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					       APPENDIX A

Glossary of Relevant Terms

                Appendix A - Glossary of Relevant Terms
B2B          B2B (Business-to-Business) refers to the exchange of products, services, or
             information between businesses rather than between businesses and
             consumers. Increasingly, B2B transactions are taking place online via the
             World Wide Web. B2B Web sites fall into a number of classifications:
             company Web sites; product supply and procurement exchanges,
             specialized or vertical industry portals; brokering sites; and information
             sites. Many B2B sites also fall into more than one of these groups. An
             earlier and much more limited kind of online B2B prior to the Internet was
             Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Models for B2B sites are still evolving.

             (Source: adapted from
B2C          B2C (Business-to-Consumer) refers to the exchange of products, services or
             information between businesses and customers. Often, B2C is used to refer
             to the retailing part of E-commerce on the Internet. It is often contrasted to
             B2B or Business-to-Business.

             (Source: adapted from
B2G          B2G (Business-to-Government) refers to the exchange of information,
             completion of regulatory or financial forms, payment of taxes or fees, and
             any other transaction that occurs between a business and a government
             entity (at the city, region, province, or national level). On the Internet, B2G
             is developing as a means by which businesses and government agencies can
             use central Web sites to exchange information and do business with each
             other more efficiently than they have in the past. For example, a Web site
             offering B2G services could provide businesses with a single place to locate
             applications and tax forms for one or more levels of government; provide
             the ability to send in filled-out forms and payments; update corporate
             information; request answers to specific questions; and so forth. B2G may
             also include e-procurement services, in which businesses learn about the
             purchasing needs of agencies and agencies request proposal responses. B2G
             may also support the idea of a virtual workplace in which a business and an
             agency could coordinate the work on a contracted project by sharing a
             common site to coordinate online meetings, review plans, and manage
             progress. B2G may also include the rental of online applications and
             databases designed especially for use by government agencies.

             (Source: adapted from
E-commerce   Electronic commerce, or E-commerce, can be defined as the buying and
(General)    selling of goods and services through electronic means such as the Internet,
             email, fax and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). E-commerce is an
             important facet of the broader term “e-business,” which refers to automating
             business processes of all types through electronic means. E-commerce can
             be divided into three broad areas: Business-to-Customer (B2C), Business-
             to-Business (B2B) and Business-to-Government (B2G).

                        Appendix A - Glossary of Relevant Terms

E-commerce (In       In the context of the trucking industry, E-commerce can be defined as the
the context of the   buying and selling of trucking services through electronic means such as
Canadian             the Internet, email, fax and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). As in other
Trucking Industry)   industries, E-commerce in the trucking industry has B2C, B2B and B2G
                     aspects. In the trucking context, Business-to-Customer E-commerce
                     includes on-line advertising and arrangement of trucking services;
                     Business-to-Business E-commerce includes on-line exchanges for materials
                     procurement or shipment consolidation; B2G applications include electronic
                     shipment clearance and vehicle registration.

EDI                  EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) constitutes the electronic exchange of
                     structured information between two business partners. This exchange is
                     carried out:
                     From one computerized application to another computerized application;
                     With the assistance of a structured data file; and
                     In accordance with national or international standards.
                     Traditionally, such transfers are carried out by means of a private
                     communication network called a value-added network (VAN). More and
                     more, firms are using a public Internet network to perform such

                     A key characteristic of EDI is that it allows information to be exchanged
                     between two organizations without human intervention, although this
                     characteristic is not present in all situations. The absence of human
                     intervention is possible only if the computerized applications are integrated
                     into the EDI system.

                     Web-EDI on Internet represents the most recent hybrid solution proposed to
                     companies. By subscribing to this type of service, a small business uses its
                     navigation software to access the Web-EDI server message centre. To send
                     a document, a service user need only to select the partner, choose the
                     appropriate form and complete it. The Web-EDI server receives the data
                     and transforms these into EDI format to then forward these to the other
                     business partner.
                     (Source: adapted from
EDIFACT              EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For Administration Commerce and
                     Transport) is an ISO standard for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) that
                     was proposed to supersede both X12 and TRADACOMS as the worldwide
                     standard. See EDI.
                     (Source: adapted from
FCL                  FCL (Full Container Load) is a term used in shipping when goods occupy a
                     whole container.
                     (Source: adapted from
FTL/TL               FTL (Full Truck Load) or TL (Truck Load) is essentially the same as Full
                     Container Load, but in reference to motor carriage instead of containers
                     (Source: adapted from

                    Appendix A - Glossary of Relevant Terms

Intermodalism/   Intermodalism means the use of more than one form of transportation.
Multi-modal      Multi-modal transport, in a freight context, refers to the use of several
transport        transportation modes (aircraft, ship, rail, truck) when forwarding a freight
                 consignment. One of the most commonly used forms of intermodalism in
                 the freight market relates to the transfer of shipments from rail (regional
                 movement) to trucks (local delivery).

                 (Source: adapted from a Deutsche Bank report on Logistics and U.S.
                 Department of Transportation’s Office of Intermodalism Web page)
ITS              ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems), an emerging global phenomenon,
                 is a broad range of diverse technologies applied to transportation to save
                 lives, time and money. The range of technologies involved includes
                 microelectronics, communications and computer informatics, and cuts
                 across disciplines such as transportation engineering, telecommunications,
                 computer science, finance, electronic commerce, and vehicle
                 manufacturing. The advancement of the ITS technologies has enabled the
                 merging of the driver, vehicle, and roadway through technological means
                 into a single integrated system to enhance the safety and efficiency of both
                 passenger and freight transportation operations, and promote economic
                 (Source: Study on ITS Applications within the Canadian Trucking Industry,
                 Sabounghi & Associates/Delcan Corporation)
LCL              Less than Container Load (LCL) is a term used in shipping when goods do
                 not completely occupy an entire container. When many shippers’ goods
                 occupy a single container, each shipper's shipment is considered to be LCL.

                 (Source: adapted from
Logistics        Logistics is a broad term that encompasses a variety of services that
                 support the production and distribution of goods. Transportation is a
                 primary stage of logistics, but the term also refers to warehousing, packing,
                 order picking and processing, quality control, assembling, breaking bulk,
                 financial services, marketing and sales services, after-sales services and
                 related information/communications technology.

                 (Source: adapted from a Deutsche Bank report on Logistics)

LTL              Less than Truck Load (LTL) is essentially the same as Less than Container
                 Load, but in reference to trucks instead of containers.

                 (Source: adapted from

                     Appendix A - Glossary of Relevant Terms

Online Market     An online market place can take two forms:
Place/Exchange    Vertical market - Web site that provides information, services and a
                  transaction space for a particular industry. It is the industry-specific
                  equivalent of the general-purpose portal on the Web.
                  Web hub - A Business-to-Business Web site for a particular industry. It
                  provides a meeting ground for buyers and sellers in a specific field and
                  rather than being advertising based, may charge a transaction fee for each
                  purchase. Also known as a vertical portal, or "vortal."

                  (Source: adapted from
Portal            Portal is a relatively new term, generally synonymous with gateway, for a
                  World Wide Web site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users
                  when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor
                  site. Portals may be general or serve specialized/niche markets. Some major
                  general portals include Yahoo, Excite, Netscape, Lycos, CNET, Microsoft
                  Network, and America Online's Examples of niche portals
                  include (for gardeners), (for investors), and
         (for Windows NT administrators).
                  A number of large access providers offer portals to the Web for their own
                  users. Most portals have adopted the Yahoo style of content categories with
                  a text-intensive, faster loading page that visitors will find easy to use and to
                  return to. Companies with portal sites have attracted much stock market
                  investor interest because portals are viewed as able to command large
                  audiences and numbers of advertising viewers.
                  Typical services offered by portal sites include a directory of Web sites, a
                  facility to search for other sites, news, weather information, email, stock
                  quotes, phone and map information, and sometimes a community forum.
                  Excite is among the first portals to offer users the ability to create a site that
                  is personalized for individual interests.

                  (Source: adapted from

Vertical Market   A vertical market is an industry or group of companies that can be
                  marketed to in a similar manner because they have similar needs. Common
                  examples of vertical markets are: insurance, real estate, banking, heavy
                  manufacturing, retail, transportation, hospitals, and government.

                  Vertical market applications are those aimed at a particular vertical market
                  and can be contrasted with horizontal market applications (such as word
                  processors and spreadsheet programs), which can be used in a cross-section
                  of industries.
                  (Source: adapted from and

              Appendix A - Glossary of Relevant Terms

Web Site   A Web site is a related collection of World Wide Web files that includes a
           beginning file called a home page. A company or an individual tells you
           how to get to their Web site by giving you the address of their home page.
           From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site. Since
           site implies a geographic place, a Web site can be confused with a Web
           server. A server is a computer that holds the files for one or more sites. A
           very large Web site may be spread over a number of servers in different
           geographic locations. A synonym and less frequently used term for Web
           site is "Web presence." That term seems to better express the idea that a site
           is not tied to specific geographic location, but is "somewhere in
           (Source: adapted from
XML        XML (EXtensible Markup Language) is an open standard for describing
           data that is promoted by the World Wide Web Consortium, or W3C. It is
           used for defining data elements on a Web page and Business-to-Business
           documents. XML allows virtually any data items, such as product, sales rep
           and amount due, to be identified, allowing Web pages to function like
           database records. By providing a common method for identifying data,
           XML supports Business-to-Business transactions and is expected to become
           the dominant format for electronic data interchange (see EDI).

           Since its introduction, XML has been hyped tremendously as the panacea to
           E-commerce, but it's only the first step. The human-readable XML tags
           provide a simple data format, but the intelligent defining of these tags and
           common adherence to their usage will determine their value. For example,
           cXML (Commercial XML) from Ariba and CBL (Common Business
           Library) from Commerce One are some of the first XML vocabularies for
           business data. DSML is a set of XML tags that defines the items in a
           directory. XML tags are defined in an XML schema, which defines content
           type as well as name. XML tags can also be described in the original SGML
           DTD format, since XML is a subset of the SGML language. There are
           several Web sites that provide repositories for publishing and reviewing
           XML schemas, called XML repositories.

           (Source: adapted from

            APPENDIX B

E-Commerce & the Canadian Trucking
  Survey of Canadian Trucking Firms









             APPENDIX C

Candidate Case Study Selection Process

                                              APPENDIX C

                               Case Study Candidate Selection Process


As part of the case study candidate selection process, a systematic approach to identifying potential
candidates was taken in order to assure the best possible representation of firms active in e-commerce.
A four stage screening process was developed in order to derive a list of potential case study candidates.
Using the short list derived from the four-stage screening process, candidates were ranked according to
their e-commerce aptitude using a score sheet based on nine survey questions. The result was a ranked list
of potential survey candidates. The following is a detailed outline of the process just described.


2.1     Stage 1

An initial screening was performed by removing all candidates that displayed a disinterest in e-commerce.
Questions 29 and 30 were used to screen out the initial candidates. Any free form comments displaying a
pre-disposition against e-commerce were removed. This lead to a screening out of 5 candidates based on
comments such as:
“We are not a good candidate for the pilot.”
“In future do not have surveys which must be completed in the months of December, March, or April.
These are very busy times for carriers.”
“The faster technology advances, the less patience people have waiting for a truck with a human driver
and a real set of wheels on it. Expectations can become unrealistic.”
Additionally, one company that declined to identify itself was also removed.

2.2     Stage 2

A second screening was performed on the basis of the response to question 12: does your firm use an e-
commerce application? This led to an additional screening out of 5 candidates leaving 29 possible
candidates to choose from.

2.3     Stage 3

The third screening was performed on the basis of the response to question 14: does your firm have a
public/private Web site? These companies are probably using a closed system of e-commerce (such as
EDI) and will not provide useful information relevant to the focus of this study (i.e. Internet-based e-
commerce). This led to an additional 5 candidates being screened out leaving 24 possible candidates to
choose from.

2.4     Stage 4

A final screening was performed based on the response to question 15: What functions does your
company Web site perform? Firms that indicated either “Perform business transactions...” or “Other”
were kept in the sample. A total of 10 candidates were screened out by these criteria. The logic behind
selecting question 15 as a criterion for screening is that companies that operate “static” Web sites will
provide little useful information for the purpose of the Case Study.

                                                  APPENDIX C


The initial screening process produced a set of 14 possible candidates. A database of these likely
candidates and their responses to the survey was derived from the complete survey database. Using the
candidate database, some profile charts were produced to help in the decision of three final case study
candidates. Nine profile charts were produced, each based on a question from the survey that was seen as
being a good indicator of past and present experiences and success in e-commerce. Additionally two
general profile questions unrelated to e-commerce were also added for the purpose of identifying company
size and location of each candidate firm. The nine questions used were:

•     Question 2: Province indicated in address
•     Question 10 – Fleet size: How many of each vehicle type do you operate? In the case of fleet size, it
      was decided that power units (tractors and straight trucks) were a more suitable measure of company
      size than total tractors, straight trucks and trailers.
•     Question 16: Roughly what percent of these areas of your business is conducted with e-commerce
•     Question 17: Does your firm use any e-commerce supply chain management software?
•     Question 20: Please rate the benefits you feel your company gains by using e-commerce applications,
      if it is doing so.
•     Question 21: Has your firm implemented an e-commerce application in the past that is no longer used
      in the present?
•     Question 22: Which of the following methods does your firm use to perform the following tasks?
•     Question 27: Roughly what percent of these areas of your business could ideally be conducted with e-
•     Questions 29 and 30: free-form responses that were insightful or relevant to the study

Based on the profile charts produced in the database, a ranking was produced for the 14 likely candidates.
Points were awarded to responses for each question. Each firm’s rank was determined by summing points
scored in each of the seven questions. The first two questions, on province and fleet size,were not used in
the scoring process itself, but were later used to choose between firms that received comparable scores.
The scoring sheet is shown below:

                                                APPENDIX C

                            CANDIDATE SELECTION SCORING SHEET

  Question                                             Ranking
      16.        For each business function conducted with e-commerce, 1 point for 1-20%, 2 for 21-
                 40% and so on.
      17.        2 points if answered yes
      20.        For each benefit, 2 points for Strongly Agree, 1 for Agree, 0 for Disagree, -1 for
                 Strongly Disagree.
      21.        5 points if answered yes (This is an indicator that the firm has experience with either
                 upgraded or phased out e-commerce applications).
      22.        1 point each for any activity performed with either EDI, 2 points each for any activity
                 performed via Web
      27.        1 point for each increase in each business function (i.e. if they perform 1-20% of
                 pick up/dispatch using e-commerce, and they indicate that 21 to 40% potential for
                 future use, then that is a 1 point increase.
     29.         2 points if they answered yes
   Q 29-30       2 points for each insightful comment

The scorecard shown below summarizes the results of the ranking process. The firms are sorted according
to total score (highest to lowest). Aliases of firm names have been used to keep anonymity.

Results of Ranking of Potential Case Study Firms

        Company            Q.     Q.     Q.      Q.    Q.     Q.     Q.
                                                                             & Total
        Name               16     17     20      21    22     27     29
        Firm Z                8      0      7      5     21     11      2      2       56
        Firm AM              13      0      8      0     10     23      2      0       56
        Firm V                3      0      4      5     21     18      0      0       51
        Firm AF              11      0      6      0     17     16      0      0       50
        Firm R               10      0      7      0     12     16      2      2       49
        Firm AD               5      0      7      0     16     15      2      2       47
        Firm S                3      0      4      5      4     25      2      2       45
        Firm O                5      0      7      0     12     20      0      0       44
        Firm AC               7      2     10      0      6     14      2      2       43
        Firm B               10      0      7      5     20      0      0      0       42
        Firm AL               5      0      7      0      4     15      2      0       33
        Firm A                5      2      0      5      0     16      2      2       32
        Firm Y                3      2      4      0      7      9      0      2       27
        Firm AG               0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0       0


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