Nano-Deconstruction within Society Amber McElwee Issues in Science & Technology Dr. Demers March 17, 2009 What These New Technologies Are Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. It is the creation of matter, instead of building compound from those that already exist it is taking atom by atom to create new matter. Most of the time using many metallic elements; such as gold silver titanium and zinc. Combined with carbon they create what scientist call nano-bots. Their compounds can be controlled and programs to do what companies would need them for. “I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.” — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics Can be made into robots, mechanical arms, and whole computers http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/view/189?gcl Government use: listening devices, id=COfJnIrJwJgCFREhDQod1lyiaA surveillance monitors How Far it has Come 2000 BC – Egyptians used chemistry to make lead sulfide (nanocrystals) into hair dye BC - Romans made gold chloride into molten glass produced nano sized gold spheres which reflected in light as a ruby red color 1959 - The term nanotechnology is coined by Richard P. Feynman - "The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom." 1974 - First electronic device is patented by Aviram and Seiden 1980’s (early) - Development of Quantum Dots, nanosized crystals, that are semiconductor material, different sizes of the matieral had different colors and could be used in medical imaging and lasers 1985 - Bucky Balls are created, a product of 60 carbon atoms 1989 - IBM scientist Don Eigler created Scanning tunneling microscopes, not only to see at nanoscopic scale but also use them like tweezers and move single atoms at a time 1991 - Nanotubes built up together in sheets, they are 5 times less dense than steel but 50 times stronger 1990’s - Products enter the market Examples of new nanotechnology applications in personal care products include: • Penetration enhancer - Encapsulating or suspending key ingredients in so-called nanospheres or nanoemulsions, increases their penetration into the skin: • L’Oreal (which ranks No. 6 in nanotechnology patent holders in the U.S.) has used polymer nanocapsules to deliver active ingredients, e.g. retinol or Vitamin A, into the deeper layers of skin. In 1998 the company unveiled Plentitude Revitalift, an anti- wrinkle cream using nanoparticles. • Freeze 24/7, a new anti-wrinkle skincare line is planning to incorporate nanotechnology in future products. • La Prairie’s product, the Dollars 500 Skin Caviar Intensive Ampoule Treatment, claims to minimize the look of uneven skin pigmentation, lines and wrinkles in six weeks using nanotechnology. La Prairie’s vice president of retail marketing and training, Holly Genovese, says the nanoemulsions in the product “optimize the delivery of functional ingredients into the skin and allow these materials to get to the site of action quicker”. • Procter & Gamble’s Olay brand was designed with nanoemulsion technology in 2005. Other companies using nanotech in their skin products as of 2005 include: Mary Kay and Clinique from Lauder; Neutrogena, from Johnson & Johnson; Avon; and the Estee Lauder brand. • Hair products – using nanoemulsions to encapsulate active ingredients and carry them deeper into hair shafts. • PureOlogy began experimenting with nanoemulsions in 2000 when the company’s founder set out to create a product line especially developed for color treated hair. • Sunscreens – the zinc and titanium in sunscreens are “micronized”, making them transparent, less greasy, less smelly and more absorbable into the skin. • DDF planned more nanotech-enhanced anti-aging products as of 2004. • Colorescience markets a product named Sunforgettable, a powder which contains titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Paris-based • Caudalie launched its Vinosun Anti-Aging Suncare, a sunscreen and anti-aging treatment that relies on “nanomized” UV filters and antioxidants, in the US in 2003. Source: IEHN Where They Are Now • Because of their size, they are considerable fragile and their properties can alter and have “unforeseen toxic effects” • 87% of consumers are unaware of the technologies they are using • There are 67 cosmetics companies that are using nanotechnologies, only 17 comment on their uses and only 8 of them were willing to say how they use the technology This Will Affect Everyone Friends of the Earth issued a report in May 2006: “Nanomaterials, sunscreens and cosmetics: small ingredients – big risks”. The report listed a number of concrete applications taken from the Wilson Center Inventory: “Products listed in this database include deodorants, soap, toothpastes, shampoos, hair conditioners, sunscreens, anti-wrinkle creams, moisturizers, foundations, face powders, lipstick, blush, eye shadow, nail polish, perfumes and after-shave lotions. Manufacturers include L’Oréal, Estée Lauder, Procter and Gamble, Shiseido, Chanel, Beyond Skin Science LLC, Revlon, Dr Brandt, SkinCeuticals, Dermazone Solutions, and many more. (…) Nanoscale ingredients listed in the database include nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, alumina, silver, silicon dioxide, calcium fluoride and copper, as well as nanosomes, nanoemulsions and nanoencapsulated delivery systems.” [Friends of the Earth, 2006, p. 14] Many Possibilities “Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are colorless and reflect/scatter ultraviolet (UV) more efficiently than larger particles. “ Nanoparticles are insoluable and the properties are unstable and can change at any moment, therefore health risks are an issue, they also have the ability to duplicate, if this happens to the nanoparticles within the body this “gray goo matter” will be very unstable There are NO specific regulations within the Unisted States that prohibit any uses of nanomaterial whether ingested or not. There are nanomaterials within dietary supplements, even though those are ingested there is still no regulation As of right now there is only research that says nanoparticles have not yet been proven detrimental to people, and that at the moment we should simplel limit our use of them The FDA is starting to establish a system Centers for regulation in the future. There will not be an overall nano regulation there will be different categories, such as drug and device They have developed the group NanoTechnology Interest Group (NTIG) to oversee all Centers Taking A Stand The president devoted $256 million to nano research and understanding the risks involved. – Why the need for so much money if there is a possibility the substance is secure? In 2006 $68 million went to research in Environmental Health Safety (EHS), that is 80% more than what was spent on primary research of the topic itself “[…] nanosized particles to be transported through cell walls and other biological barriers in ways that are different from their macroscale counterparts. These properties can be used to make better batteries, to deliver drugs where they are needed, and to clean contaminated soil and groundwater. The ability to control matter at the nanometer scale is leading to technological advances in many areas, including energy, medicine, and the environment. “ Because of the size and strength of the nanofibers they have the possibilities to cause the same diseases as asbestos fibers Web site of the journal Nature Nanotechnology discussed an experiment done with mice. Injected them with nanotubes others with asbestos. All the mice died, all had lessons on the lungs, both of similar construct of asbestos and nano How to Be Nano-Free • Sunscreens: • Cosmetics: •These Ones Have Nanos Alba Botanica Alba Botanica Dockers – Go Khaki Allergan Avalon Organics Eddie Bauer – Water Shorts Avalon Organics Aveda (Many clothes that were stain GratefulBody resistant, water resitant, Black Opal Kiss My Face odor/sweat control) Blistex MyChelle New Balance – Clothing - Skye Chattem, Inc. -- Bullfrog Dermaceuticals Crop Lakeview Laboratories -- Pangea Organics Barney’s New York Products Tatoo Goo Ecocentric Bodycare The Body Works – Facial Lavera Creams Schwarzkopf & Henkel Erth Minerals Here is the most complete list of every product with Nanotechnology in it. http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/consumer/browse/products/ Taking A Stand Nanotechnology is too un-advanced for companies to allow products into the consumer market. There needs to be regulations put into effect that will prevent products with nanos, that are potentially ingested (dietary supplements) or transferred into the bloodstream, from entering the open market. There are many ways in which technology helps numerous parts of society. However there must be a limit as to how far companies are allowed to go to make a dollar. Nanotechnology is a great idea for the future, but experimentation should be limited to the laboratories, not the shelves of stores.