ASP/WG-B WP/ASP01-14 Agenda Item 4.3 6 November 2006 AERONAUTICAL SURVEILLANCE PANEL (ASP) Working Group Kobe, Japan November 2006 Report on Eurocontrol Surveillance activities (Prepared by Eric Potier, Jorg Steinleitner, Christos Rekkas, EUROCONTROL) (Presented by Eric Potier) SUMMARY This Information paper presents a summary of surveillance activities performed by Eurocontrol Programmes including work on Mode S, ADS, Multilateration, and other Surveillance related areas. For Mode S implementation, the full operational use of Mode S as a sole means of surveillance is still problematic as too many aircraft are not correctly detected in Mode S. More than 110 Mode S radar are now being deployed in Europe. The regulation to re-enforce the IC allocation is under development within the Single European Sky regulation framework. ADS-B activities are managed under the CASCADE Programme. The first RFG standard specifying the Safety, Performance and Interoperability requirements for ADS-B-NRA is due for joint EUROCAE/RTCA publication in December 2006 (EUROCAE ED-126). The relevant Certification material is also being prepared. A 1090 MHz ES Ground Station technical specification (MOPS) is being developed within EUROCAE (planned delivery in March 2007).. The ADS-B validation activities performed in the context of the CRISTAL projects continue. Different studies including safety analysis are currently performed to prepare the introduction of Wide Area Multilateration systems. The work to review the EUROCONTROL Surveillance Standard and to make it technology independent (like RSP) is progressing well. The preparation of the European regulation to cover Surveillance performance and interoperability is ongoing. Finally the paper reports the delivery of the (Single European Sky ATM Research) SESAR definition phase delivery D1 which describes the current situation of air framework network. 1. Introduction This information paper provides a summary of activities, performed in Europe and which may be of interest to ASP. It includes activities on Mode S, ADS-B, Multilateration and other surveillance activities. During the three summer months of 2006 (June, July and August), the number of flights increased by 4.1%, compared to the same period in 2005. 2. Mode S Activities 2.1 Introduction The Eurocontrol Mode S Programme is together with the Eurocontrol ACAS Programme forming the MSA Programme. The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Mode S Programme objective is to implement Mode S surveillance in order to improve air traffic management (ATM) surveillance in high density European airspace where the current surveillance systems are reaching their limits. Mode S Programme covers the implementation of Mode S in two different steps: the Elementary Surveillance (ELS) and the Enhanced Surveillance (EHS). Implementation of Elementary Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance requires modification of airborne equipment and ground infrastructure. 2.2 Airborne 2.2.1 Reminder on Airborne requirements Aircraft shall be equipped with a level2 SI capable transponder compliant with Annex10 Amendment 77. Aircraft shall be wired in order to provide Aircraft Identification from FMS or Control Panel to the transponder and DAPS if not equipped with analogue avionics. Mode S revised and rationalized ELS and EHS transition arrangement was endorsed by Eurocontrol Provisional Council on 11th January 2005. Elementary Surveillance was aligned on Enhanced surveillance (31 March 2007 + limited exemption up to 2009). A state aircraft transition arrangement has been agreed by Military Authorities. CMIC EUROCONTROL Committee will follow plans and progress of implementation. 2.2.2 Certification /standard documentation current activities EUROCAE WG-49 is continuing work on improvement of ED73 and ED101 to better cover the testing of DAPs capability. There is a cooperation agreement with RTCA on the update of this transponder MOPS. 2.2.3 Exemption Cell for EHS (ECC) status To date (October 2006) there are 2374 registered as EHS compliant and 6808 exempted (2150 not capable, 400 occasional access, 4250 delayed). 2.2.4 AMP & Transponder anomalies status Airborne monitoring statistics performed in Europe shows the following equipping rate in August 2006: Flights with Transponder reporting Aircraft identification capability: 83% Flights announcing supporting at least one EHS parameter: 78% (note: real EHS rate is lower) Total number of Partial or total Non-detection is still unacceptably high (6/10000 flights) (see WP ASP01-15) and slow down operational use of Mode S. 2.3 Ground 2.3.1 Radar deployment The installation of Mode S radar continues and is spreading around the core area of Europe. There are currently 134 Mode S sites within the IC allocation data base: - 104 sites allocated with an II code; - 6 recent applications not yet served - 14 test and research Mode S radar using II code 14 Shortage of II codes is now a reality. It is impossible to allocate a discrete II code to new Mode S radar in the Core Area of Europe without conflicting with another Mode S radar (redundancy level >20). As a reminder every authority planning to operate fixed Mode S radars in Europe shall request IC to EUROCONTROL IC allocation office that is doing the allocation on behalf of ICAO. Any mobile interrogator not allocated with a discrete IC shall use II=0 when approaching Europe. 2.3.2 Further formalization of the IC allocation process in Europe. Within the frame of the Single European Sky put in place in Europe, Eurocontrol has been mandated to develop a draft interoperability Implementing Rule (IR) on the allocation and use of Mode S interrogator codes. This implementing rule will address also civil military coordination. The delivery of the Regulatory approach is almost completed and will soon be issued for comments by stakeholders. 3. ADS-B activities 3.1 Introduction The prime objective of the Eurocontrol CASCADE Programme is the co-ordination of the implementation of ADS-B Package I applications (and various data-link applications beyond LINK2000+).. 3.2 Progress on Standardisation and Certification Standardisation covers work performed for Requirements Focus Group ICAO (SCRSP, SASP and OPLINKP) EUROCAE WG51-SG 4: 1090 MHz ES Ground Station “Standardisation”. 3.2.1 RFG The Requirements Focus Group (RFG) is a joint activity between RTCA, EUROCAE, FAA and EUROCONTROL, with additional participation form Airservices Australia and JCAB. The RFG produces, for each of its ground and airborne surveillance applications, an Operational Service and Environment Definition (OSED) based on which the related Safety, Performance Requirements (SPRs) and Interoperability Requirements (INTEROPs) are defined. The SPR and INTEROP standard material is published by EUROCAE WG51 and RTCA SC-186. The first RFG deliverable, i.e. “Safety, Performance, and Interoperability Requirements Document for ADS-B-NRA Application”, is due for publication pending EUROCAE Council and RTCA PMC approval in November 2006 and December 2006, respectively. The planning for delivery of the standard material for the other RFG applications is as follows: December 2007: ADS-B-RAD, ATSA-VSA and ATSA-ITP; September 2008: ADS-B-APT, ATSA-AIRB and ATSA-SURF. The delivery of the ADS-B-ADD and ASPA-S&M standard material is to be further determined. 3.2.2 1090 MHz ES Ground Station Specification EUROCAE WG51 SG4 is developing the technical specifications (MOPS-like) for an ADS-B 1090 MHz ES Ground Station. At its 4th Meeting in Paris on 20-21 September 2006, the group discussed the CPR Encoding Implementation Issue. It was agreed that, at minimum, the Ground Station should incorporate a means to detect large positional errors (considered to be > 40NM). In such cases FOM=0 will be set when a jump is detected. The development of the 1090 MHz ES Ground Station technical specification is planned to be completed in March 2007. 3.2.3 Certification CASCADE and its stakeholders work closely with EASA for the production of certification material which will enable airworthiness approval for ADS-B. A draft Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) for ADS-B in Non Radar Airspace has recently been produced and, on the basis of this, EASA will produce the relevant certification documentation (Acceptable Means of Compliance – AMC) in the first half of 2007. 3.3 Validation, simulations, trials and Fleet monitoring 3.3.1 Trials The programme continues to put much emphasis on simulations and trials. One of the objectives of the simulation and trials, in addition to their operational, technical and economical targets is to expose controllers, pilots and decision makers to the services and applications. The progress in standardisation and certification is enabling the validation work to enter the pre- operational phase. The objective of the pre-operational validation phase is to achieve the airworthiness certification of avionics by pioneer airlines and operational approval. The pre- operational phase will thus focus on well-performing and (as soon as possible) certified aircraft in conjunction with pre-operational ground systems on the trial sites. The CRISTAL initiative of EUROCONTROL CASCADE. consists of validation trials, as a means of testing the technology in real situations, focussing on “pocket areas” where the operational needs for ADS-B applications exist and growing to cover wider regions (“crystallisation effect”). The CRISTAL approach is based on partnerships between CASCADE and its stakeholders (local ANSPs, airlines and industry). Sharing of results and information maximises benefits. The CRISTAL trials seek also to make best use of the ADS-B Validation platform at the EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre, which is the reference platform for the validation work in Europe. Currently, CRISTAL trials take place with stakeholders from 13 ECAC countries (see picture below). The ADS-B standards and certification together with the CRISTAL trials will form the bridge to a harmonised implementation of ADS-B in Europe, initially in “pocket” areas and then on a wider scale. 13 countries CASCADE trial countries More than 20 sites NO SE EE LV DK CRISTAL sites/ LT KZ IE BY ADS-B Ground GB Stations NL PL UA LU Installed SK AT stations FR CH HU RO GE AZ AM Future IR stations IT PT MK (from 2007 in ES TR AL CRISTAL GR MED Ph. 2) SY IQ MA DZ TN From the countries involved in “ADS-B out” trials with CASCADE, one country (Sweden) will commence operational use at Kiruna (non-radar airspace) in 2007. Moreover, the ANSPs of the seven Mediterranean countries participating in CRISTAL MED, i.e. NAV Portugal, AENA Spain, DSNA France, ENAV Italy, MATS Malta, HCAA Greece and DCA Cyprus have decided to move towards operational approval readiness in a number of sites (ADS-B in non-radar airspace or as a complement to radar) from 2008 (CRISTAL MED Phase 2, starting in November 2006). Such validation trials are supported by 1090 ADS-B ground stations delivered by different manufacturers. The modified ADS-B ground stations supporting multi channels capability have now been delivered to Eurocontrol. Simulations and trials on “ADS-B in” applications (ATSAW and Sequencing and Merging ) also take place or is being prepared. 3.3.2 Fleet monitoring Since February 2005, a monthly report for ADS-B equipage is published. More than 54% of the flights are currently 1090 ES equipped and the percentage is steadily growing. The following tables present a selection of latest monitoring data: Mar. 2006 % Aug. 2006 % Extended Squitter Statistics – ES (BDS 1.0) of flights of flights ES capability 42.2 54.13 Table 1 Statistics based on the total number of Mode-S flights Extended Squitter data Statistics (BDS 1.7) Mar.2006 % Aug. 2006 % of flights of flights ES Airborne Position set to 1 (bds 0,5) 55.54 64.19 ES Ground Position set to 1 (bds 0,6) 44.78 56.59 ES Status set to 1 (bds 0,7) 57.93 67.51 ES type and id set to 1 (bds 0,8) 66.05 72.48 ES Airborne Velocity set to 1 (bds 0,9) 58.88 68.94 ES Even Driven set to 1 (bds 0,A) 0 0 Table 2 Statistics for Extended Squitter capable flights Furthermore, CASCADE has from mid 2006 started an intensive campaign of ADS-B Airborne Monitoring. This includes the collection of ADS-B data broadcasted by the aircraft flying over Europe using the ADS-B Ground stations which are deployed at various sites. The aim of the Monitoring is to assess the data content and quality of the ADS-B data versus the required standard. This will help in creating a “white list” of well performing aircraft, identification of anomalies and support for the fixing of problems. 3.3.3 1090 ES datalink capacity assessment (update) ADS-B in Europe uses 1090 MHz Extended Squitter as the preferred initial technology in line with the decisions made at ICAO ANC-11. It uses transponders that are already on board aircraft through the Mode S and TCAS mandates for the European airspace, thus minimising investment for airlines. 1090 MHz Extended Squitter is fully compatible with other ADS-B technology decisions made in the United States, Canada and Australia. Local implementations of ADS-B using VDL Mode 4 will also happen (Sweden), however these must respect the requirement for interoperability with 1090 Extended Squitter, where necessary. Capacity for Core Europe was studied for the last time in 2001 (TLAT). It suggested that congestion was likely in Core Europe towards 2015, especially for airborne 1090 ES reception. Since then, several parameters have evolved: Traffic forecasts, fruit model has been validated, new decoding techniques are available. A new study has been performed by CASCADE including scenario development, receiver and fruit modelling and performance simulations for the period to 2015 and beyond. The analysis in this report shows that the initial ADS-B applications can be supported on 1090 MHz ES technology in even the worst postulated 2015 FRUIT environment. Furthermore if, as expected, the ADS-B leads to partial radar decommissioning it is expected that these applications would then continue to be supported by the 1090 datalink for a long period beyond 2015. However the longer range “ADS-B in” applications may require a 1090 ES decoder with more advanced capabilities than those specified in the current standards. The majority of FRUIT generated comes from replies to radars. As such, FRUIT can be significantly reduced by: Deployment of ADS-B or multilateration infrastructure Optimisation of the radar infrastructure Improved clustering of Mode S radars Improved cooperation between civil and military radar operators 3.4 ADS-B Pioneer Airline Project The objective of the ADS-B Pioneer Airlines project is to provide support to airlines to achieve airworthiness approval for their “ADS-B out” installations. This will be in accordance with the EASA material and the relevant standards, mentioned above. The first step of this project was a Call-for-Interest which was completed by end August. The outcome of this process was very positive, with 15 airlines responding. The main deliverable (ADS-B NRA airworthiness approval) for the airlines to be selected after a Call-For-Tender is planned for end 2007. 4. Multilateration Wide Area Multilateration is part of the EUROCONTROL Surveillance strategy. More and more energy is invested in Deployment of Wide Area Multilateration systems in Europe to provide surveillance service. In addition to previous studies covering characterisation of WAM errors, analysis on how to merge WAM data with radar data, analysis of the influence of active WAM system on transponder occupancy Eurocontrol currently supports the following works: - Establishment of validation process, - Generic WAM safety analysis; - Interoperability between WAM systems - Support to States in producing their safety case. In parallel EUROCAE WG-70 work is continuing developing specification for multilateration system. A WAM workshop is being planned in second quarter 2007 with the aim to communicate the current status of deployment of WAM and presents the results of a generic safety analysis. 5. Surveillance standard Activities The current Eurocontrol Surveillance Standard is being updated in order to define surveillance systems requirements independent of technology compatible with an RSP approach. A first draft will be made available soon for review. Surveillance Performance and interoperability Implementing Rule: Within the frame of the Single European Sky put in place in Europe, the European Commission has mandated Eurocontrol to develop a draft interoperability implementing rule on the surveillance performance and interoperability requirements of the European Air traffic Management network (EATMN). The objective is to have a draft IR by end 2007. This will probability re-use inputs from the updated surveillance standards depending on which level of regulation is agreed during the development of the IR. The regulatory approach is being developed by Eurocontrol. 6. SESAR The SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) programme is the European air traffic control infrastructure modernisation programme. It will combine technological, economic and regulatory aspects and will use the Single Sky legislation by synchronising the implementation of new equipment, from a geographical standpoint in all European Union member states, as well as an operational standpoint by ensuring that aircraft equipage is consistent with ground technological evolutions. SESAR will be run in three major phases: Definition Phase (2005-2008) Development Phase (2008-2013) Deployment Phase (2014-2020) The first delivery of the definition phase, D1 - Air Transport Framework – The Current Situation, is now completed. It describes the current situation in terms of the major aspects which define, describe, shape & influence the air transport industry today. D1 also addresses major benefits and shortcomings, problems and issues associated with the current situation.
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