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Motivation and Engagement of Boy

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					Motivation and Engagement
      of Boys – Theoretical
Frames, Practical Strategies


       Associate Professor Geoff Munns
         (University of Western Sydney)
Outline
   Background to the research report
   Literature themes
   Theoretical framework
   Principles and practical strategies from the
    research
UWS Boys’ Project

   Google – “motivation and engagement of boys”
   Multidisciplinary national project undertaken for DEST through
    the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme
   Target Groups – poor, Indigenous, rural, isolated
   Review of Literature
       Development of theoretical framework
       Qualitative meta analysis
   Case studies
   Within and across case analysis
   Development of principles and strategies within conceptual
    framework
What Did the Literature Say?
   Australian Reports
     Collins, Kenway & McLeod (2000)
     House of Representatives: Boys Getting It Right (2002)
     Trent & Slade (2001)
     Lingard et al. (2002)
   Martin (2002)
   Overseas Reports
     New Zealand Education Review Office (1999, 2000)
     Ofsted (2003) [United Kingdom]
     Quebec Ministry of Education (2004) [Canada]
Issues & Factors
   Australian educational research has moved away
    from essentialised views of either boys or girls as
    single unified categories, winning or losing the
    educational race – Which boys? Which girls?
   Socio-economic status, ethnicity, Aboriginality and
    regional location come together with gender to
    produce disjointed effects in terms of educational
    privileges and disadvantages
Common Themes
   Widening performance gap > lower down SES scale (Canada)
   Girls from low SES backgrounds attached more importance to
    school and had fewer difficulties with language and literacy
    (Canada)
   Girls more likely to employ control (planning, organising,
    structuring) and personal learning assessment strategies
    (Canada)
   Stereotypes around literacy as a feminine activity influenced
    boys‟ negative attitudes to literacy-based school experiences
    (Canada)
   Peer relationships often influenced and maintained negative
    attitudes to school and school success (Canada) (UK)
Common Themes (cont)
   Boys tended to respond more negatively than girls
    to unsatisfactory or indifferent teaching (UK)
   Underachieving boys were withdrawing from positive
    class interactions very early in their school careers
    (UK)
   School values, teaching strategies and assessment
    processes were more suited to girls than boys (NZ)
Common Themes (cont)
   Some boys favoured tasks emphasising visual, logical and
    analytical approaches, but these were not being catered for by
    existing curricula and pedagogies (Boys Getting It Right)
   Boys needed to be given greater autonomy across all of their
    schooling, including taking responsibility for each other through
    acting as role models and peer mentors (Boys Getting It Right)
   Significance of literacy
   Importance of quality teaching (Lingard, Martin) and productive
    student-teacher and student-students relationships (Boys Getting
    It Right)
      The MeE Framework
    (Munns & Martin, 2005)

        Understanding Students‟
   Relationships With Education,
Schools, Classrooms & Teachers
Developing the Motivation and
Engagement Framework (MeE)

   Andrew Martin‟s work (2004) on motivation (UWS
    SELF CENTRE)
   The conceptualisation of student engagement by
    Fredricks, Blumenfeld and Paris (2004)
   Research frameworks of student engagement
    developed by UWS Fair Go Project
The MeE framework
                                       ‘E’ngagement
                                 (outcome and whole school focus)

                                     “School is for me”




    Teachers as Messengers –                                          Realisation of engaging
     personalising and helping                                         classroom messages.
   students adapt to messages.




          ‘m’otivation                                                     ‘e’ngagement
         Individual focus                                           Classroom and pedagogy focus
(M) Individual support strategies
encouraging    adaptive thoughts
      •     self-efficacy
      •     mastery orientation
      •     valuing school
encouraging    adaptive behaviours
      •     persistence
      •     planning
      •     study management
avoiding   impeding & maladaptive thoughts and behaviours
      •      anxiety
       •     failure avoidance
       •     uncertain control
       •     self-handicapping
M strategies can happen inside or outside the classroom - positive
student-teacher relationships, the classroom philosophy, extra-
curricular activities, culturally inclusive curricula, support programs
M – key questions
   What support is there for each boy to develop a belief and
    confidence in his/her own ability to succeed at school, overcome
    challenges and perform at his/her best?
   What individual encouragement is there for each boy to focus on
    his/her own learning, solving problems and developing skills?
   How is each boy helped to see that school is useful, important and
    relevant for himself/herself ?
   How is there individual help for each boy to overcome his/her own
    anxiety, take risks (not avoid failure) and have more control over
    his/her learning?
   Is there pedagogy that promotes effort and persistence for each
    boy?
   Where can there be teaching and learning that fosters key individual
    self-regulatory processes such as planning, monitoring, and study
    management for each boy?
   How can there be practices that help each boy manage or minimise
    maladaptive his/her own behavioural dimensions such as self-
    handicapping and avoidance?
The MeE framework
                                       ‘E’ngagement
                                 (outcome and whole school focus)

                                     “School is for me”




    Teachers as Messengers –                                          Realisation of engaging
     personalising and helping                                         classroom messages.
   students adapt to messages.




          ‘m’otivation                                                     ‘e’ngagement
         Individual focus                                           Classroom and pedagogy focus
(„e‟) - Teachers‟ pedagogies
   Classroom learning experiences designed to be
       high cognitive
       high affective
       high operative

   Classrooms where students are sent engaging
    messages about
       Knowledge
       Ability
       Control
       Place
       Voice
„e‟ – key questions
   What counts as knowledge in my classroom and
    which students have access to really useful
    knowledge?
   Which students have ability as a result of my
    teaching?
   Who controls the teaching space in my classroom?
   Which students are valued as individuals and as
    learners?
   Whose voice is given credence within the teaching
    spaces in my classroom?
The MeE framework
                                       ‘E’ngagement
                                 (outcome and whole school focus)

                                     “School is for me”




    Teachers as Messengers –                                          Realisation of engaging
     personalising and helping                                         classroom messages.
   students adapt to messages.




          ‘m’otivation                                                     ‘e’ngagement
         Individual focus                                           Classroom and pedagogy focus
(„E‟) Whole school strategies
   encouraging a realisation that “school is for me”
   strategies and an outcome
   strategies -
       a positive school ethos
       inclusive curricula choices that support a wide range of
        learning needs
       a variety of extra-curricular and culturally appropriate
        activities catering for many different interests
       peer support through mentoring
        the use of role-models
       the design of productive post-school options
„E‟ – key questions
   How can schools look after boys in ways that will convince them that
    this will continue to happen throughout their school career?
   What are the ways that schools can provide boys with a wide range of
    educationally worthwhile and enjoyable experiences in curricular areas?
   What are the ways that schools can provide boys with a wide range of
    educationally worthwhile, enjoyable and culturally appropriate
    experiences in extra-curricular areas that will support and not interfere
    with achievement of academic outcomes?
   In what ways can boys be supported if they need help when they have
    learning or behavioural problems?
   What strategies and support systems can schools put into place so that
    boys are not left to “fall through the cracks”?
   How can educators help boys see that their school as a place that will
    really help them gain the educational resources that will be important
    for their future lives?
The MeE framework
                                       ‘E’ngagement
                                 (outcome and whole school focus)

                                     “School is for me”




    Teachers as Messengers –                                          Realisation of engaging
     personalising and helping                                         classroom messages.
   students adapt to messages.




          ‘m’otivation                                                     ‘e’ngagement
         Individual focus                                           Classroom and pedagogy focus
The MeE Framework in Action
   Helps educators to comprehend the complex individual and
    group processes they need to consider when they are
    trying to develop strong positive student relationships with
    their classrooms, schools and education.
   Highlights a strong interplay between the three
    perspectives.
   Evaluates particular areas of need that different schools
    might identify as their specific points of concentration at any
    period of time.
The MeE Framework in Action
   Working primarily from the motivation (M) perspective - a school with a
    group of highly disengaged boys whose aggressively resistant
    behaviour is putting a lot of pressure on the school and their
    classrooms might begin by developing a special programme of interest-
    based activities outside normal classroom work (eg Boys‟ Project)

   A strong „e‟ngagement („e‟) focus - another school might believe that
    the best way to improve student relationships among largely
    disinterested boys is through restructuring teachers‟ classroom
    pedagogies so that all students are involved in high-interest and
    intellectually challenging learning experiences (eg Personal choice and
    team personal choice)

   „E‟ngagement („E‟) strategies – a school carefully considers how all
    students can be catered for at cognitive, emotional and participatory
    levels – no-one “falls through the cracks”
The MeE Framework in Action
   Schools might choose to begin their interventions
    from any perspective of the framework
   But … to bring about strong and enduring levels of
    motivation and „e‟ngagement there is a valid
    argument that schools need to adopt approaches
    and strategies across all three perspectives of the
    MeE Framework.
Principles – Motivation and
Engagement of Boys
   Use the MeE Framework to guide development of
    whole school approach
   Focus on student outcomes
   Select contextually relevant starting points
   Generate pathways that build a coherent and
    multifacted approach
   Develop professional development and learning
Strategies – Motivation and
      Engagement of Boys
Motivation (M) – individual support
strategies

   Develop positive cultural connections between
    community, home and school
   Foster supportive learning environments where
    students feel valued and respected
   Promote opportunities for renewed community
    connections
   Provide authentic, high interest and challenging
    learning experiences
   Allow negotiation and choice at school and class
    level
Motivation (M) – individual support
strategies
 Connect critical syllabus areas
    (especially literacy) with all individual
    motivation strategies
 Support adaptive attitudes & behaviours
 Work on managing physical actions &
    emotional responses
 Develop a wide range of assessment
    strategies that support early & ongoing
    intervention
 Target students with specific socio-
    academic needs
„e‟ngagement (e) – classroom pedagogies
   Structure learning environments that offer
    student voice & control
   Promote self-regulatory & autonomous
    learners
   Focus on quality teaching & productive
    pedagogical relationships
   Offer projects and problem-based learning
   Develop collaborative learning communities
   Offer access to sophisticated ICTs
„e‟ngagement (e) – classroom pedagogies

   Integrate literacy across all aspects of the
    curriculum
   Introduce a variety of texts that widely appeal to
    the interests of boys
   Contextualise & individualise literacy learning
   Provide feedback that is explicit about task
    criteria, processes for learning & self-regulation of
    learning
„E‟ngagement (E) – whole school strategies

   Have high but realistic expectations within an
    ethos of pressure & support
   Ensure all students feel that they will be
    supported socially & academically throughout
    their school lives.
   Challenge stereotypical views about boys
   Offer a wide range of intellectual, cultural &
    aesthetic experiences
   Work collaboratively with families, carers &
    communities
„E‟ngagement (E) – whole school strategies

   Use community, cross-age and peer mentoring
    to support students & to provide positive role
    models
   Utilise support staff to cater for all students,
    particularly for those most „at risk‟
   Focus on key transition points
   Promote different pathways for further study &
    post-school options
   Provide alternate settings for the development
    of socio-academic learning
To conclude …
The research has highlighted different ways to approach the
  challenging task of improving the relationships that students have
  with education, schools, and classrooms. There is a dynamic to
  this complex relationship that straddles individual, relational, and
  holistic perspectives, and this dynamic is picked up by the MeE
  framework. The framework provides important opportunities not
  only for exploring the different strategic positions that schools
  have taken up to improve students‟ motivation and engagement,
  but also for evaluating the effectiveness of those strategies.
Motivation and Engagement
      of Boys – Theoretical
Frames, Practical Strategies


       Associate Professor Geoff Munns
         (University of Western Sydney)

				
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