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                                                                                 Agenda Item 4.3
                                                                                6 November 2006


                                       Working Group

                                         Kobe, Japan
                                        November 2006
                 Report on Eurocontrol Surveillance activities
        (Prepared by Eric Potier, Jorg Steinleitner, Christos Rekkas,
                         (Presented by Eric Potier)

This Information paper presents a summary of surveillance activities performed by Eurocontrol
Programmes including work on Mode S, ADS, Multilateration, and other Surveillance related areas.
For Mode S implementation, the full operational use of Mode S as a sole means of surveillance is still
problematic as too many aircraft are not correctly detected in Mode S. More than 110 Mode S radar
are now being deployed in Europe. The regulation to re-enforce the IC allocation is under
development within the Single European Sky regulation framework.
 ADS-B activities are managed under the CASCADE Programme. The first RFG standard specifying
the Safety, Performance and Interoperability requirements for ADS-B-NRA is due for joint
EUROCAE/RTCA publication in December 2006 (EUROCAE ED-126). The relevant Certification
material is also being prepared. A 1090 MHz ES Ground Station technical specification (MOPS) is
being developed within EUROCAE (planned delivery in March 2007).. The ADS-B validation activities
performed in the context of the CRISTAL projects continue.
Different studies including safety analysis are currently performed to prepare the introduction of Wide
Area Multilateration systems.
The work to review the EUROCONTROL Surveillance Standard and to make it technology
independent (like RSP) is progressing well. The preparation of the European regulation to cover
Surveillance performance and interoperability is ongoing.
Finally the paper reports the delivery of the (Single European Sky ATM Research) SESAR definition
phase delivery D1 which describes the current situation of air framework network.
1.         Introduction
This information paper provides a summary of activities, performed in Europe and which may be
of interest to ASP. It includes activities on Mode S, ADS-B, Multilateration and other
surveillance activities.
During the three summer months of 2006 (June, July and August), the number of flights increased
by 4.1%, compared to the same period in 2005.
2.         Mode S Activities
2.1        Introduction
The Eurocontrol Mode S Programme is together with the Eurocontrol ACAS Programme forming
the MSA Programme.
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Mode S
Programme objective is to implement Mode S surveillance in order to improve air traffic
management (ATM) surveillance in high density European airspace where the current
surveillance systems are reaching their limits.
Mode S Programme covers the implementation of Mode S in two different steps: the Elementary
Surveillance (ELS) and the Enhanced Surveillance (EHS).
Implementation of Elementary Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance requires modification of
airborne equipment and ground infrastructure.
2.2        Airborne
2.2.1      Reminder on Airborne requirements
Aircraft shall be equipped with a level2 SI capable transponder compliant with Annex10
Amendment 77. Aircraft shall be wired in order to provide Aircraft Identification from FMS or
Control Panel to the transponder and DAPS if not equipped with analogue avionics.
Mode S revised and rationalized ELS and EHS transition arrangement was endorsed by
Eurocontrol Provisional Council on 11th January 2005. Elementary Surveillance was aligned on
Enhanced surveillance (31 March 2007 + limited exemption up to 2009).
A state aircraft transition arrangement has been agreed by Military Authorities. CMIC
EUROCONTROL Committee will follow plans and progress of implementation.
2.2.2      Certification /standard documentation current activities
EUROCAE WG-49 is continuing work on improvement of ED73 and ED101 to better cover the
testing of DAPs capability. There is a cooperation agreement with RTCA on the update of this
transponder MOPS.
2.2.3      Exemption Cell for EHS (ECC) status
To date (October 2006) there are 2374 registered as EHS compliant and 6808 exempted
(2150 not capable, 400 occasional access, 4250 delayed).

2.2.4      AMP & Transponder anomalies status
Airborne monitoring statistics performed in Europe shows the following equipping rate in August
         Flights with Transponder reporting Aircraft identification capability:    83%
         Flights announcing supporting at least one EHS parameter:                 78%
          (note: real EHS rate is lower)
Total number of Partial or total Non-detection is still unacceptably high (6/10000 flights) (see WP
ASP01-15) and slow down operational use of Mode S.
2.3          Ground
2.3.1        Radar deployment
The installation of Mode S radar continues and is spreading around the core area of Europe.
There are currently 134 Mode S sites within the IC allocation data base:
      -   104 sites allocated with an II code;
      -   6 recent applications not yet served
      -   14 test and research Mode S radar using II code 14
Shortage of II codes is now a reality. It is impossible to allocate a discrete II code to new Mode S
radar in the Core Area of Europe without conflicting with another Mode S radar (redundancy
level >20).
As a reminder every authority planning to operate fixed Mode S radars in Europe shall request IC
to EUROCONTROL IC allocation office that is doing the allocation on behalf of ICAO.

Any mobile interrogator not allocated with a discrete IC shall use II=0 when approaching Europe.

2.3.2        Further formalization of the IC allocation process in Europe.
Within the frame of the Single European Sky put in place in Europe, Eurocontrol has been
mandated to develop a draft interoperability Implementing Rule (IR) on the allocation and use of
Mode S interrogator codes. This implementing rule will address also civil military coordination.
The delivery of the Regulatory approach is almost completed and will soon be issued for
comments by stakeholders.
3.         ADS-B activities
3.1        Introduction
The prime objective of the Eurocontrol CASCADE Programme is the co-ordination of the
implementation of ADS-B Package I applications (and various data-link applications beyond
3.2        Progress on Standardisation and Certification
Standardisation covers work performed for
         Requirements Focus Group
         ICAO (SCRSP, SASP and OPLINKP)
         EUROCAE WG51-SG 4: 1090 MHz ES Ground Station “Standardisation”.
3.2.1      RFG
The Requirements Focus Group (RFG) is a joint activity between RTCA, EUROCAE, FAA and
EUROCONTROL, with additional participation form Airservices Australia and JCAB. The RFG
produces, for each of its ground and airborne surveillance applications, an Operational Service
and Environment Definition (OSED) based on which the related Safety, Performance
Requirements (SPRs) and Interoperability Requirements (INTEROPs) are defined. The SPR and
INTEROP standard material is published by EUROCAE WG51 and RTCA SC-186.
The first RFG deliverable, i.e. “Safety, Performance, and Interoperability Requirements
Document for ADS-B-NRA Application”, is due for publication pending EUROCAE Council and
RTCA PMC approval in November 2006 and December 2006, respectively.
The planning for delivery of the standard material for the other RFG applications is as follows:
 December 2007: ADS-B-RAD, ATSA-VSA and ATSA-ITP;
 September 2008: ADS-B-APT, ATSA-AIRB and ATSA-SURF.

The delivery of the ADS-B-ADD and ASPA-S&M standard material is to be further determined.

3.2.2      1090 MHz ES Ground Station Specification

EUROCAE WG51 SG4 is developing the technical specifications (MOPS-like) for an ADS-B
1090 MHz ES Ground Station. At its 4th Meeting in Paris on 20-21 September 2006, the group
discussed the CPR Encoding Implementation Issue. It was agreed that, at minimum, the Ground
Station should incorporate a means to detect large positional errors (considered to be > 40NM).
In such cases FOM=0 will be set when a jump is detected.

The development of the 1090 MHz ES Ground Station technical specification is planned to be
completed in March 2007.

3.2.3      Certification

CASCADE and its stakeholders work closely with EASA for the production of
certification material which will enable airworthiness approval for ADS-B. A draft
Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) for ADS-B in Non Radar Airspace has recently
been produced and, on the basis of this, EASA will produce the relevant certification
documentation (Acceptable Means of Compliance – AMC) in the first half of 2007.
3.3          Validation, simulations, trials and Fleet monitoring
3.3.1        Trials
The programme continues to put much emphasis on simulations and trials. One of the objectives
of the simulation and trials, in addition to their operational, technical and economical targets is to
expose controllers, pilots and decision makers to the services and applications.

The progress in standardisation and certification is enabling the validation work to enter the pre-
operational phase. The objective of the pre-operational validation phase is to achieve the
airworthiness certification of avionics by pioneer airlines and operational approval. The pre-
operational phase will thus focus on well-performing and (as soon as possible) certified aircraft in
conjunction with pre-operational ground systems on the trial sites.

The CRISTAL initiative of EUROCONTROL CASCADE. consists of validation trials, as a
means of testing the technology in real situations, focussing on “pocket areas” where the
operational needs for ADS-B applications exist and growing to cover wider regions
(“crystallisation effect”). The CRISTAL approach is based on partnerships between CASCADE
and its stakeholders (local ANSPs, airlines and industry). Sharing of results and information
maximises benefits. The CRISTAL trials seek also to make best use of the ADS-B Validation
platform at the EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre, which is the reference platform for the
validation work in Europe.

Currently, CRISTAL trials take place with stakeholders from 13 ECAC countries (see picture
below). The ADS-B standards and certification together with the CRISTAL trials will form the
bridge to a harmonised implementation of ADS-B in Europe, initially in “pocket” areas and then
on a wider scale.

    13 countries                                                                                                     CASCADE trial
  More than 20 sites
                                            NO        SE


                                        DK                                                                           CRISTAL sites/
                                                                  LT                                      KZ
                  IE                                                        BY
                                                                                                                     ADS-B Ground
                       GB                                                                                            Stations
                                  NL                       PL


                             FR        CH                   HU             RO                   GE
                                                                                                     AM                Future
        PT                                                        MK                                                   (from 2007 in
             ES                                                                       TR
                                                                 AL                                                    CRISTAL
                                                                                                                       MED Ph. 2)
                                                                                           SY             IQ

        MA              DZ             TN

From the countries involved in “ADS-B out” trials with CASCADE, one country (Sweden) will
commence operational use at Kiruna (non-radar airspace) in 2007. Moreover, the ANSPs of the
seven Mediterranean countries participating in CRISTAL MED, i.e. NAV Portugal, AENA
Spain, DSNA France, ENAV Italy, MATS Malta, HCAA Greece and DCA Cyprus have decided
to move towards operational approval readiness in a number of sites (ADS-B in non-radar
airspace or as a complement to radar) from 2008 (CRISTAL MED Phase 2, starting in November

Such validation trials are supported by 1090 ADS-B ground stations delivered by different
manufacturers. The modified ADS-B ground stations supporting multi channels capability have
now been delivered to Eurocontrol.

Simulations and trials on “ADS-B in” applications (ATSAW and Sequencing and Merging ) also
take place or is being prepared.
3.3.2      Fleet monitoring
Since February 2005, a monthly report for ADS-B equipage is published. More than 54% of the
flights are currently 1090 ES equipped and the percentage is steadily growing. The following
tables present a selection of latest monitoring data:
                                                             Mar. 2006 %     Aug. 2006 %
        Extended Squitter Statistics – ES (BDS 1.0)           of flights      of flights
        ES capability                                            42.2           54.13

                 Table 1 Statistics based on the total number of Mode-S flights

        Extended Squitter data Statistics (BDS 1.7)           Mar.2006 %     Aug. 2006 %
                                                               of flights     of flights
        ES Airborne Position set to 1      (bds 0,5)     55.54         64.19
        ES Ground Position set to 1        (bds 0,6)     44.78         56.59
        ES Status set to 1                 (bds 0,7)     57.93         67.51
        ES type and id set to 1            (bds 0,8)     66.05         72.48
        ES Airborne Velocity set to 1      (bds 0,9)     58.88         68.94
        ES Even Driven set to 1            (bds 0,A)       0             0
                Table 2 Statistics for Extended Squitter capable flights

Furthermore, CASCADE has from mid 2006 started an intensive campaign of ADS-B Airborne
Monitoring. This includes the collection of ADS-B data broadcasted by the aircraft flying over
Europe using the ADS-B Ground stations which are deployed at various sites. The aim of the
Monitoring is to assess the data content and quality of the ADS-B data versus the required
standard. This will help in creating a “white list” of well performing aircraft, identification of
anomalies and support for the fixing of problems.

3.3.3       1090 ES datalink capacity assessment (update)
ADS-B in Europe uses 1090 MHz Extended Squitter as the preferred initial technology in line
with the decisions made at ICAO ANC-11. It uses transponders that are already on board aircraft
through the Mode S and TCAS mandates for the European airspace, thus minimising investment
for airlines. 1090 MHz Extended Squitter is fully compatible with other ADS-B technology
decisions made in the United States, Canada and Australia.

Local implementations of ADS-B using VDL Mode 4 will also happen (Sweden), however these
must respect the requirement for interoperability with 1090 Extended Squitter, where necessary.
Capacity for Core Europe was studied for the last time in 2001 (TLAT). It suggested that
congestion was likely in Core Europe towards 2015, especially for airborne 1090 ES reception.
Since then, several parameters have evolved: Traffic forecasts, fruit model has been validated,
new decoding techniques are available.
A new study has been performed by CASCADE including scenario development, receiver and
fruit modelling and performance simulations for the period to 2015 and beyond. The analysis in
this report shows that the initial ADS-B applications can be supported on 1090 MHz ES
technology in even the worst postulated 2015 FRUIT environment. Furthermore if, as expected,
the ADS-B leads to partial radar decommissioning it is expected that these applications would
then continue to be supported by the 1090 datalink for a long period beyond 2015. However the
longer range “ADS-B in” applications may require a 1090 ES decoder with more advanced
capabilities than those specified in the current standards.
The majority of FRUIT generated comes from replies to radars. As such, FRUIT can be
significantly reduced by:
      Deployment of ADS-B or multilateration infrastructure
      Optimisation of the radar infrastructure
      Improved clustering of Mode S radars
      Improved cooperation between civil and military radar operators

3.4          ADS-B Pioneer Airline Project
The objective of the ADS-B Pioneer Airlines project is to provide support to airlines to achieve
airworthiness approval for their “ADS-B out” installations. This will be in accordance with the
EASA material and the relevant standards, mentioned above. The first step of this project was a
Call-for-Interest which was completed by end August. The outcome of this process was very
positive, with 15 airlines responding. The main deliverable (ADS-B NRA airworthiness approval)
for the airlines to be selected after a Call-For-Tender is planned for end 2007.
4.   Multilateration
Wide Area Multilateration is part of the EUROCONTROL Surveillance strategy. More and more
energy is invested in Deployment of Wide Area Multilateration systems in Europe to provide
surveillance service.
In addition to previous studies covering characterisation of WAM errors, analysis on how to
merge WAM data with radar data, analysis of the influence of active WAM system on
transponder occupancy Eurocontrol currently supports the following works:
           -   Establishment of validation process,
           -   Generic WAM safety analysis;
           -   Interoperability between WAM systems
           -   Support to States in producing their safety case.
In parallel EUROCAE WG-70 work is continuing developing specification for multilateration
A WAM workshop is being planned in second quarter 2007 with the aim to communicate
the current status of deployment of WAM and presents the results of a generic safety

5.   Surveillance standard Activities
The current Eurocontrol Surveillance Standard is being updated in order to define surveillance
systems requirements independent of technology compatible with an RSP approach. A first draft
will be made available soon for review.
Surveillance Performance and interoperability Implementing Rule:
Within the frame of the Single European Sky put in place in Europe, the European Commission
has mandated Eurocontrol to develop a draft interoperability implementing rule on the
surveillance performance and interoperability requirements of the European Air traffic
Management network (EATMN).
The objective is to have a draft IR by end 2007. This will probability re-use inputs from the
updated surveillance standards depending on which level of regulation is agreed during the
development of the IR. The regulatory approach is being developed by Eurocontrol.

6.   SESAR
The SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) programme is the European air traffic control
infrastructure modernisation programme. It will combine technological, economic and regulatory
aspects and will use the Single Sky legislation by synchronising the implementation of new
equipment, from a geographical standpoint in all European Union member states, as well as an
operational standpoint by ensuring that aircraft equipage is consistent with ground technological
SESAR will be run in three major phases:

         Definition Phase (2005-2008)
         Development Phase (2008-2013)
         Deployment Phase (2014-2020)
The first delivery of the definition phase, D1 - Air Transport Framework – The Current Situation,
is now completed.
It describes the current situation in terms of the major aspects which define, describe, shape &
influence the air transport industry today. D1 also addresses major benefits and shortcomings,
problems and issues associated with the current situation.