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HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION

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									HISTORICAL INFLUENCES
         ON
       FASHION

          1920’s, 1930’s and
                1940’s

Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)
         Lesson Objectives
1. Identify events in the last century and
   decade that have influenced fashion.
2. Explain how society impacts fashion and
   how fashion impacts society.
3. Explain the psychological influences on
   fashion.
4. Explain the global influences on the
   fashion industry.
     American Life after WWI
• Increased prosperity
• Purchasing power of the dollar doubled
• Increased sales of automobiles, radios,
  synthetics, cigarettes, refrigerators,
  telephones, cosmetics, electrical devices
• Boom in higher education
• Increase in recreational travel abroad
      Social Life of the 1920’s
• Revolution of mores and values
• Prohibition – “speak-easy” (later, known as
  the nightclub)
• Flapper Era - “The Roaring Twenties”
  – Body more revealed
  – Short hair
  – Increased use of make-up
  – Introduction of the “trouser”
Typical 1920’s Flapper
style:
Short hair
Straight, “tubular” dress
Shortened hemline
Lots of rouge and lipstick




http://home.millsaps.edu/
mcelvrs/flapper.jpg
           The Depression
• Stock Market Crash – October 29, 1929
• High unemployment
• Unionization movement
• Little fashion movement
• Fashion relegated to those who retained
  wealth
• Recovery began during World War II
               World War II
• French couture (fashion) cut off during
  German Occupation
• On the home front:
  – Leather shoes rationed
  – “L-85 Regulations” – restricted quantity of
    cloth to be used for civilian clothing
  – Restricted use of nylon, wool, silk, natural
    rubber
        Let’s go to the Movies
• Film stars became
  fashion setters
• Influence in hair
  fashion:
  – Blonde hair (Jean
    Harlow)
  – Curls/Permanents
    (Shirley Temple)
  – Sultry look (Veronica
    Lake)
 Jean Harlow
 Women
 bleached their
 hair to
 emulate the
 star



http://www.allstarz.org/~
jeanharlow/pictures.html
 Shirley Temple’s
 curls were every
 mother’s dream for
 their daughters.
 The use of
 permanents
 increased.


http://www.brownsteins.net/Ulpan/
Images/ShirleyTemple.jpg
Veronica Lake,
known for her
sultry “hair over
the eye” look
influenced hair
styles of the
World War II era

http://silverscreensirens.
com/veronica.htm
More Sports Influence
          • Increased
            participation by
            women
          • “Sportswear”
            established as
            separate fashion
            category
          More Auto Influence
•   Increased automobile sales
•   Need for shorter hemlines
•   No need for parasols
•   Encouraged use of wristwatch
•   Smaller hats
•   Canes and walking sticks passe
•   More recreational opportunities
•   Increased demand for “sportswear”
      More Tech Influences
• Rayon
• Acetate
• Nylon
  (duPont, 1938) not
  available during
  WWII
• Metal closures –
  “Zipper”
         Designer Influences
• French haute            • American couture
  couture                   – Designed for
  – Specialized in            manufacturers/ready-
    private designs for       to-wear
    the wealthy             – Claire McCardell
  – Coco Chanel             – Gilbert Adrian
  – Madeleine Vionnet       – Norman Norell
  – Elsa Schiaparelli       – Pauline Trigere
        Art Influence of the Period
• Art Deco                        • Surrealism (“beyond
  – Influenced through              the real”)
    architecture and interiors      – Fabric prints and
  – Geometric shapes                  appointments that
    indicated in fabric prints,       seem out of place
    decorations,                    – Notable:
    embroideries and jewelry           • Salvador Dali
  – Cubism
  – Notables:
      • William Van Allen
      • Pablo Picasso
      • Henry Dreyfuss
Art Deco influence in
the 1930’s and
1940’s:
Note the triangular
collars and
necklines, geometric
patterns in fabric




http://www.vintageblues
.com/history3.htm
   Surrealism is
   indicated by motifs
   and designs
   placed where they
   would not be
   expected



http://www.schiaparelli.com/
sureal.htm

								
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