Haute Couture in France - Commun by pengtt

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									An Exploration of
 the Historical
 Development of
“Haute Couture”
   in France
                    Jamie Arnold
What is “Haute Couture?”

 • Haute couture is a one-of-a-kind
   design that is made specifically for
   buyers of French and foreign dress
   shops as well as private customers.
 • Haute couture replaced couture a
   facon, which is dressmaking for the
 • But haute couture is not to be
   confused with pret-a-porter, which is
   ready-made clothing.
• Who Started
  “Haute Couture”
  in the Fashion
  Industry? Who
  Were Some of the
  really influential
    Charles Frederick
• Charles Frederick Worth
  initiated “haute couture”
• First Designer to develop and
  produce the final product of
  women’s clothing
• Set the tone for high fashion
  during the latter half of the 19th
• Brought Paris Fashion home
  to America
*Born in 1826 in England.
*At age 12, Worth began working at
 Allenby’s, which was the largest
 fabric store in London at the time.
*Left London for Paris in 1846 at age
20 where he began working at Gagelins
on the rue de Richelieu. They sold
shawls, ready-made coats, and fabrics.
*Worth believed that customers should
be able to choose what fabrics and trims
would be added to their garments.
• He began designing dresses for
  his wife so that when customers
  came to the shop, they would be
  astonished and want the same
• Worth became so successful
  because customers were so
  intrigued, that the firm Gagelin
  and Opige, created a dressmaking
  workroom for him.
• In the late 1850’s, the Worth’s
  opened their own business on the
  rue de la Paix.
• Was born in 1879
                                Paul Poiret
• Began his career at the House of
• He understood the importance of
  costuming famous actresses that were in
  major stage productions.
• Between 1898 and 1900, he designed
  costumes for Gabrielle Rejane in Zaza
  and for Sarah Bernhardt in L’aiglon,
  in which she played a young son of
  Napoleon 1.
• Throughout his career he used the
  theatre to promote his designs.
• He dominated the world of couture
  between 1907 and the first World War.
                              • Poiret’s work was criticized by the press
                                because cubism, contemporary music, and
                                other avant-garde demonstrations were
                                called “Germanic” and “barbarian,”
                                during the time of the War.
                              • The fact that his creations were favorites
Gabrielle                       in Germany was used to “prove” his
Rejane                          sympathy for the enemy.
                              • WW1 brought many changes to the
                                couture. Poiret and other designers were
                                drafted into the military, and their
                                houses were closed.
                              • Many weavers and silk industry clients
                                were called into the army.

            Sarah Bernhardt
• Born in 1883 in France
• She received the nickname “Coco”
  because as a young girl, she would rise
  at the crack of dawn to go horseback
  riding. She was called Mlle.
  “Cocorico” (Cockadoodle).
• She taught women to dare to wear fake
  jewelry because she herself did, which will
  probably continue forever.
• One day when she felt cold, she put on a
  polo sweater, and so the idea of using
  jersey for feminine clothes was born in
  her mind.
• During the War, fashion began to
  simplify. Extravagant decorations
  began to seem inappropriate.
• Many French and English
  Aristocrats had been killed in the
  battles of WW1, and the postwar
  cycles of depression and inflation
  created instability and financial
• The Fashion industry took a hit
  because of these economical factors
  which allowed Chanel popularity
  because of the simplicity in her
Why is France known for its Haute Couture?
                             The garments are custom-made,
                                not mass-produced like in
                                the U.S. There is so
                                much work and creativity
                                that is put into the actual
                                garment, which makes it so
                                inspiring and cherished.
                             The whole world awaits for the
                                new Paris fashions to
                                trickle down to their local
                                malls and boutiques.
                             Manufacturers all over the
                                world will do whatever it
                                takes the minute they hear
                                what color will be
                                fashionable and what fabric
                                will be in trend.
    What is a Fashion
• A fashion house or “couture
  house” is headed by a top designer
  where new fabrics, trims, etc. are
• Manufacturers go to couture
  houses and present their new ideas
  to the designers.
• There are two different
  departments in a fashion house:
• The flou, which is the
  dressmaking department and the
  tailleur, which is the tailoring
  Some of the Jobs/Outcomes
of being a Fashion Designer…
                   Charles Frederick Worth
Empress Eugenie
                  • The House of Worth’s dressmakers
                    began serving the Empress Eugenie, the
                    wife of Napoleon III, in 1860, once
                    she had heard of Worth’s
                  • The Empress had the House of Worth
                    appointed as the court dressmaker in
                  • After this, the Worth’s acclaimed
                    international success.
                  • Worth died in 1895, at the age of 71.
                           Paul Poiret
• Poiret dressed stars like Marthe
  Brandes, Theo, Mary Garden,            Mary
  and Reishenberg. He also worked
  for the House of Worth.                Garden
• Poiret began his own House at 5,
  rue Auber.
• He established the School of
  Decorative Arts which he named
• He created the minaret skirt and
  a vogue for harem skirts.
                     Gabrielle Chanel
• Elite women of high societies
  around the world wore Chanel
  when she revolutionized haute
  couture. She designed stage
  costumes for the plays
  Cocteau’s Antigone (1923)
  and Oedipus Rex (1937) and
  film costumes for several
Where did these designers
 look for inspiration?
• Chanel found inspiration in men’s
• Worth had been involved in retail
  businesses for many years and
  grew tired of the same boring
• Poiret was inspired by Russian
  peasant art and Oriental designs
                                                  • Is located at 102, rue du
                                                    Faubourg St. Honore, Paris,
                                                  • The purpose of this Syndicale
                                                    is rarely understood by the
    They will take care of any problem              common people.
presented to them by the firms.
                                                  • There are over 900 members,
    Its most important role is its educational      but they are divided into
one.                                                categories.
    The Ministry of National Education
                                                  • The Syndicale represents all
founded the Chambre Syndicale school in             member establishments on law,
1929, which ensures training for every boy and      taxes, and on every other
girl in France who shows particular interest in     question of employment.
needle trades or allied arts
What type of Schooling is Offered to FashionDesigners?
                            • Both public and private schools in
                              France teach sewing, millinery,
                              and other crafts.
                            • The schooling of these categories
                              is mandatory.
                            • In May of each year, the
                              children’s work is observed to see if
                              they qualify to continue their
                            • Those students who do, are
                              accepted to the Chambre Syndicale
                              school if they choose to go.
• The 1st year of schooling revolves
  around learning sewing techniques
  which are all critical to the success
  of a garment.
• The 2nd year consists of learning
  how to construct actual garments.
• The 3rd year students focus their
  attention on women’s tailoring and
  draping where they become experts
  in sewing and can basically create
  excellent results with the use of
  any fabric
• http://video.style.com/?fr_story
                    Works Cited                                 www.style.com
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