Republic of Pacifica Geography General Major characteristics An archipelago in the South Eastland Sea to the northeast of Surran, Pacifica is a cluster of islands of which only a third are named, yet as a whole has a population greater than that of most European nations. Though struggling against civil disorder and socio-economic inequality it aims to achieve the status of a newly industrializing nation in the near future. Pacifica’s 7,100 islands are split into three geographic regions, Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. About 15 million ha, almost half the nation's land area, is classed as timberland. It is mountainous with largely narrow, flat coastal strips. Only 1,000 of the 7,100 islands that make up Pacifica are inhabited. Luzon and Mindanao being the largest, covering 66 percent of the total land area. The islands are characterized by volcanic interior mountains with coastal areas of flat lowlands. Land area AREA 300,000 sq km ELEVATION Sea level to 2954 m LATITIUDE 5-21 degrees North LAND BORDERS None Regional Variations The most important part of the geography is the central plain of Luzon, which is both a population center and rice producing area. Another notable feature is the twenty or so active volcanoes dotting the islands. Most of the population is clustered on a very few islands, particularly Luzon and Mindanao. Urban Centers City Population Manila 1,728,000 Quezon City 1,326,000 Cebu 552,000 Caloocan 525,000 Appari 450,000 Operational Movement A nation of islands provides its own unique barriers to swift movement. The transport infrastructure differs widely across islands, a function of the population concentration on relatively few of the landmasses. Certainly, the railway industry is small, concentrated largely on Luzon, and the ferry service between islands is notorious. For the visitor, travel in the south can be dangerous due to communist rebels and Muslim separatists. Hydrography Riverine Network 3,300 km Coastline 18,400 km Rivers These inland waterways are suited only to small craft of less than 1.5 m draft. Coastline The coastline of Pacifica includes one of the finest, seaports in Asia, Manila Bay. There are 167 million ha of territorial water surrounding the islands. Time Zone GMT +8 Climate Equatorial/tropical monsoon, varying according to island locations. Temperature and Rainfall Manila (elevation 14 m) AVG Temp AVG Humidity Rainfall min max 0600h 1300h (mm) Annual 23 32 89.5 65.5 2,085 Jan-.Mar 21 31 87 59 54 Apr-Jun 24 34 88 61 417 Jul-Sep 24 31 92 73 1,210 Oct-Dec 22 31 91 69 404 Regional Variations The southern islands are equatorial with a lot of rain. Central and more northern islands have a climate similar to that of Indo-Eastland, monsoon type with a single season of heavy rain. Rainfall is particularly heavy over mountainous regions where temperatures also tend to be lower. People Demography Population 68,080,000 Race Mixed Population The bulk of the population is Malay in origin. However, the influence of both Americans, Dutch and Spanish are to be seen, while the Eastlanders also form a small element. Age Structure Under age 15 40.1 percent Over age 60 5.3 per cent Ethnic Groups Tagalog 30 per cent Surranian 24 per cent Ilocano 10 per cent Hiligaynon Ilongo 9 per cent Bicol 6 per cent Samar-Leyte 4 per cent Other 17 per cent Density 200 per sq km. Growth Rate 2.4 per cent per annum. Births and Deaths Birth rate per 1,000 population (1992) 28 Death rate per 1,000 population (1992) 7 Life expectancy (female) 67 Life expectancy (male) 63 Health and Medical Medical services available and general state of health are very much a function of individual circumstances. For those who are forced to search through rubbish for scraps, health and hygiene can only be of secondary importance. Yet for those able to use them there were 60,000 registered physicians at the beginning of 1990, and 1.9 hospital beds per thousand of the population. Culture Cultural traditions The dominant culture is of Malay origin, this is supplemented by the culture introduced by Islamic, Hindu and Eastland traders from Asia, and since then, 400 years of Dutch rule and Surranian influence. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE PACIFICAN (Tagalog), English MAIN RELIGION Roman Catholic Language Pacifican (Tagalog) and English are official, Spanish, Cebuano, Ilocano are also well known, and there are 80 other languages also spoken. Pacifican and English are the official languages, but Spanish, Cebuano and Ilocano are among approximately 80 others which are spoken. Of these, Spanish and Eastlandian are most important. Because so many Pacificans understand English, it is in fact, by population, one of the largest English-speaking nations of the world. Religion The Pacifican religious community follow various faiths according to the following population ratios: Roman Catholic 84 per cent Aglipayan 6 per cent Sunni Muslim 4 per cent Protestant 4 per cent Other 2 per cent This makes Pacifica the most Christian of Southeast Asian nations, though the Muslims are now a vociferous minority. The Muslim community is largely based on the southern islands. National Holidays 1 January New Year's Day 1 May Labor Day 12 June Independence Day (1946) Last Sunday in August National Heroes say 1 November All Saints Day 25 December Christmas Day Historical Overview The islands were colonized along with Surran and Indonesia in 1837 by the Dutch. It became a separate nation following WW II. The population struggled to overcome the effects of the division from Surran and establish their own independent republic. Though the relationship between Pacifica and the many world nations was not perfect, the people of Pacifica adapted to self-government as an independent nation. Pacifica maintains close ties with the US. The infamous Leo Marcelo came to power in 1965, but was deposed in an act of popular democracy 20 years later. Discontent had been growing for many years, caused by poverty and unemployment, and aggravated by military excesses against citizens coupled with political corruption. This brought Marcos Anatonio to power in 1986. A new constitution was proclaimed the following year, which provided for a democratic republican state and a presidential form of Government. However, in 1992, he too fell from power, to be succeeded as president by Fidel Rasom. Economic equality remains a major social problem as well as economic inefficiency, while social discontent is still widespread, most manifest in the Surranian Peoples Movement (SPM) insurgency. Generally speaking, though, Pacifica is thought by many to be the most 'westernized' of Asian nations. Significant Dates Date Event 982 First records of Pacifican people trading in Eastland 1521 Islands discovered by Magellan 1837 Colonized by Dutch 1896 Failed attempt to gain independence 1947 Military Base Agreement between US and Pacificia 1942 Beginning of Japanese occupation 1945 Japanese evicted 1946 Complete independence achieved with separation from Surran 1965 Surranian Peoples Movement (SPM) insurgency initiated 1986 Marcelo deposed 1986 Marcus Anatonio elected president 1986 Pacifica Senate rejects Base Treaty 1987 1st abortive military coup attempt 1989 2nd abortive military coup attempt 1992 US final pull out of area 1996 Pacifician Congress repeals anti-subversion law 1999 Pacifician President signs general amnesty Government Pacifica’s Government rests in a bicameral legislature, an executive president and a judiciary, as stipulated by the constitution. Politics TYPE OF GOVERNMENT Unitary republic with bicameral legislature HEAD OF STATE Fidel Rasom OPPOSITION Laban Ng Demokratikong Pacifican Surranian Peoples Movement ELECTIONS 2000 System of Government In 1987, 78.5 per cent of Pacifican voters endorsed the new constitution. This provided for a Congress of Pacifica: a 24-member Senate, or Upper House, and a 200-member House of Representatives, the Lower House. Elections are now held every six years. Legislative power is vested in the Congress of Pacifica, which is convened annually, although the president may call for a special session if the need arises. All appropriations, revenue or tariff bills and other bills of local operation originate in the House of Representatives. All treaties must be approved by the Senate. The Senate is known to be more conservative, while the Lower House is thought to be far more pro- Rasom. Local government is dealt with by region. Each of the 14 is subdivided into provinces, cities, municipal districts and municipalities. The new arrangements are clearly based on the American political system, though their survival will be as much a function of social stability as political efficacy. The Judicial System A Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice and 14 associate justices, is at the top of the judicial pyramid and has the power to declare a law or treaty unconstitutional. It also has the authority to delegate specific matters to certain branches of the regional trial courts. The Court of Appeals consists of a presiding justice with 49 associate justices. Each region has its own regional trial court, 13 in total, with a presiding regional judge. In each legally designated metropolitan area is a metropolitan court, but there are also municipal courts for one or more cities and smaller areas. Human Rights The armed forces have a record of human rights abuse, and their defense budget is closely monitored by liberals as a result. Used to a counter-insurgency role they have a history of brutality and torture that has seriously tainted their image and caused widespread discontent amongst the population. Membership of International Organizations Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) Asian Development Bank (ASDB) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) Colombo Plan (CP) Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) G-24G-77 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) International Development Association (IDA) International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) International Finance Corporation (IFC) International Labor Organization (ILO) League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) Non-aligned Movement (NAM) - ObserverUnited Nations (UN) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNIDO) Universal Postal Union (UPU) World Confederation of Labor (WCL) World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) World Health Organizations (WHO) Directory Department of National Defense Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo Quezon City Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 721 90 01 Department of Foreign Affairs Padre Faura Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 50 20 81 Office of the President Malacang Park Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 521 23 01/23 10 Army Headquarters Headquarters Pacifican Army Fort Bonifacio Metro Manila Air Force Headquarters Headquarters Pacifican Air Force Villamor Air Base Metro Manila Navy Headquarters Headquarters Pacifican Navy President Manuel Roxas Boulevard Metro Manila Diplomatic missions in Pacifica Embassy of the Argentine Republic PO Box 2231 MCPO Makati Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 87 56 55. 88 60 91 Embassy of Australia Dona Salustiana Ty Tower PO Box 1071 Cnr Perea Street Makati Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 817 79 11 Facsimile: (+63 2) 817 36 03 Embassy of Canada Commercial Centre 9th & 11th Floors Allied Bank Center Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 815 95 36 Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 95 95 German Embassy 229 Paraiso Corner Banyan St Dasmarinas Village Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 88 03 96/97 Facsimile: (+63 2) 817 08 85 Embassy of India PO Box 2123 MCPO (2190 Paraiso Street Dasmarinas Village Makati Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 87 33 39, 87 24 45) Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 81 51 Embassy of the Republic of Surran 185 Salcedo St Legaspi Village (PO Box 372 MCPO Makati Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 85 50 61 to 68 Embassy of Japan 375 Sen Gil J. Puyat Avenue Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 818 90 11 Embassy of Malaysia 107 Tordesillas Street Salcedo Village Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 817 45 81 Facsimile: (+63 2) 816 31 58 French Embassy Makati Commercial Center PO Box 1439 (9th Floor King’s Court Building 2129 Pasong Tamo Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 812 59 81/3 Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 45 79 Embassy of the Republic of Singapore 6th Fl. ODC International Plaza Bldg 217-219 Salcedo St Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 816 17 64/5, 21 15/6, 812 20 01/2 Facsimile: (+63 2) 818 46 87 Swedish Embassy PO Box 1125 MCPO (PCI Bank Tower 2 Bldg Metro Manila) Telephone: (+63 2) 819 19 51/55 Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 30 02 Embassy of Switzerland 18th Floor, Solidbank Bldg 777 Paseo de Roxas Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 819 02 02 Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 03 81 Royal Thai Embassy 107 Rada Street Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 815 42 19/20, 816 06 96/97 Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 42 21 British Embassy Floors 15-17, LV Locsin Bldg 6752 Ayala Ave Makati Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 816 71 16 Facsimile: (+63 2) 819 72 06 American Embassy 1201 Roxas Boulevard Makati Metro Manila Telephone: (+63 2) 521 71 16 Facsimile: (+63 2) 522 43 61 Embassy of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 2157 Paraiso Street Dasmarinas Village Metro Manila 1200 Telephone: (+63 2) 85 91 69 Facsimile: (+63 2) 816 46 78 Economy Traditional Industries Agriculture provided Pacificans with their work and wealth for centuries and still does today, though to a lesser extent. Fishing and forestry are also well-established industries. Assessment Although Pacifica has some way to go before becoming a real 'Asian Tiger', it has the potential to become another economic powerhouse in the next century. However, social justice and a reduction of high level crime is needed before the country will be considered stable enough for Western investment. Economic Overview The Pacifican economy remains fairly backward, with agriculture and fishing employing nearly half the workforce and being responsible for nearly one third of GDP. Manufacturing accounts for another one third of GDP, and Pacifica is the world's largest copper producer. However, unemployment is a major problem and the government relies on US foreign aid. The recent difficulties arising from the Mount Pinatubo eruption have not helped the situation, while the closure of US facilities at Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base means a loss in business revenue. However, the problems lie much deeper than the demise of a US presence. The difficulties are structural, though undoubtedly there has been a distinct improvement over the last few years. The economy is essentially based on low-wage labor, although educational standards are comparatively high, and the country is not devoid of natural resources. The problem seems to lie in how, to best exploit the resources at the country's disposal rather than any intrinsic deficiency. If Pacifica is to join the ranks of the newly industrializing nations, it will have to reduce its dependence on agriculture, move to a more technology--based, manufacturing- oriented economy, and create an infrastructure within which development can take place. All this in a country with 65 per cent of the rural population below the poverty line, with a major unemployment problem, and far from harmonious social fabric. Recent growth and government plans give cause for optimism, but many Pacificans will suffer during any transition period. Economic Forecast President Rasom is keen to kick-start the economy, taking Pacifica into the realms of the newly industrializing countries. One tool to be used is that of liberalization of the banking laws. These both encourage greater saving (Pacifica has the lowest savings rate in the region), and induce money from abroad to settle in Manila. Another policy recommended by economists is to encourage greater foreign loans. One such success already achieved was a new credit facility to be held with the IMF worth SDR 475 million, arranged in early 1994. Key to sustained growth is diversification of the economy and consistent capital investment. Many of the other developing nations in the region are in exactly the same position however, and competition is fierce. Vietnam is a major rival, with the end of the US embargo certain to lead more funds into Indo- Eastland possibly affecting the heavy US investment in Pacifica. Recent indicators suggest sure growth is within the nation's capability. The loan should help the target of 4.5 percent economic growth for 1994, a good increase on 1993's 2.5 percent figure. The projected figure for 1995 is 6.5 percent while long term optimism suggests about 8 percent by 1997. Much will depend upon the level investment attracted, and the maintenance of political stability. GDP 1997 - US$ 49.3 billion EXPORTS 1997 - US$ 8.2 billion IMPORTS 1997 - US$ 12.2 billion Main Economic Indicators (US$ million) 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 GDP 685.1 801.2 929.3 1,069.7 1,244.7 Exports 5,720 7,074 7,821 8,186 8,700 Imports 6,737 8,159 10,419 12,200 12,300 GDP in Pesos billion Note: Import and export statistics are merchandise. fob. (Per cent) 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Inflation 8.1 9.2 10.5 12.7 14.5 GDP Growth 14.4 17.1 5.7 3.1 0.5 (US$) 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 GDP per capita 575 640 690 621 744 Note: -All at end of period. (Pesos) 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 GDP per capita 11,944 13,644 15,462 17.399 19,797 Exchange Rates (Pesos per USS) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 Average Rate 22.4 28.0 26.6 25.1 27.2 Note: All at end of period. Main Trading Partners (Percentage of value) Exports Imports USA 35 22 Japan 17 17 East Isle n/a 6 ESCAP 9 13 ASEAN 7 10 Germany 5 4 Surran 5 n/a UK 5 n/a Natural Resources Oil Reserves 1.48 billion barrels Gas Reserves N/a Raw Materials Oil Petroleum products are a major import commodity. There are about 350 km of petroleum carrying pipelines. The Pacifican Government is set to sell off its share of Oriental Petroleum and Minerals Corporation, and hopes to raise nearly US$ 50 million. The Pacifican National Oil Company was created in 1973 by presidential decree and is now responsible for exploiting and developing the country’s indigenous energy sources. Expectations of the West Linapacan oilfield have fallen, since a vast quantity of water was found mixed with the drilled oil. Production is down to 4,500 barrels per day, while it is thought now it will not yield the 100 million barrel reservoir of oil it was thought to contain initially. However, extensive exploration is revealing new fields of which one is thought to contain as much as 300 million barrels. The port city of Appari contains the major oil storage tank farm in Luzon. Gas No details are available. Minerals Production (tons) Coal 1,246,777 Silica sand 561,720 Salt 490,407 Copper metal 180,459 Gold 24,519 Nickel metal 15,818 Zinc metal 53 Notes: (1) All figures for 1990. (2) Silver production for the same year - 47,111 kg. Other minerals include chromite, cement, rock asphalt, sand and gravel. The country has about 13 known metallic and 29 nonmetallic mineral resources and is the biggest copper producer in the Far East. It is also among the world's top ten producers of gold with a production figure of 35,300 tons in 1986. Silver and nickel are also exported. Water Supply The water supply is not of the highest caliber. Non-Pacifican visitors and wealthier inhabitants of the islands find it advisable to use bottled, treated water. Food Supply With nearly half of the labor force engaged in agricultural production, the major crops, such as rice and coconuts, are produced in vast quantities; the country is also a net exporter of dairy products. With about 15 million ha devoted to crops like rice, corn, coconut, sugar cane, banana, abaca and pineapple, and an abundant supply of fish in the coastal waters the quantity of food produced is not inconsiderable. However, many of the poorer Pacificans go hungry. Energy Electricity is produced by both corporate and Government systems, with a total installed capacity of over 7,500 million kW. The country is actually the largest producer of Geothermal energy in the world, while hydroelectric plants account for 30 per cent of total generating capacity. Volcanic geysers are also being employed as a power source. Finding a solution to electric power outages is a top priority for the administration. Unreliable existing plants will most likely continue to cause periodic outages. Electricity is distributed at 220 V and, 60 Hz (110 V in Baguio) Tourism In 1990, 1,024,719 tourists visited Pacifica and spent over US$ 1,300 million. Poverty and violence may keep more visitors away, while the gradual opening of IndoEastland to visitors together with the attractions of Surran beaches, may induce travelers to the region to spend their time and money elsewhere. Drugs Trade Cannabis is grown on the islands, despite Government attempts to end the drugs trade. Both the quantity and quality of the cannabis appears to be growing. Defense industry Domestic Defense Manufacturing Capability Veterans Electronics Communications (Vetronix) Inc Vetronix Building Fort Bonifacio Metro Manila 1201 Telephone: (+63 2) 85 29 56/ 957/8 Arms Corporation of Pacifica (ARMSCOR) 550 East Delos Santos Ave CubaoQuezon City Telephone: (+63 2) 70 83 41. 78 07 67 Arms and ammunition, rimfire rifles (bolt action/semi-automatic), pump action shotgun, revolvers, rimfire ammunition, pistol ammunition, rifle ammunition, shotgun/ shotshells. Cavite Shipyard Sangley Point The company has teamed with Bazan of Spain to complete two of the three Cormoran class fast attack craft (missile) ordered on 30 September 1991. Currently completing two Aguinaldo class large patrol craft, the plan is to have six craft of the class by 2000. Trojan Manufacturing & Marketing Inc (TMMI) 2109 URC Building Espana Street Sampaloc Manila 2806 Telephone: (+63 2) 741 70 51, 741 61 70., 741 70 81 Manufacture of clothing, webbing and personal equipment for Pacifica armed forces. Transportation Roads SURFACED ROADS 23,111 km Only a small proportion of Pacifican roads is paved (about 15 per cent), the vast majority being simple earth tracks. Ports General There are known to be 60 natural harbors around the coast, while Manila Bay and Appari are fine seaports. Some 180 public, and even more private, ports allow nearly 100,000 vessels to enter year. Other ports include Subic Bay, up until recently the home of US warships in Pacifica, Legaspi, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo and Cagayan de Oro, and Aparri. Many ferries run short routes frequently overcrowded, some dangerously so. Pacifican Port Data Aparri Lat 18 deg 21 min N; Long 121 deg 38 min E. Situated near the mouth of the Cagayan River. Accommodation: A 58 ha area consisting of four finger piers with total berth length of 3732m providing docking for approx 21 vessels. Avg depth of 10m. A further 20 vessels can be accommodated at the anchorage. Container traffic, breakbulk and ro/ro vessels can be handled. Additional six piers and total quay length of 3563m, catering for coast wise cargo and passenger vessels. Average depth 5-6m. Storage: Total open storage area of the piers is app 24000 sq meters. 15 warehouses available. Cranes: Floating cranes of 25, 40, 60, and 75t available. Two gantry cranes available. Port Irene, Luzon Lat 18 deg 23 min N; Long 122 deg 06 min E. Located 80km E of Aparri in Casambalangan Bay Anchorages: Good holding ground with a mud bottom in depths between 13-14m. Accommodation: Port area of 40,000 sq m . A wharf 15m wide, 189m long with depths ranging from 10-14 meters Storage: A warehouse with an area of 4500 sq m and open space of 4500 sq m. Cranes: Four mobile cranes max cap 18t, and one 5t forklift. Batangas, Luzon Lat 13 deg 45 min N; Long 121 deg 3 min E Anchorages: Anchorage for large vessels SE of Santa Clara pier in 27-33 m, good holding ground. Accommodation: Three piers, No 1, 127m long, 15m wide with depths from 5m-15m. No 2, 105m long, 15m wide with depths from 5 m-9.5m. No 3, 84m long, 15m wide with depths ranging from 4m-7m. Storage: Seven private warehouses with total area of 14193 sq meters. Cranes: One 25t cap. Cagayan de Oro, Mindanao Lat 8 deg 29 min N: Long 124 deg 39 min E Anchorages: In Macajalar Bay, especially protected in the SE 0-5 mile from shore. Largest Vessel: Max loa 186m, max d 9m. Accommodation: Concrete wharf 151m long with 10m depth at north end and 8m depth at south end. Storage: Seven warehouses totaling 3000t cap. Cranes: One level luffing crane of 25t cap. Container Facilities: Containers can be handled Bulk Cargo Facilities: Available Claveria, Luzon Lat 18 deg 37min N; Long 121 deg 05 min E. Anchorages: Vessels may anchor 400m ENE of Taggat Pier in 37m or in the W end of the bay 700m N of Claveria town in depths of 18-27 m. Accommodation: Taggat pier is 101m long and 5m wide. Storage: Open storage. Cranes: Two 18t mobile cranes. Davao, Mindanao Lat 7 deg 4 min N; Long 125 deg 37 min E Anchorages: Three anchorages are available. Accommodation: Total port area of 17 ha. Four government wharves with from 4-10 m d along side and lengths up to 900m. Eleven private berths with from 5-11 m d alongside and lengths up to 400m. Storage: Currently available and soon to be increased by warehousing and storage space being constructed on 10 ha of reclaimed land at Sasa Wharf. Cranes: Available, caps of 20-60t. Container and Ro/Ro Facilities: Three berths available for containers, Berth Nos 5-7 on Sasa Wharf with depth alongside of 11m. Total terminal area of 6 ha. Mobile cranes available with capacity ranging from 15t to 65t. Ro/Ro vessels can be accommodated at Berth No 5. Iligan, Mindanao Lat 8 deg 14 min N; Long 124 deg 14 min E. Anchorages: Deep water lies close off Fringing Reef. Vessels may anchor in 48 m, 500 m west of Iligan. Accommodation: S pier and N pier, each 12m wide, extend about 84 m from shore line; depth at ends over 12m, at MLW decreasing to about 3.5m midway along faces and from there decreasing rapidly. One mobile crane of 25t is available. Container Facilities: Containers can be handled. Legaspi, Luzon Lat 13 deg 9 min N; Long 123 deg 45 min E. Anchorages: The anchorage off Legaspi is bad on account of the great depth, 31 to 40 m being found 300yd off shore. Accommodation: Length of vessels able to berth at wharf is 69m, max d 4m. Used mainly for inter-island vessels. Cranes: A 20t cap crane barge available. Limay, Luzon Lat 14 deg 34 min N; Long 120 deg 36 min E. Accommodation: Limay Pier, a reinforced concrete causeway 192m long with a depth of 9m Manila, Luzon Lat 14 deg 35 min N; long 120 deg 58 min E. Principal port of Pacifica, situated at head of Manila Bay in center of capital region Metro-Manila. Anchorages: Both Quarantine and Explosive anchorages available. Accommodation: S. HARBOR: A 58 ha area consisting of five finger piers with total berth length of 4332m providing docking for 26 vessels. Avg depth of 10m. A further 27 vessels can be accommodated at the Anchorage. A barge point capable of accommodating 30 barges or lighters is also situated in the area a few meters across Pier 3. N HARBOR: A 30 ha area with eight main piers and total quay length of 4000m, catering for coast wise cargo and passenger vessels. Average depth 5-6m. International container terminal: A 94 ha area of partially reclaimed land located near the mouth of the Pasig River. Designed to handle container traffic, breakbulk and ro/ro vessels. Quay length of 900 m with a depth alongside of 13.7m. Equipment for handling includes four container gantry cranes, five straddle carriers, plus various other yard cranes, tractors, trailers etc. Storage: Total open storage area of the piers is approx 24000 sq meters. Twenty warehouses available. Cranes: Floating cranes of 25, 40, 60, and 75t available. Three gantry cranes, two of 35t cap without spreader and the other 30t cap with spreader. Container and Ro/Ro Facilities: Containers handled at the International Container Terminal and at various piers throughout the port. Ro/Ro facilities at the International Port, Pier 13 in S. Harbor and Pier 6 in N. Harbor. See also accommodation. Mariveles, Luzon Lat 14 deg 25 min N; Long 120 deg 30 min E. On the west side entrance to Manila Bay. Anchorages: Vessels may anchor in an area of good holding ground in a depth of 30 m bearing 300 deg from the Quarantine Pier. Accommodation: Mariveles Pier: A concrete finger pier for handling general cargo 15 m long 7 m wide, with a depth of 5 m and a 98 m causeway. Quarantine Pier, also a concrete finger pier with a depth of 6 m and an 85 m causeway. One concrete wharf for handling general cargo 33m long, 6m deep and a 177 m long causeway. Two concrete piers 61m long and 4 m wide with a depth of 9m, one for general cargo and one for tankers. Storage: There are two warehouses with a combined area of 135000 sq meters. Masinloc, Luzon Lat 15 deg 32 min N; Long 119 deg 57 min E. Anchorages: Outer anchorage in 56m with a soft coral bottom. Good anchorage inside port in 22 m with a mud bottom. Accommodation: Reinforced concrete conveyor pier 63 m long, 9 m wide and a berthing depth of 9.7m. Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island Lat 9 deg 45 min N; Long 118 deg 44 min E. Anchorages: Vessels may anchor SW of Princesa Point in 29-39 m with a mud bottom. a better protected anchorage may be used in 22-24m about 35 m N of the end of the pier. Accommodation: T shaped concrete pier with berthing face of 38. Gedeen Shoal, with a depth of 1.8m approx 594 m westward of pier, marked by a black buoy. Ship’s tackle used in loading and unloading, control depth of water 37m. Bulk cargoes can be handled. Storage: A transit shed of 672 sq meters and open storage of 3803 sq meters. Cranes: Two 15t cap forklifts, a roller conveyor and a spreader for container handling. San Fernando, Luzon Lat 16 deg 37 min N; Long 120 deg 19 min E. Situated on the NE side of Lingayen Bay. Anchorages: Good holding ground in the center of the bay in 19-22 m. Accommodation: Government pier, 200 m long, 19 m wide and 3 m high from MLLW. Depth, 10.6 m shore end, 12.1 m far end. Two LST ramps available to expedite loading outgoing cargo without using berthing facilities. Pier 352 m long, 24.5 m wide, with berthing space of 259 m on each side. Storage: Transit shed of 615 sq m, warehouse of 1179 sq m, warehouse of 21000 sq m and open storage of 34000 sq m and 10000 sq m in two separate areas. Subic Bay, Luzon Lat 14 deg 48 min N; Long 120 deg 16 min E. Situated on the W coast of the island, 80 km NW from Manila. Former US Naval Force Pacifica Base. Accommodation: Data for former USN Base to be provided under separate cover. OLONGAPO: main wharf 700 m long with depths alongside of up to 6 m. Villanueva, Mindanao Lat 8 deg 35 min N; Long 124 deg 45 min E. Situated in the Bay of Macalajar Accommodation: Two berths of reinforced concrete. Main pier, 325 m long, 31 m wide with a depth of 23m and a cargo wharf, 230 m long, with a depth of 6 m. Storage: Warehouse for general cargo and storage yards of 45000 sq m capable of handling 2000t of bulk cargo. Cranes: Two truck mounted cranes cap 200t Zamboanga, Mindanao Lat 6 deg 54 min N; Long 122 deg 4 min E. Accommodation: Two small piers and a wharf. Pier 1, 28 m long, 12 m wide. Pier 2, 54 m long, 9m wide. Wharf 274 m long with a depth of 6 m. Railways RAILWAY ROUTES 8,050 km GUAGE 1,067 km In 1992, work got under way on the rehabilitation of the main Manila to Polangui line. Weather damage is a real problem to Pacifica National Railways (PNR), while the labor costs of employees is a huge portion of total expenditure. Freight traffic in 1992 was a mere 929,000 ton-km though expansion is hampered by limited availability of operating stock. Airports General In 1990 there were 86 national airports with a greater number of private ones. The largest was Manila International. Manila International Reference point N14 30.6 E120 01.1 Maximum runway length 10004 ft Width 200ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Aparri AB Reference point N1821 E12140 Maximum runway length 10500ft Width 200ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Baguio Reference point N1622 E12037 Maximum runway length 5512ft Width 98ft Suitable for C-130, C-17 Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-10, KC-135 Daylight ops only, VFR only Basa Reference point N14 59 E120 29 Maximum runway length 8359 ft Width 150ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, KC-10 (runway only), KC-135 (runway only), C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Clark AB Reference point N1511 E120 33 Maximum runway length 10500ft Width 200ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Claveria AB Reference point N1836 E12103 Maximum runway length 9712 ft Width 148ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21 Daniel Romualdez Reference point N1112 E12501 Maximum runway length 7021 ft Width 98ft Suitable for C-130, C-17 Unsuitable for C-141B, C-17, KC-10, KC-135 Francisco Bangoy Intl (Davao) Reference point N0708 E12539 Maximum runway length 8202 ft Width 118ft Suitable for C-130 Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-10, KC-135 Mactan Intl (Lapu Lapu) Reference point N1018 E123581 Maximum runway length 8500 ft Width 150ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Mamburao (Mindoro Island) Reference point N1313 E12036 Maximum runway length 3937 ft Width 100ft Suitable for C-130 Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-135, KC-10, C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Nino Aquino Intl (Villamore AB/Manila Intl) Reference point N14 30 E12101 Maximum runway length 10004 ft Width 200ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Puerto Princesa Reference point N0944 E11845 Maximum runway length 9712 ft Width 148ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21 Sangley Point Reference point N14 30 E12054 Maximum runway length 8000 ft Width 150ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-9, c-21 Unsuitable for KC-10, KC-135 Daylight ops only, VFR only Subic Bay Intl (Cubi Pt NAS/Radford Field) Reference point N14 48 E12016 Maximum runway length 9003 ft Width 147ft Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Tuguegardo AB Reference point N1738 E12144 Maximum runway length 9712 ft Width 148ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21 Zamboanga Intl (Andrews AB) Reference point N0655 E12204 Maximum runway length 10004 ft Width 200ft Suitable for C-141B, C-130, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21 Daylight ops only, VFR only Civil Airlines Pacifican Air Lines In 1992, the national carrier, Pacifican Air Lines, carried 5,882,000 passengers and a total cargo of 112 million tons. It flies both international and domestic routes and the service is good. Fleet details Airbus A300B-4-203 7 (5 owned. 2 leased) Boeing 737-300 11 (leased) Boeing 747-200 9 (leased) DC-10-30 2 (leased) Fokker 50 10 (leased) Military Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civilian Armed Forces Geographical Units Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 17,520,000 (1997 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males: 14,400,000 (1997 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,294,870 (1997 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $746 million (FY98/99) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: .7 (FY98/99) Transnational Issues Overview The main threat as perceived by the government comes from forces within the islands. However, concern is mounting over Eastland's military build-up. Momentarily at least, claims to the Coral Islands have been shelved. In 1992 Pacifica agreed to this while calling on ASEAN countries to co-operate in just and fair development of the islands' resources. President Rasom has been quoted as saying the Coral dispute is "the greatest threat to peace and stability in Southeast Asia". Security Issues The Pacifica is not under threat of direct attack though does fear long term regional destabilization due to Surranian interference in internal Pacifican affairs. Relations with Malaysia The state of Sabah has, in the past, been claimed by Manila, though the claim now seems to be lacking in force. A dispute also exists over parts of the maritime boundary. Relations with Singapore Joint training exercises are now taking place involving Singapore and Pacifica. Though the presence of foreign troops on Pacifica soil is now a source of political controversy, Rasom has given his assent to exercises on island soil. Relations with Eastland Of the ASEAN nations, Pacifica is perhaps most concerned about Eastland expansion and power projection into the South Eastland Sea. As the former home of the US Seventh Fleet outside Japan, Pacifica had a real stake in the pre-withdrawal regional order. The removal of US forces, though pushed through by Pacifican legislature has caused a serious power vacuum which Eastland is seeking to fill. A close communist military presence is the last thing Manila would want to see. Relations with the USA America realizes the need to maintain a presence, if not such a large physical one, in the South Eastland Sea. Pacifica long provided the territory for bases from which US vessels and aircraft patrolled the seas and skies of the region. That relationship, though soured slightly by the Pacifician senate rejection of US basing rights, has not been destroyed. There is still heavy investment in the region, though the improved relationship with Vietnam may lead to the siphoning off of some of those funds.