Lesson Plan #26 Cooking With Starches by mzg34842

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									   Lesson Plan #26
Cooking With Starches




                  January 1999
  Topic Learning Objective

At the completion of this lesson,
 the trainee will be able to discuss
 the different types of starches and
 methods of cooking used in Coast
 Guard Dining Facilities.
           Starches in cooking

 Used as a thickening agent.
 What are the different types of starches used in
  AFRS?
   Cornstarch
   Flour
   Pre-gelatinized starch
          Chemical Properties

Actual thickening process caused by
 starch granules swelling up.
The correct quantity of water (or fat) is
 necessary when adding to starches.
  Ensures  correct food consistency
  Eliminates lumping
  Prevents thickened liquids from reverting to
   liquid form after cooking
                   Starch Granules
   Heating temperatures
      Cornstarch and flour mixtures start to thicken at 144 to 162
       deg F. These starches complete the final thickening process at
       205 deg F.
   Cooking times
      Under cooking does not allow starches to reach their
       maximum thickening capability.
   Other ingredients
      High amounts of acid in food may prevent starches from
       setting.
           Guidelines for preparing
             sauces and gravies
 Located on recipe card O-G-1
 Discusses the ingredients used in their
  preparation.
   Liquids
   Thickening   agents
   Fats

 Methods     used in preparation of sauces and
  gravies
   Combining  Sauces & Gravies
   Prevention of skin on the surface of sauces & gravies
   Reheating
   Adjustments, what to do if sauce or gravy is too thick or thin.
                        Cornstarch
   Has two identifying qualities
     Paste is clear or translucent
     Only half as much cornstarch as flour is required
        These qualifications make corn starch more desirable for
          use in desserts
             Sauces (cherry sauce, pineapple sauce, etc.)
             Pie fillings (chocolate, cherry, apple, etc.)
   Mix cornstarch in cold liquids before adding it to a hot liquid.
     Eliminates lumping.
     Stir continuously during cooking to achieve maximum
      thickness
                            Flour

   General purpose flour may be used to thicken liquids.
      Soups, White sauces, Gravies, Pudding
   Twice as much flour may be required as cornstarch.
   Produces an opaque gel.
   Same procedures apply in cooking as in other starches.
      Proper temperature, time & mixing
               Pre-gelatinized starch
   Cold water soluble
   Requires no cooking in order to thicken. This makes it very
    desirable for thickening:
      Fresh, canned or frozen fruit.
   Advantages of using pre-gelatinized starch
      No time consuming steps.
      Heating and boiling not necessary.
      No cooking needed before adding fruit.
      Fruits remain whole and attractive.
         Retains uniform texture.

      Finished filling has excellent clarity and smoothness.
                          Review
   What are the different types of starches used in the AFRS?
   What three factors are starch granules affected by?
   What causes the liquid to thicken?
   What recipe card can you find information on thickening agents?
   How much cornstarch will you need if substituting it for flour?
   How much cooking time is required for pre-gelatinized starch?

								
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