debate, and then adopted by consensus of the           some projects. In such cases, Twinning will bring
International Committee at the OIE General Session     the laboratory closer to OIE Reference Laboratory
each year.                                             status by improving standards in specific selected
                                                       areas.
Through the strength of their veterinary services,
Members of the OIE need to be scientifically           Each Twinning project is a partnership between an
competent and have sufficient capacity to:             OIE Reference Laboratory (or an OIE Collaborating
                                                       Centre demonstrating specific laboratory expertise
• Debate the scientific justification for standards    to OIE standards) and a Candidate Laboratory. The
  on an equal footing with other Members.              Reference Laboratory provides the Candidate
                                                       Laboratory with technical support, guidance and
• Where appropriate, conduct risk analyses as a
                                                       training.
  basis for establishing and justifying national
  policies.
                                                       Objectives for each Twinning project are jointly
• Readily apply the guidelines and standards.          agreed by the OIE and the two participants. The
                                                       guiding or parent OIE Reference Laboratory and its
At present the expertise and diagnostic capacity       designated expert will be the driving force, ensuring
provided through Reference Laboratories is located     the success of the project. The flow of expertise
mainly in developed countries. This bias leads to a    would favour the Candidate Laboratory, but the
geographical distribution favouring the northern       relationship should be mutually beneficial. Links
hemisphere. There is a need for a more even spread     should be formed between staff at all levels.
both in terms of geography and countries’
development status.                                    The concept should be flexible and adaptable to a
                                                       range of situations, from, as a first step, helping to
Capacity and expertise needs to be extended to         reporting reliable diagnostic results to eventually
developing and in-transition countries so that they    achieving the level required to become an OIE
can become self-sufficient in effective surveillance   Reference Laboratory. Twinning aims to harmonise
and control, and able to provide reliable evidence     procedures but not necessarily replicate them and
to certify animals and animal products as ‘safe for    needs to be adapted to existing systems in the
trade’.                                                Candidate Laboratory.

Twinning                                               The benefits from the Twinning project should be
                                                       sustainable, remain long after the project has
Twinning essentially involves creating and             closed and lead to the maintenance and further
supporting a link that facilitates the exchange of     development of expertise in the region. Ideally the
knowledge, ideas and experience between two            relationship between the two laboratories should be
parties. It has been adopted by the OIE as a           a long and lasting one.
method for improving laboratory capacity and
expertise in developing and in-transition countries.   To increase the chances of success the project
                                                       should focus on limited, well defined, achievable



 2
and measurable outputs. Clear-set benefits are           OIE Reference Laboratories are designated to
realised throughout the project allowing it to be        pursue all the scientific and technical problems
divided into stages with set outputs from each           relating to surveillance and control of a named
stage. Progress can be monitored through                 disease on the OIE list. The Expert, responsible to
achievement of these goals.                              the OIE and its Members with regard to these
                                                         issues, should be a respected and active scientist.
The World Fund for Animal Health and Welfare,            The Reference Laboratory provides scientific and
managed by the OIE and supported by donors, will         technical assistance, advice and training for OIE
provide financial support for Twinning projects.         Member laboratories. They may also coordinate
This is to support and sustain the link between the      scientific and technical studies in collaboration
two participating laboratories for the duration of an    with other laboratories or organisations (see OIE
approved project and ensure an effective transfer of     Mandate and Internal Rules for Reference
expertise and capacity to the Candidate Laboratory.      Laboratories available on the OIE website at
It is not an objective of Twinning to fund the           http://www.oie.int/eng/OIE/organisation/en_LR.htm?e1d8.
purchase of laboratory hardware. However, the
Twinning project may include an assessment of the        OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise
needs for such hardware, so that other resources –       in a specific designated sphere of competence (for
beyond those provided for Twinning – can be              example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.).
allocated appropriately.
                                                         Scope of the Twinning project
Twinning is part of the wider OIE initiative to
improve the capacity of Veterinary Services in           The scope of subjects covered by Twinning is wide;
developing countries; it therefore has synergy with      objectives of individual projects may range from
the OIE Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS)         improving capacity in a specific technical area to
programme.                                               improving capacity for a group of diseases. For
                                                         example, one laboratory may have a requirement for
OIE Standards                                            improving its capacity to sequence avian influenza
                                                         type A viruses, whilst another laboratory may wish
OIE Standards are recognised by the World Trade          to improve its pig viral diagnostics. The project
Organization as reference international sanitary         should always be relevant to the needs of the
rules and are laid down in four texts: the Terrestrial   area/region in which the Candidate Laboratory is
Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic             situated. The length of the project will depend on
Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, the          the project’s scope; OIE Twinning projects have a
Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of             minimum duration of 1 year and a maximum of
Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The Codes          3 years.
relate to rules that Members can use to protect
themselves from the introduction of diseases and         To maximise the impact of the project it is
pathogens via trade, without setting up unjustified      important to select realistic, achievable objectives
sanitary barriers. The OIE standards for laboratory      where significant improvements can be made.
testing and vaccination of terrestrial and aquatic       Choosing objectives that are too ambitious will
animals are laid out in the Manuals.                     introduce a risk of project failure and may further
                                                         reduce the operational performance of a laboratory.
Early, rapid and accurate detection of disease           It is important to focus on improving specific
followed by immediate reporting to the international     techniques within the Candidate Laboratory’s
community are primary and essential steps for            technological capability. This will form a solid
effective control of TADs. For most OIE listed           platform on which to build.
diseases, clinical diagnosis alone is not sufficient
to confirm infection in animals. Reliable laboratory     Although some Twinning projects will result in the
diagnostics are therefore essential for disease          Candidate Laboratory reaching OIE Reference
control and safe trade.                                  Laboratory status, this will not be possible or
                                                         advisable in all cases. In some cases Candidate
Assurances about the quality and validity of             Laboratories may attain OIE Standards only in
laboratory results can be provided when laboratories     specific areas of work, for example a limited range
comply with OIE Standards. These Standards also          of diagnostic tests.
ensure international harmonisation of laboratory
diagnostic techniques; they are upheld by OIE
Reference Laboratories.




                                                                                                             3
Principles for selecting Parent and                       Roles
Candidate Laboratories
                                                          The OIE Reference Laboratory (Parent
The success of a Twinning project depends on the          Laboratory)
selection of appropriately matched laboratories and
well defined achievable objectives.                       The Parent OIE Reference Laboratory and the
                                                          designated expert(s) from that laboratory are the
The project relies on the support and governance of       driving force, ensuring the success of the Twinning
National Veterinary Services. It is essential that the    agreement.
Delegates overseeing the two laboratories involved
and the respective laboratory Directors support and       The expert at the Parent Laboratory is the project
agree to such a Twinning arrangement.                     manager. He/she may decide to nominate a project
                                                          leader who will be responsible for the activities of
Twinning aims to expand the OIE Laboratory                the Parent Laboratory.
network of expertise to areas where there is a need.
The need may be influenced by the disease                 The Parent Laboratory agrees on the project
situation, features of animal production systems in       proposal and work plan with the Candidate
that area, or it may be based on a risk assessment.       Laboratory and submits this to the OIE Central
Candidate Laboratories should be in a region where        Bureau in Paris.
expertise and capacity is currently deficient.
                                                          The Parent Laboratory is responsible for the
A tried and tested relationship has a good chance         implementation and use of the financial resources
of being sustainable and successful. Twinning             supporting the Twinning project.
between laboratories that already have a good
relationship should be encouraged.                        Candidate Laboratory
A Parent Laboratory must have the required level of       The Candidate Laboratory should be fully
expertise and capacity relevant for the Twinning          committed to improving its capacity and expertise
project. A Parent Laboratory must be an OIE               with the eventual aim of reaching OIE standards, in
Reference Laboratory for the disease in question or       compliance with the Terrestrial or Aquatic Manuals.
an OIE Collaborating Centre with specialist
laboratory expertise to OIE Standards.                    Although the Parent Laboratory is the driver of the
                                                          project, the Candidate Laboratory, being the
Candidate Laboratories should have the real               beneficiary, owns the end result that has been
potential to make significant improvements in             achieved through the partnership.
terms of capacity and expertise. They will need
adequate facilities and infrastructure, and the will      The expert (or someone he/she nominates) at the
to improve. The resources for administering the           Candidate Laboratory is project leader for activities
project and for training must be considered at both       of the Candidate Laboratory.
the Parent and Candidate Laboratory.
                                                          The OIE
The partnership will require effective and reliable
communication links between the two laboratories
                                                          The OIE Central Bureau provides support and
and experts.
                                                          coordination for the overall Twinning programme.
                                                          The Scientific and Technical Department will
The location of the Candidate Laboratory is
                                                          collate the proposed projects and applications for
important. It should be located where transport
                                                          referral to the Biological Standards Commission or
links are reliable and where there are unlikely to be
                                                          Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission.
serious delays in transporting material across its
national borders. It is important that diagnostic
                                                          The OIE will make sure that technical and financial
material and equipment can be transported to and
                                                          controls, outlined in the mutual agreement between
from the laboratory safely and effectively with
                                                          the participating laboratories, are applied and
minimal delay.
                                                          comply with the requirement of the donors
                                                          involved.
If the project is to succeed, goals that are set at the
outset must be realistic and attainable.
                                                          The OIE will initiate and facilitate negotiations
                                                          between the OIE and potential financial donors to
The selection of Twinning partnerships should be
                                                          further assist Twinning projects.
transparent and open.



 4
The Biological Standards Commission or in the               Delegates of the Member Countries or Territories
case of aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal          and Directors of both institutes.
Health Standards Commission is responsible for
reviewing and approving applications for Twinning        • The details of the Delegates, laboratories and
projects.                                                  the responsible experts at the Parent and
                                                           Candidate Laboratories. If the responsible expert
The OIE World Fund for Animal Health and Welfare           leaves or is replaced, the OIE needs to be
provides financial support for OIE Twinning                informed of this and agree to the change.
programme.
                                                         • Curriculum Vitae of the experts at the Parent
Submission of proposals for OIE-                           and Candidate Laboratory.
supported Twinning                                       • A project plan (including timetable and all the
                                                           points covered in Annex 2).
Initial approach and project brief
                                                         • A budget proposal (Annex 3).
A Candidate or Parent Laboratory may express
interest in taking part in a Twinning project. This      The application dossier should be submitted in one
initial approach should be accompanied by a              of the official languages of the OIE (English,
‘project brief’, which may be in the form of an          French or Spanish). A hard copy and an electronic
email or letter to the OIE Central Bureau. This is a     copy should be sent to the Director General of the
brief description of the reasons for the project and     OIE.
the benefits that the project will provide. It should
summarise the justification or ‘mandate’ for the         Consideration of selection criteria guidelines and a
project. This should also be sent or copied to the       statement of clear, measurable and achievable
Delegate(s) overseeing the laboratory.                   objectives will improve the chances of a successful
                                                         application.
If the Candidate Laboratory has a good relationship
with a relevant OIE Reference Laboratory or has a        The budget proposal should be drafted in
particular laboratory that it wishes to twin with then   accordance with the template (Annex 3). There will
this should be clearly stated. The Parent Laboratory     not be scope for funding expenditure outside of the
must be an OIE Reference Laboratory or                   agreed final budget.
Collaborating Centre with relevant expertise.
                                                         Evaluation of proposal
In other cases, where a Parent Laboratory has not
been indicated by the Candidate Laboratory and the       The proposal will be considered by the Biological
initial interest is supported, the OIE may suggest a     Standards Commission or, in the case of aquatic
suitable Parent Laboratory, depending on the             animal diseases, the Aquatic Animal Health
specific request, location, and disease situation.       Standards Commission. In certain circumstances
                                                         where the OIE agrees that there is an urgent need
Following receipt of the project brief, the OIE will     to approve a Twinning project, the procedure may
advise on further action.                                be ‘fast-tracked’. In such cases this will involve
                                                         referral to the elected President of the Biological
Project proposal                                         Standards Commission or, in the case of aquatic
                                                         animal diseases, the President of the Aquatic
Any Candidate or Parent Laboratory that has the          Animal Health Standards Commission.
support of the Delegate can submit a project
proposal to the OIE following submission of a            To cater for the variable nature of Twinning
project brief. The OIE may advise on factors that        projects, the evaluation process will consider each
make it unlikely for the application to be               application on a case-by-case basis.
successful; this might include duplication with an
existing or proposed Twinning project in the region.     Feedback following evaluation and project
The potential Parent Laboratory should submit the
                                                         initiation
project proposal to the Director General of the OIE.
                                                         The OIE will consider each proposal and respond by
                                                         accepting the proposal, seeking further clarification
The Twinning proposal should include:
                                                         or rejecting the proposal. In the case of the latter,
                                                         the OIE may give a reason for the failed
• An official letter signed by the official OIE
                                                         application.



                                                                                                           5
If the proposal is accepted then the project should     An example might be a dramatic increase in sample
be initiated without undue delay.                       shipping costs.

Project plan                                            The OIE will consider the report and communicate
                                                        on further action.
The project plan describes what the project
objectives are exactly and how they will be met, at     Budget request
what cost, when and by whom. It houses the details
of the project and will be a reference point            A budget for the project is agreed between OIE and
throughout the project.                                 the Twinning participants. An initial draft budget is
                                                        jointly submitted by the Parent Laboratory and
The plan should emphasise the key areas of work         Candidate Laboratory as part of the project
where improvements will have a significant impact       proposal. It must reflect the subjects and activities
on the overall benefits of the project.                 outlined in the project plan.

The project should be divided into stages with          The budget should fit the template in Annex 3 and
defined measurable outputs from each stage.             should be subdivided into subjects and activities. A
Examples may include the completion of a                subject is a general item (e.g. training) whereas an
workshop or the attainment of a certain level of        activity is more specific (e.g. a workshop); each
competence in a laboratory procedure. At the end        activity forms a budget line. An activity should be
of each stage it is important to hold a review to       an isolated cost, i.e. separate and not linked to any
assess project progress and address any                 other costs in the budget plan.
outstanding issues. This would include checking
that targets have been met, assessing budgetary         The budget should be in the currency of the
expenditure, considering project risks and planning     Candidate Laboratory country.
for the next stage. Any lessons that have been
learned should be used to improve the project. For      Following review of the draft budget by the OIE, it
future reference, it is important to summarise the      will be accepted, returned with comments or
review in a brief written report.                       rejected. If it is accepted, the draft becomes the
                                                        final version. If it is returned with comments, the
In some cases changes will need to be made to the       Parent Laboratory has the opportunity to consider
plan as priorities shift or as project issues arise.    and submit a revised version.
Examples may include the validation of a new
technology or procedure (e.g. a better laboratory       A budget will only be allocated to activities for
test) not accounted for in the project plan,            which financing is requested and where those
developments in the disease situation, or changes       activities are eligible for funding.
to the political, commercial or legislative
environment. The project plan is a dynamic              The following are examples of eligible costs:
document and needs to be continually updated.
Any changes to the project plan should not take         • Travel costs and per diem for experts visiting the
expenditure outside the project budget.                   Parent or Candidate Laboratory to participate in
                                                          activities directly related to the Twinning
Significant changes to the project plan, affecting        project. Travel costs, including per diem, must
the overall project or budget, should be submitted        be in line with current OIE rules (contact OIE for
to the OIE for approval before being adopted.             guidance).

An outline of what the project plan should include      • The costs of laboratory reagents that are directly
is shown in Annex 2.                                      linked to the Twinning project. This includes
                                                          reagents used for practical training activities,
Exception report                                          assessments, and ring trials.

If a serious ‘exceptional’ issue is encountered that    • Shipping of diagnostic material directly related
affects the overall project or budget, the OIE should     to the Twinning project.
be notified immediately by way of an ‘exception’ or
‘deviation’ report. The report should provide a full    • Training activities and material such as
description of the problem and identify                   stationery specifically for seminars, excluding
recommended actions.                                      certain items such as printers, IT equipment,
                                                          paper, ink for printers. Details of the training
                                                          activity and specific costs must be submitted.



 6
It is not an objective of Twinning projects to         When planning a workshop it is important that
directly provide funds to equip laboratories with      participants are chosen for their experience and
hardware or building materials. However, a             expertise or are chosen from a specific related area
Twinning project may include an assessment of the      of work. Learning material must be relevant. The
laboratory’s needs for additional hardware.            objectives of the training activity should be clearly
                                                       defined at the outset so that suitable participants
The OIE will provide guidance and advice for           can be selected. In deciding on suitability of
participants wishing to make an application for        participants, it may help to review an applicant’s
Twinning. However there will not be financial          CV or a brief biography.
support for the preparation of proposals.
                                                       Links between staff
OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE
                                                       To maximise the benefits and to avoid the risk of
financial support                                      knowledge gaps, it is important that strong links are
                                                       formed between staff of the Parent and Candidate
Some laboratories may wish to apply for OIE            Laboratory at every level. Whilst the experts are
Laboratory Twinning without making a request for       involved with high level expertise and management,
financial support from the OIE; for example they       other laboratory staff, researchers and technicians
may receive funds from their own country. In such      have hands-on, day-to-day experience in essential
cases a budget does not need to be submitted.          technical and practical activities. Knowledge will
However the project should comply with all other       be shared more effectively through direct links
aspects of OIE Laboratory Twinning, in particular      between people.
monitoring of outputs and performance.
                                                       Flexibility
Assessment of laboratory material
needs                                                  The approach to training and the training material
                                                       should take into account factors such as the
During the Twinning project, the Parent Laboratory     language spoken in the laboratory, cultural issues,
may make an assessment of the material needs of        technological capability and budget. Some of these
the Candidate Laboratory. This will take into          will be limiting factors and will need to be
account the expertise at the Candidate Laboratory,     considered in the early planning stages of the
the level of expertise required to use the equipment   project.
and the capability to maintain and run the
equipment.                                             Training trainers

Funding for purchase of laboratory hardware will       It is important that people are trained in a way that
not be provided by the OIE Twinning budget.            allows them to disseminate expertise to their
However, an assessment of material needs may           colleagues and to stimulate debate in their own
help the Candidate Laboratory to source other          region. This involves selecting suitable attendees
external funding or use existing funds to maximum      with good communication skills who are in a
benefit.                                               position to pass on their knowledge. The training
                                                       activities should take this into consideration, when
Guidance for training                                  relevant, by incorporating teaching skills into the
                                                       work programme and sharing training material
                                                       suitable for wider dissemination.
Training will be an inherent part of the Twinning
project and must contribute to the overall
objectives of the project. The nature of training      Assessment
activities may include day-to-day communication
on specific issues, sharing of scientific              It is essential to assess that training is meeting the
communications, comments on draft papers, short        expectations of the participants. This may be
secondments between laboratories, participation in     achieved through a pre- and post-training
technical meetings and conferences, and structured     questionnaire that allows suggestions about how
workshops. Training should focus on developing         training could be improved. Accurate and useful
self reliance in the Candidate Laboratory.             feedback is more likely when questions are
                                                       carefully considered and participants have the
Training activities should be regularly evaluated to   opportunity for anonymity and are provided with a
assess that the objectives are being met so that       set convenient time to complete the questionnaire.
improvements can be made, when necessary.              This should be done as close to the training as
                                                       possible or during the training period.



                                                                                                          7
To assess whether training is having the desired        Monitoring expenditure
effect it may be helpful to evaluate the level of
competence of those being trained. This                 Actual spending should be documented regularly
assessment may be informal.                             throughout the project (see ‘verification of
                                                        expenditure’).
Secondments
                                                        Project risks
During a secondment, a member of staff at either
laboratory spends time at the other laboratory on       It is important to be realistic and have an
detached duty. Examples include for ‘hands on’          awareness of factors that may hamper project
training or for the assessment of material needs        progress and increase project costs. These risks
and working practices in the Candidate Laboratory.      may be present from the beginning of the project or
Secondments that are part of the Twinning project       arise after it has started.
must have direct benefits for the Twinning project.
                                                        Every Twinning project is likely to encounter project
Secondments should be well planned. Specific            risks. An awareness of potential project risks is the
needs should be discussed in advance of the             first step to avoiding them.
secondment period to allow a plan to be
constructed and, if necessary, materials to be          Before starting and during the project it is
sourced. The maximum length of a secondment             important to:
supported by OIE is usually 3 months, with the
possibility to repeat this once.                        • Identify project risks;
                                                        • Consider the impact that they may have on the
Monitoring                                                project if they occur;
Monitoring is essential to ensure that the project      • Consider how likely they are to occur;
remains within its scope, realises its benefits and
                                                        • Consider what action can be taken to minimise
uses its financial resources effectively.
                                                          their impact.

Monitoring performance                                  • Document tentative contingency plans to be
                                                          used should an identified risk occur.
To ensure that the project achieves its objectives in
the set period it is important to regularly monitor     An example of a project risk may be the occurrence
progress and take corrective action when necessary.     of a disease outbreak in the country of the Parent
Underperformance needs to be identified as early        Laboratory, which would require prioritisation of
as possible to minimise the impact on the project.      resources for controlling the outbreak. This could
Performance should be monitored by the                  have a big impact on the project if it were to occur
achievement of predefined set goals within the          before a training workshop or if the outbreak were
project timeframe.                                      prolonged. The likelihood of this occurring may be
                                                        difficult to predict, or in some cases it may be
To facilitate monitoring, the project plan can be       easier to predict where reoccurrences of disease are
divided into stages; at the end of each stage a         frequent or if the disease occurs seasonally. Action
product is delivered. Examples of a product or          may include planning alternative training
output may include completion of a workshop,            arrangements or scheduling training for times when
publication of a training manual, or attainment of a    outbreaks are less likely to occur.
certain level of competence in a diagnostic
procedure. These should be set to a timetable.          The above example of a project risk has potential
                                                        benefits in terms of training. It might provide the
At the end of each stage a review should take place     opportunity for the Candidate Laboratory to gain
led by the expert (or someone he/she nominates) at      experience in scaling-up diagnostic capacity and
the Parent Laboratory; this can be brief and            working in the face of a disease outbreak. The point
informal. The review provides the opportunity to        is that the risk should be considered before it
‘take stock’, summarise the achievements of the         occurs. In this example when an outbreak occurs,
previous stage, and, if targets haven’t been met, to    there may not be time to plan who should visit from
understand why so that action can be taken. It is a     the Candidate Laboratory, for how long and what
good idea to document this and it is important to       activities they will participate in. However with prior
reflect any necessary changes in the project plan.      consideration and planning, the secondment may
                                                        be relatively straightforward to arrange at short
                                                        notice.



 8
Other risks that need to be considered may include      transferred to the Parent Laboratory when the
political factors, such as the frequent replacement     project is initiated. The remaining budget will be
of the Chief Veterinary Office or Chief Executive of    transferred to the Parent Laboratory over the course
the laboratory concerned.                               of the project, following receipt of interim, annual
                                                        and final reports.
Many, but not all risks can be identified prior to
starting the project. It is important to regularly      Any budget that remains unspent at the close of
monitor risks and evaluate them as they arise. A        the project must be refunded to the OIE.
convenient time to do this is at the end of each
defined stage of the project.                           Verification of expenditure
If a risk becomes an issue that may affect the
                                                        It is important that financial expenditure complies
whole project or budget then the OIE must be
                                                        with the project plan, budget and eligibility rules.
notified immediately (see Exception report).
                                                        In certain circumstances the OIE may require that a
Reporting requirements                                  post-project audit is carried out. Therefore, all
                                                        financial records and detailed accounts, including
As a minimum the Parent Laboratory should – after       evidence of expenditure (receipts etc.) must be
agreement with the Candidate Laboratory – submit        kept available for at least 5 years after the project
the following reports to the OIE Scientific and         has closed.
Technical Department in the OIE Central Bureau,
Paris. These should be typed in one of the official     The OIE may request verification of expenditure at
languages of the OIE (English, French or Spanish).      any point during the project. It is very important
                                                        that financial records are kept up to date and that
• An interim report, within the first year, but at      receipts of expenditure are available for a random
  least 4 months after the project has started – a      exceptional audit.
  brief summary reflecting project progress
  following initiation and expenditures to date.        Any audit (exceptional or post-project) will be
                                                        carried out by authorised OIE staff or an
• Annual reports, within 1 month of the end of          independent financial expert appointed by the OIE
  each year from the project start date.                or by a Donor in agreement with the OIE.

• A final report, as soon as possible on completion     Premature termination of the project
  of the project. The final reports should be jointly
  prepared by the Parent and Candidate                  In the unlikely event that the project needs to be
  Laboratory, co signed and submitted to the OIE        terminated prematurely, the OIE, Candidate or
  Central Bureau. The final report should include       Parent Laboratory may initiate this by providing
  the items listed in Annex 4.                          3 months notice to the other parties, in writing.

• Post-project review, 6–12 months after project        In the event of premature termination, payments for
  closure.                                              costs actually incurred or indissolubly committed
                                                        up to and including the date of termination will be
Annual and final reports must include details of        reimbursed by the OIE. No payments other than
actual expenditure.                                     these will be due to the Parent or Candidate
                                                        Laboratory.
In addition to these reports it is recommended that
end-stage reports are documented.
                                                        Project closure
Financing arrangements and payments                     The Parent Laboratory should immediately inform
                                                        the OIE in writing that the project has closed.
Funds will be transferred to and managed by the         Within 1 month of this date, the Parent Laboratory
Parent Laboratory; payments will be made when the       should submit a final report jointly prepared with
project is initiated, following an interim              the Candidate Laboratory.
report/request, and after receipt of each annual
report and a final report. The size of the payments,    The final project report will be the most
as a proportion of the total budget, will be            comprehensive of all reports submitted over the
calculated on a case-by-case basis. As a general        course of the project and should include all the
rule approximately 50% of the total budget will be      information listed in Annex 4.



                                                                                                          9
Post-project review                                     opportunity to assess the medium– to long–term
                                                        benefits of the project.
The post-project review takes place 6–12 months
after the project has closed. This is important         The post-project review will involve input from both
because it will identify whether the benefits of the    laboratories and a report will be circulated to the
project have been achieved and whether any              OIE. A representative from the OIE may attend the
unexpected problems have arisen. It provides the        post-project review.


                                              _______________




 10
                                                          Annexes

                                           Annex 1: Mandatory documents
• Project proposal dossier – including:                                   • Project reports – as a minimum:

    •   Official letter signed by Delegates of both                           •   An interim project report
        OIE Members and Directors of both institutes
                                                                              •   Annual project reports
    •   Details of the experts (including their CVs)
                                                                              •   A final project report
        and laboratories
                                                                              •   Post-project review
    •   Project plan
    •   Budget proposal                                                   • Notification of project closure



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                                                Annex 2: The Project Plan
The project plan should include the following:                            • A work plan showing who is involved in which
                                                                            task, including administration and budget
• Details of the two Delegates whose laboratories                           management.
  will be participating and the Directors of the two
  laboratories.                                                           • A training plan.

• The names and addresses of the two institutes.                          • Time tables and measurable outputs (targets)
                                                                            for each stage.
• Names and contact details (address, telephone,
  email and Fax) for the expert taking                                    • Any foreseeable risks to the project.
  responsibility for the project at the Parent
  Laboratory and the expert taking responsibility                         • A communication plan – including laboratory to
  at the Candidate Laboratory. In addition to the                           laboratory, laboratory to OIE, frequency of
  expert at the Parent Laboratory, if a project                             project updates/end stage reviews.
  leader has been nominated, they also should be
  identified.                                                             • Provisions for shipment of samples in
                                                                            accordance with the requirements for postage
• Name(s) of the disease(s) and topic(s) that will                          and packaging of biological materials described
  be covered by the Twinning project.                                       in chapter 1.4.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal
                                                                            Health Code
• Proposed start date and length of the project.
                                                                          • A budget broken down into specific subjects and
• A short and concise summary of the objectives.                            activities (see template at Annex 3 for
                                                                            guidance).
• Detailed description of how each objective will
  be met.

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                                                                                                                                        11
                      Annex 3: Budget proposal for an OIE Laboratory Twinning
• Recipient                        (laboratory A)
• Animal Disease                   (name of disease)                                         Boxes to be filled in by the applicant
• Currency                         (specify)
• Application                      (name)
   Prepared by                     (contact details)
                          Budget Proposal for an OIE Laboratory twinning between
                                             (name of laboratory A),           (name of country A)
                                                                     and
                                             (name of laboratory B),           (name of country B)
(Date)/(version)
                                                                             Unit Amount         Nb.                  Sub-total
                                                                                                  Expert 1 (name)
Travel (From A to B or from B to A)                                                                                         -
Daily Allowance (from day of arrival to day of departure)                                                                   -
                                                                 Sub-total                                                  -
                                                                                                  Expert 2 (name)
Travel (From A to B or from B to A)                                                                                         -
Daily Allowance (from day of arrival to day of departure)                                                                   -
                                                                 Sub-total                                                  -
Meetings / Workshops
(up to 10 persons, max. 2 meetings per year)
                                                                                                     Meeting 1
Purpose                                                                         Place
Number of invitees
Organisation cost                                                                                                           -
Travel                                                                                                                      -
Per diems                                                                                                                   -
                                                                 Sub-total                                                  -
                                                                                                     Meeting 2
Purpose                                                                        Place
Number of invitees
Organisation cost                                                                                                           -
Travel                                                                                                                      -
Per diems                                                                                                                   -
                                                                 Sub-total                                                  -
Consultant fees                                                                                                             -
(e.g. Preparation of call for tender for laboratory equipment)
Laboratory Material Needed for Training including reagents,                                                                 -
antisera, etc.
Hardware equipment is NOT eligible
                                                                 Sub-total                                                  -
                                                                    Total                                                   -


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 12
                                          Annex 4: The final project report
The final report must be submitted within 1 month                         • Description of activities including training,
of the project closing. It should be jointly prepared,                      secondments, workshops, joint research and
and signed, by the Parent and Candidate                                     publications, sharing of diagnostic material,
Laboratories then submitted to the OIE Scientific                           assessments, project reviews.
and Technical Department by the Parent
Laboratory.                                                               • Situation in Candidate Laboratory at the end of
                                                                            the project including the ability to maintain and
The final project report should cover the following:                        sustain the achieved objectives.

• Summary of the project aims and objectives set
                                                                          • A final report of expenditure.
  out at the start, including the justification for
  the project.
                                                                          • Lessons learned to improve future projects.
• Description of situation in Candidate Laboratory
  at the beginning of the project and the priority                        • Recommendations for future projects.
  areas that were selected for improvement.
                                                                          • Mid– to long–term strategy for the Candidate
• Any changes that were made to the initial                                 Laboratory and sustaining the link between the
  project plan, such as a change in direction or                            two laboratories.
  scope.

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                                    Annex 5: Timeline for Twinning projects
1. Expression of interest by Candidate Laboratory;                            the project plan. Ideally there will be a brief
   email or letter with brief description and                                 written report at the end of each project stage.
   justification for Twinning project.
                                                                              As a minimum there must be an interim report in
2. Comments from the OIE on further action.                                   the first year, at least 4 months after the project
                                                                              has been initiated, there should be an annual
3. Submission of formal application dossier to the                            reports, a final report and a post-project review.
   in OIE response to initial interest.
                                                                          7. Project closure, immediate notification to OIE.
4. Project initiation.
                                                                          8. Final project report within 1 month of project
5. Length of project up to an initial estimated                              closure.
   period of 3 years.
                                                                          9. Post–project review 6–12 months after project
6. Interim and annual project reports. The                                   closure.
   frequency of project reports will be described in




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                                                                                                                                        13
                                                   Organisation
                                                   Mondiale
                                                   de la Santé
                                                   Animale



                                                   World
                                                   Organisation
                                                   for Animal
                                                   Health



                                                   Organización
                                                   Mundial
                                                   de Sanidad
                                                   Animal




12 rue de Prony 75017 Paris France • tel.: 33(0)1 44 15 18 88 • fax: 33(0)1 42 67 09 87 • oie@oie.int • www.oie.int

				
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