Republic of Pacifica

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					Republic of Pacifica


Major characteristics An archipelago in the South Eastland Sea to the northeast of Surran,
Pacifica is a cluster of islands of which only a third are named, yet as a whole has a
population greater than that of most European nations. Though struggling against civil
disorder and socio-economic inequality it aims to achieve the status of a newly
industrializing nation in the near future.

Pacifica’s 7,100 islands are split into three geographic regions, Luzon, Visayas and
Mindanao. About 15 million ha, almost half the nation's land area, is classed as
timberland. It is mountainous with largely narrow, flat coastal strips.

Only 1,000 of the 7,100 islands that make up Pacifica are inhabited. Luzon and
Mindanao being the largest, covering 66 percent of the total land area. The islands are
characterized by volcanic interior mountains with coastal areas of flat lowlands.

Land area

AREA                  300,000 sq km
ELEVATION             Sea level to 2954 m
LATITIUDE             5-21 degrees North
LAND BORDERS          None

Regional Variations

The most important part of the geography is the central plain of Luzon, which is both a
population center and rice producing area. Another notable feature is the twenty or so
active volcanoes dotting the islands. Most of the population is clustered on a very few
islands, particularly Luzon and Mindanao.

Urban Centers

 City                                                          Population
 Manila                                                        1,728,000
 Quezon City                                                   1,326,000
 Cebu                                                          552,000
 Caloocan                                                      525,000
 Appari                                                        450,000
Operational Movement
A nation of islands provides its own unique barriers to swift movement. The transport
infrastructure differs widely across islands, a function of the population concentration on
relatively few of the landmasses. Certainly, the railway industry is small, concentrated
largely on Luzon, and the ferry service between islands is notorious. For the visitor,
travel in the south can be dangerous due to communist rebels and Muslim separatists.


Riverine Network                  3,300 km
Coastline                         18,400 km


These inland waterways are suited only to small craft of less than 1.5 m draft.


The coastline of Pacifica includes one of the finest, seaports in Asia, Manila Bay. There
are 167 million ha of territorial water surrounding the islands.

Time Zone
GMT +8

Equatorial/tropical monsoon, varying according to island locations.

Temperature and Rainfall

Manila (elevation 14 m)

             AVG Temp                    AVG Humidity Rainfall
             min    max        0600h     1300h        (mm)
Annual       23     32         89.5      65.5         2,085
Jan-.Mar     21     31         87        59           54
Apr-Jun      24     34         88        61           417
Jul-Sep      24     31         92        73           1,210
Oct-Dec      22     31         91        69           404

Regional Variations

The southern islands are equatorial with a lot of rain. Central and more northern islands
have a climate similar to that of Indo-Eastland, monsoon type with a single season of
heavy rain. Rainfall is particularly heavy over mountainous regions where temperatures
also tend to be lower.



Population            68,080,000
Race                  Mixed


The bulk of the population is Malay in origin. However, the influence of both
Americans, Dutch and Spanish are to be seen, while the Eastlanders also form a small

Age Structure
Under age 15              40.1 percent
Over age 60                5.3 per cent

Ethnic Groups
Tagalog                    30 per cent
Surranian                  24 per cent
Ilocano                    10 per cent
Hiligaynon Ilongo           9 per cent
Bicol                       6 per cent
Samar-Leyte                 4 per cent
Other                      17 per cent

200 per sq km.

Growth Rate
2.4 per cent per annum.

Births and Deaths
Birth rate per 1,000 population (1992)     28
Death rate per 1,000 population (1992)      7
Life expectancy (female)                   67
Life expectancy (male)                     63

Health and Medical

Medical services available and general state of health are very much a function of
individual circumstances. For those who are forced to search through rubbish for scraps,
health and hygiene can only be of secondary importance. Yet for those able to use them
there were 60,000 registered physicians at the beginning of 1990, and 1.9 hospital beds
per thousand of the population.


Cultural traditions

The dominant culture is of Malay origin, this is supplemented by the culture introduced
by Islamic, Hindu and Eastland traders from Asia, and since then, 400 years of Dutch rule
and Surranian influence.

MAIN RELIGION                Roman Catholic

Pacifican (Tagalog) and English are official, Spanish, Cebuano, Ilocano are also well
known, and there are 80 other languages also spoken.

Pacifican and English are the official languages, but Spanish, Cebuano and Ilocano are
among approximately 80 others which are spoken. Of these, Spanish and Eastlandian are
most important. Because so many Pacificans understand English, it is in fact, by
population, one of the largest English-speaking nations of the world.


The Pacifican religious community follow various faiths according to the following
population ratios:
 Roman Catholic                              84 per cent
 Aglipayan                                   6 per cent
 Sunni Muslim                                4 per cent
 Protestant                                  4 per cent
 Other                                       2 per cent

This makes Pacifica the most Christian of Southeast Asian nations, though the Muslims
are now a vociferous minority. The Muslim community is largely based on the southern

National Holidays

1 January                                              New Year's Day
1 May                                                  Labor Day
12 June                                                Independence Day (1946)
Last Sunday in August                                  National Heroes say
1 November                                             All Saints Day
25 December                                            Christmas Day

Historical Overview
        The islands were colonized along with Surran and Indonesia in 1837 by the
Dutch. It became a separate nation following WW II. The population struggled to
overcome the effects of the division from Surran and establish their own independent
republic. Though the relationship between Pacifica and the many world nations was not
perfect, the people of Pacifica adapted to self-government as an independent nation.
Pacifica maintains close ties with the US.
        The infamous Leo Marcelo came to power in 1965, but was deposed in an act of
popular democracy 20 years later. Discontent had been growing for many years, caused
by poverty and unemployment, and aggravated by military excesses against citizens
coupled with political corruption. This brought Marcos Anatonio to power in 1986. A
new constitution was proclaimed the following year, which provided for a democratic
republican state and a presidential form of Government. However, in 1992, he too fell
from power, to be succeeded as president by Fidel Rasom.
        Economic equality remains a major social problem as well as economic
inefficiency, while social discontent is still widespread, most manifest in the Surranian
Peoples Movement (SPM) insurgency. Generally speaking, though, Pacifica is thought
by many to be the most 'westernized' of Asian nations.

Significant Dates

Date   Event

982    First records of Pacifican people trading in Eastland
1521   Islands discovered by Magellan
1837   Colonized by Dutch
1896   Failed attempt to gain independence
1947   Military Base Agreement between US and Pacificia
1942   Beginning of Japanese occupation
1945   Japanese evicted
1946   Complete independence achieved with separation from Surran
1965   Surranian Peoples Movement (SPM) insurgency initiated
1986   Marcelo deposed
1986   Marcus Anatonio elected president
1986   Pacifica Senate rejects Base Treaty
1987   1st abortive military coup attempt
1989   2nd abortive military coup attempt
1992   US final pull out of area
1996   Pacifician Congress repeals anti-subversion law
1999   Pacifician President signs general amnesty

Pacifica’s Government rests in a bicameral legislature, an executive president and a
judiciary, as stipulated by the constitution.

            TYPE OF GOVERNMENT                Unitary republic with bicameral legislature
            HEAD OF STATE                     Fidel Rasom
            OPPOSITION                        Laban Ng Demokratikong Pacifican
                                              Surranian Peoples Movement

            ELECTIONS                         2000

System of Government

             In 1987, 78.5 per cent of Pacifican voters endorsed the new constitution.
This provided for a Congress of Pacifica: a 24-member Senate, or Upper House, and a
200-member House of Representatives, the Lower House. Elections are now held every
six years.
         Legislative power is vested in the Congress of Pacifica, which is convened
  annually, although the president may call for a special session if the need arises. All
  appropriations, revenue or tariff bills and other bills of local operation originate in the
  House of Representatives. All treaties must be approved by the Senate. The Senate is
  known to be more conservative, while the Lower House is thought to be far more pro-
         Local government is dealt with by region. Each of the 14 is subdivided into
  provinces, cities, municipal districts and municipalities.
         The new arrangements are clearly based on the American political system, though
  their survival will be as much a function of social stability as political efficacy.

 The Judicial System

        A Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice and 14 associate justices, is at the
top of the judicial pyramid and has the power to declare a law or treaty unconstitutional.
It also has the authority to delegate specific matters to certain branches of the regional
trial courts.
        The Court of Appeals consists of a presiding justice with 49 associate justices.
  Each region has its own regional trial court, 13 in total, with a presiding regional judge.
  In each legally designated metropolitan area is a metropolitan court, but there are also
  municipal courts for one or more cities and smaller areas.

 Human Rights

       The armed forces have a record of human rights abuse, and their defense budget is
 closely monitored by liberals as a result. Used to a counter-insurgency role they have a
 history of brutality and torture that has seriously tainted their image and caused
 widespread discontent amongst the population.

Membership of International Organizations

Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC)
Asian Development Bank (ASDB)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Customs Co-operation Council (CCC)
Colombo Plan (CP)
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
G-24G-77 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU)
International Development Association (IDA)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
International Labor Organization (ILO)
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)
Non-aligned Movement (NAM) - ObserverUnited Nations (UN)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNIDO)
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
World Health Organizations (WHO)


Department of National Defense
Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo
Quezon City
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 721 90 01

Department of Foreign Affairs
Padre Faura
Telephone: (+63 2) 50 20 81

Office of the President
Malacang Park
Telephone: (+63 2) 521 23 01/23 10
Army Headquarters
Headquarters Pacifican Army
Fort Bonifacio
Metro Manila

Air Force Headquarters
Headquarters Pacifican Air Force
Villamor Air Base
Metro Manila

Navy Headquarters
Headquarters Pacifican Navy
President Manuel Roxas Boulevard
Metro Manila

Diplomatic missions in Pacifica

Embassy of the Argentine Republic
PO Box 2231 MCPO
Metro Manila)
Telephone: (+63 2) 87 56 55. 88 60 91

Embassy of Australia
Dona Salustiana Ty Tower
PO Box 1071
Cnr Perea Street
Metro Manila)
Telephone: (+63 2) 817 79 11
Facsimile: (+63 2) 817 36 03

Embassy of Canada
Commercial Centre
9th & 11th Floors
Allied Bank Center
Metro Manila)
Telephone: (+63 2) 815 95 36
Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 95 95

German Embassy
229 Paraiso Corner Banyan St
Dasmarinas Village
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 88 03 96/97
Facsimile: (+63 2) 817 08 85

Embassy of India
PO Box 2123 MCPO
(2190 Paraiso Street
Dasmarinas Village
Metro Manila)
Telephone: (+63 2) 87 33 39, 87 24 45)
Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 81 51

Embassy of the Republic of Surran
185 Salcedo St
Legaspi Village
(PO Box 372 MCPO
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 85 50 61 to 68

Embassy of Japan
375 Sen Gil J. Puyat Avenue
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 818 90 11

Embassy of Malaysia
107 Tordesillas Street
Salcedo Village
Metro Manila
Telephone:     (+63 2) 817 45 81
Facsimile:     (+63 2) 816 31 58

French Embassy
Makati Commercial Center
PO Box 1439
(9th Floor
King’s Court Building
2129 Pasong Tamo
Metro Manila)
Telephone: (+63 2) 812 59 81/3
Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 45 79
Embassy of the Republic of Singapore
6th Fl. ODC International Plaza Bldg
217-219 Salcedo St
Metro Manila
Telephone:     (+63 2) 816 17 64/5, 21 15/6, 812 20 01/2
Facsimile:     (+63 2) 818 46 87

Swedish Embassy
PO Box 1125 MCPO
(PCI Bank Tower 2 Bldg
Metro Manila)
Telephone:    (+63 2) 819 19 51/55
Facsimile:    (+63 2) 815 30 02

Embassy of Switzerland
18th Floor, Solidbank Bldg
777 Paseo de Roxas
Metro Manila
Telephone:       (+63 2) 819 02 02
Facsimile:       (+63 2) 815 03 81

Royal Thai Embassy
107 Rada Street
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 815 42 19/20, 816 06 96/97
Facsimile: (+63 2) 815 42 21

British Embassy
Floors 15-17, LV Locsin Bldg
6752 Ayala Ave
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 816 71 16
Facsimile: (+63 2) 819 72 06

American Embassy
1201 Roxas Boulevard
Metro Manila
Telephone: (+63 2) 521 71 16
Facsimile: (+63 2) 522 43 61

Embassy of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
2157 Paraiso Street
Dasmarinas Village
Metro Manila 1200
Telephone: (+63 2) 85 91 69
Facsimile: (+63 2) 816 46 78


Traditional Industries

Agriculture provided Pacificans with their work and wealth for centuries and still does
today, though to a lesser extent. Fishing and forestry are also well-established industries.

Although Pacifica has some way to go before becoming a real 'Asian Tiger', it has the
potential to become another economic powerhouse in the next century. However, social
justice and a reduction of high level crime is needed before the country will be
considered stable enough for Western investment.

Economic Overview

         The Pacifican economy remains fairly backward, with agriculture and fishing
 employing nearly half the workforce and being responsible for nearly one third of GDP.
 Manufacturing accounts for another one third of GDP, and Pacifica is the world's largest
 copper producer. However, unemployment is a major problem and the government
 relies on US foreign aid.
         The recent difficulties arising from the Mount Pinatubo eruption have not helped
  the situation, while the closure of US facilities at Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air
  Base means a loss in business revenue. However, the problems lie much deeper than
  the demise of a US presence. The difficulties are structural, though undoubtedly there
  has been a distinct improvement over the last few years. The economy is essentially
  based on low-wage labor, although educational standards are comparatively high, and
  the country is not devoid of natural resources. The problem seems to lie in how, to best
  exploit the resources at the country's disposal rather than any intrinsic deficiency.
         If Pacifica is to join the ranks of the newly industrializing nations, it will have to
reduce its dependence on agriculture, move to a more technology--based, manufacturing-
oriented economy, and create an infrastructure within which development can take place.
All this in a country with 65 per cent of the rural population below the poverty line, with
a major unemployment problem, and far from harmonious social fabric. Recent growth
and government plans give cause for optimism, but many Pacificans will suffer during
any transition period.

Economic Forecast

        President Rasom is keen to kick-start the economy, taking Pacifica into the realms
of the newly industrializing countries. One tool to be used is that of liberalization of the
banking laws. These both encourage greater saving (Pacifica has the lowest savings rate
in the region), and induce money from abroad to settle in Manila. Another policy
recommended by economists is to encourage greater foreign loans. One such success
already achieved was a new credit facility to be held with the IMF worth SDR 475
million, arranged in early 1994. Key to sustained growth is diversification of the
economy and consistent capital investment. Many of the other developing nations in the
region are in exactly the same position however, and competition is fierce. Vietnam is a
major rival, with the end of the US embargo certain to lead more funds into Indo-
Eastland possibly affecting the heavy US investment in Pacifica.

        Recent indicators suggest sure growth is within the nation's capability. The loan
should help the target of 4.5 percent economic growth for 1994, a good increase on
1993's 2.5 percent figure. The projected figure for 1995 is 6.5 percent while long term
optimism suggests about 8 percent by 1997. Much will depend upon the level investment
attracted, and the maintenance of political stability.

          GDP                       1997 - US$ 49.3 billion
          EXPORTS                   1997 - US$ 8.2 billion
          IMPORTS                   1997 - US$ 12.2 billion

 Main Economic Indicators

                                                                  (US$ million)
                           1987           1988       1989         1990          1991

GDP                        685.1          801.2      929.3        1,069.7      1,244.7
Exports                    5,720          7,074      7,821        8,186        8,700
Imports                    6,737          8,159      10,419       12,200       12,300

                                   GDP in Pesos billion
 Note: Import and export statistics are merchandise. fob.

                                                     (Per cent)
                           1987           1988       1989         1990         1991
Inflation                  8.1            9.2        10.5         12.7         14.5
GDP Growth                 14.4            17.1      5.7          3.1          0.5

                           1987           1988       1989         1990         1991
GDP per capita             575            640        690          621          744

 Note: -All at end of period.

                            1987         1988        1989         1990         1991
GDP per capita             11,944        13,644      15,462       17.399       19,797
Exchange Rates (Pesos per USS)
                           1989           1990           1991    1992          1993
Average Rate               22.4           28.0           26.6    25.1          27.2
 Note: All at end of period.

Main Trading Partners
                (Percentage of value)
                     Exports       Imports
USA                     35           22
Japan                   17           17
East Isle               n/a          6
ESCAP                   9            13
ASEAN                   7            10
Germany                 5            4
Surran                  5            n/a
UK                    5              n/a

Natural Resources

Oil Reserves                      1.48 billion barrels
Gas Reserves                      N/a

Raw Materials


Petroleum products are a major import commodity. There are about 350 km of petroleum
carrying pipelines. The Pacifican Government is set to sell off its share of Oriental
Petroleum and Minerals Corporation, and hopes to raise nearly US$ 50 million. The
Pacifican National Oil Company was created in 1973 by presidential decree and is now
responsible for exploiting and developing the country’s indigenous energy sources.
        Expectations of the West Linapacan oilfield have fallen, since a vast quantity of
water was found mixed with the drilled oil. Production is down to 4,500 barrels per day,
while it is thought now it will not yield the 100 million barrel reservoir of oil it was
thought to contain initially. However, extensive exploration is revealing new fields of
which one is thought to contain as much as 300 million barrels. The port city of Appari
contains the major oil storage tank farm in Luzon.


No details are available.

                                        Production (tons)
Coal                                                 1,246,777
Silica sand                                            561,720
Salt                                                   490,407
Copper metal                                           180,459
Gold                                                    24,519
Nickel metal                                            15,818
Zinc metal                                                  53

Notes: (1) All figures for 1990.
       (2) Silver production for the same year - 47,111 kg.

Other minerals include chromite, cement, rock asphalt, sand and gravel.
        The country has about 13 known metallic and 29 nonmetallic mineral resources
and is the biggest copper producer in the Far East. It is also among the world's top ten
producers of gold with a production figure of 35,300 tons in 1986. Silver and nickel are
also exported.

Water Supply

The water supply is not of the highest caliber. Non-Pacifican visitors and wealthier
inhabitants of the islands find it advisable to use bottled, treated water.

Food Supply

With nearly half of the labor force engaged in agricultural production, the major crops,
such as rice and coconuts, are produced in vast quantities; the country is also a net
exporter of dairy products. With about 15 million ha devoted to crops like rice, corn,
coconut, sugar cane, banana, abaca and pineapple, and an abundant supply of fish in the
coastal waters the quantity of food produced is not inconsiderable. However, many of the
poorer Pacificans go hungry.


Electricity is produced by both corporate and Government systems, with a total installed
capacity of over 7,500 million kW. The country is actually the largest producer of
Geothermal energy in the world, while hydroelectric plants account for 30 per cent of
total generating capacity. Volcanic geysers are also being employed as a power source.

Finding a solution to electric power outages is a top priority for the administration.
Unreliable existing plants will most likely continue to cause periodic outages. Electricity
is distributed at 220 V and, 60 Hz (110 V in Baguio)

In 1990, 1,024,719 tourists visited Pacifica and spent over US$ 1,300 million. Poverty
and violence may keep more visitors away, while the gradual opening of IndoEastland to
visitors together with the attractions of Surran beaches, may induce travelers to the region
to spend their time and money elsewhere.

Drugs Trade

Cannabis is grown on the islands, despite Government attempts to end the drugs trade.
Both the quantity and quality of the cannabis appears to be growing.
Defense industry

Domestic Defense Manufacturing Capability

Veterans Electronics Communications (Vetronix) Inc

Vetronix Building
Fort Bonifacio
Metro Manila 1201
Telephone: (+63 2) 85 29 56/ 957/8

Arms Corporation of Pacifica (ARMSCOR)
550 East Delos Santos Ave
CubaoQuezon City
Telephone:     (+63 2) 70 83 41. 78 07 67
Arms and ammunition, rimfire rifles (bolt action/semi-automatic), pump action shotgun,
revolvers, rimfire ammunition, pistol ammunition, rifle ammunition, shotgun/ shotshells.

Cavite Shipyard

Sangley Point
       The company has teamed with Bazan of Spain to complete two of the three
Cormoran class fast attack craft (missile) ordered on 30 September 1991. Currently
completing two Aguinaldo class large patrol craft, the plan is to have six craft of the class
by 2000.

Trojan Manufacturing & Marketing Inc (TMMI)

2109 URC Building
Espana Street Sampaloc
Manila 2806
Telephone:     (+63 2) 741 70 51, 741 61 70., 741 70 81
Manufacture of clothing, webbing and personal equipment for Pacifica armed forces.


SURFACED ROADS                23,111 km

Only a small proportion of Pacifican roads is paved (about 15 per cent), the vast majority
being simple earth tracks.



There are known to be 60 natural harbors around the coast, while Manila Bay and Appari
are fine seaports. Some 180 public, and even more private, ports allow nearly 100,000
vessels to enter year. Other ports include Subic Bay, up until recently the home of US
warships in Pacifica, Legaspi, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo and Cagayan de Oro, and Aparri.
Many ferries run short routes frequently overcrowded, some dangerously so.

Pacifican Port Data


Lat 18 deg 21 min N; Long 121 deg 38 min E. Situated near the mouth of the Cagayan

Accommodation: A 58 ha area consisting of four finger piers with total berth length of
3732m providing docking for approx 21 vessels. Avg depth of 10m. A further 20 vessels
can be accommodated at the anchorage. Container traffic, breakbulk and ro/ro vessels can
be handled. Additional six piers and total quay length of 3563m, catering for coast wise
cargo and passenger vessels. Average depth 5-6m.

Storage: Total open storage area of the piers is app 24000 sq meters. 15 warehouses

Cranes: Floating cranes of 25, 40, 60, and 75t available. Two gantry cranes available.

Port Irene, Luzon

Lat 18 deg 23 min N; Long 122 deg 06 min E. Located 80km E of Aparri in
Casambalangan Bay

Anchorages: Good holding ground with a mud bottom in depths between 13-14m.
Accommodation: Port area of 40,000 sq m . A wharf 15m wide, 189m long with depths
ranging from 10-14 meters

Storage: A warehouse with an area of 4500 sq m and open space of 4500 sq m.

Cranes: Four mobile cranes max cap 18t, and one 5t forklift.

Batangas, Luzon

Lat 13 deg 45 min N; Long 121 deg 3 min E

Anchorages: Anchorage for large vessels SE of Santa Clara pier in 27-33 m, good
holding ground.

Accommodation: Three piers, No 1, 127m long, 15m wide with depths from 5m-15m.
No 2, 105m long, 15m wide with depths from 5 m-9.5m. No 3, 84m long, 15m wide with
depths ranging from 4m-7m.

Storage: Seven private warehouses with total area of 14193 sq meters.

Cranes: One 25t cap.

Cagayan de Oro, Mindanao

Lat 8 deg 29 min N: Long 124 deg 39 min E

Anchorages: In Macajalar Bay, especially protected in the SE 0-5 mile from shore.

Largest Vessel: Max loa 186m, max d 9m.

Accommodation: Concrete wharf 151m long with 10m depth at north end and 8m depth
at south end.

Storage: Seven warehouses totaling 3000t cap.

Cranes: One level luffing crane of 25t cap.

Container Facilities: Containers can be handled

Bulk Cargo Facilities: Available

Claveria, Luzon

Lat 18 deg 37min N; Long 121 deg 05 min E.
Anchorages: Vessels may anchor 400m ENE of Taggat Pier in 37m or in the W end of
the bay 700m N of Claveria town in depths of 18-27 m.

Accommodation: Taggat pier is 101m long and 5m wide.

Storage: Open storage.

Cranes: Two 18t mobile cranes.

Davao, Mindanao

Lat 7 deg 4 min N; Long 125 deg 37 min E

Anchorages: Three anchorages are available.

Accommodation: Total port area of 17 ha. Four government wharves with from 4-10 m
d along side and lengths up to 900m. Eleven private berths with from 5-11 m d alongside
and lengths up to 400m.

Storage: Currently available and soon to be increased by warehousing and storage space
being constructed on 10 ha of reclaimed land at Sasa Wharf.

Cranes: Available, caps of 20-60t.

Container and Ro/Ro Facilities: Three berths available for containers, Berth Nos 5-7 on
Sasa Wharf with depth alongside of 11m. Total terminal area of 6 ha. Mobile cranes
available with capacity ranging from 15t to 65t. Ro/Ro vessels can be accommodated at
Berth No 5.

Iligan, Mindanao

Lat 8 deg 14 min N; Long 124 deg 14 min E.

Anchorages: Deep water lies close off Fringing Reef. Vessels may anchor in 48 m, 500
m west of Iligan.

Accommodation: S pier and N pier, each 12m wide, extend about 84 m from shore line;
depth at ends over 12m, at MLW decreasing to about 3.5m midway along faces and from
there decreasing rapidly. One mobile crane of 25t is available.

Container Facilities: Containers can be handled.

Legaspi, Luzon

Lat 13 deg 9 min N; Long 123 deg 45 min E.
Anchorages: The anchorage off Legaspi is bad on account of the great depth, 31 to 40 m
being found 300yd off shore.

Accommodation: Length of vessels able to berth at wharf is 69m, max d 4m. Used
mainly for inter-island vessels.

Cranes: A 20t cap crane barge available.

Limay, Luzon

Lat 14 deg 34 min N; Long 120 deg 36 min E.

Accommodation: Limay Pier, a reinforced concrete causeway 192m long with a depth of

Manila, Luzon

Lat 14 deg 35 min N; long 120 deg 58 min E. Principal port of Pacifica, situated at head
of Manila Bay in center of capital region Metro-Manila.

Anchorages: Both Quarantine and Explosive anchorages available.

Accommodation: S. HARBOR: A 58 ha area consisting of five finger piers with total
berth length of 4332m providing docking for 26 vessels. Avg depth of 10m. A further
27 vessels can be accommodated at the Anchorage. A barge point capable of
accommodating 30 barges or lighters is also situated in the area a few meters across Pier
3. N HARBOR: A 30 ha area with eight main piers and total quay length of 4000m,
catering for coast wise cargo and passenger vessels. Average depth 5-6m. International
container terminal: A 94 ha area of partially reclaimed land located near the mouth of the
Pasig River. Designed to handle container traffic, breakbulk and ro/ro vessels. Quay
length of 900 m with a depth alongside of 13.7m. Equipment for handling includes four
container gantry cranes, five straddle carriers, plus various other yard cranes, tractors,
trailers etc.

Storage: Total open storage area of the piers is approx 24000 sq meters. Twenty
warehouses available.

Cranes: Floating cranes of 25, 40, 60, and 75t available. Three gantry cranes, two of 35t
cap without spreader and the other 30t cap with spreader.

Container and Ro/Ro Facilities: Containers handled at the International Container
Terminal and at various piers throughout the port. Ro/Ro facilities at the International
Port, Pier 13 in S. Harbor and Pier 6 in N. Harbor. See also accommodation.

Mariveles, Luzon
Lat 14 deg 25 min N; Long 120 deg 30 min E. On the west side entrance to Manila Bay.

Anchorages: Vessels may anchor in an area of good holding ground in a depth of 30 m
bearing 300 deg from the Quarantine Pier.

Accommodation: Mariveles Pier: A concrete finger pier for handling general cargo 15 m
long 7 m wide, with a depth of 5 m and a 98 m causeway. Quarantine Pier, also a
concrete finger pier with a depth of 6 m and an 85 m causeway. One concrete wharf for
handling general cargo 33m long, 6m deep and a 177 m long causeway. Two concrete
piers 61m long and 4 m wide with a depth of 9m, one for general cargo and one for

Storage: There are two warehouses with a combined area of 135000 sq meters.

Masinloc, Luzon

Lat 15 deg 32 min N; Long 119 deg 57 min E.

Anchorages: Outer anchorage in 56m with a soft coral bottom. Good anchorage inside
port in 22 m with a mud bottom.

Accommodation: Reinforced concrete conveyor pier 63 m long, 9 m wide and a berthing
depth of 9.7m.

Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island

Lat 9 deg 45 min N; Long 118 deg 44 min E.

Anchorages: Vessels may anchor SW of Princesa Point in 29-39 m with a mud bottom.
a better protected anchorage may be used in 22-24m about 35 m N of the end of the pier.

Accommodation: T shaped concrete pier with berthing face of 38. Gedeen Shoal, with a
depth of 1.8m approx 594 m westward of pier, marked by a black buoy. Ship’s tackle
used in loading and unloading, control depth of water 37m. Bulk cargoes can be handled.

Storage: A transit shed of 672 sq meters and open storage of 3803 sq meters.

Cranes: Two 15t cap forklifts, a roller conveyor and a spreader for container handling.

San Fernando, Luzon

Lat 16 deg 37 min N; Long 120 deg 19 min E. Situated on the NE side of Lingayen Bay.

Anchorages: Good holding ground in the center of the bay in 19-22 m.
Accommodation: Government pier, 200 m long, 19 m wide and 3 m high from MLLW.
Depth, 10.6 m shore end, 12.1 m far end. Two LST ramps available to expedite loading
outgoing cargo without using berthing facilities. Pier 352 m long, 24.5 m wide, with
berthing space of 259 m on each side.

Storage: Transit shed of 615 sq m, warehouse of 1179 sq m, warehouse of 21000 sq m
and open storage of 34000 sq m and 10000 sq m in two separate areas.

Subic Bay, Luzon

Lat 14 deg 48 min N; Long 120 deg 16 min E. Situated on the W coast of the island, 80
km NW from Manila. Former US Naval Force Pacifica Base.

Accommodation: Data for former USN Base to be provided under separate cover.
OLONGAPO: main wharf 700 m long with depths alongside of up to 6 m.

Villanueva, Mindanao

Lat 8 deg 35 min N; Long 124 deg 45 min E. Situated in the Bay of Macalajar

Accommodation: Two berths of reinforced concrete. Main pier, 325 m long, 31 m wide
with a depth of 23m and a cargo wharf, 230 m long, with a depth of 6 m.

Storage: Warehouse for general cargo and storage yards of 45000 sq m capable of
handling 2000t of bulk cargo.

Cranes: Two truck mounted cranes cap 200t

Zamboanga, Mindanao

Lat 6 deg 54 min N; Long 122 deg 4 min E.

Accommodation: Two small piers and a wharf. Pier 1, 28 m long, 12 m wide. Pier 2, 54
m long, 9m wide. Wharf 274 m long with a depth of 6 m.


RAILWAY ROUTES               8,050 km
GUAGE                        1,067 km

In 1992, work got under way on the rehabilitation of the main Manila to Polangui line.
Weather damage is a real problem to Pacifica National Railways (PNR), while the labor
costs of employees is a huge portion of total expenditure.
        Freight traffic in 1992 was a mere 929,000 ton-km though expansion is hampered
by limited availability of operating stock.



In 1990 there were 86 national airports with a greater number of private ones. The
largest was Manila International.

Manila International

Reference point                        N14 30.6 E120 01.1
Maximum runway length                  10004 ft
Width                                  200ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21

Aparri AB

Reference point                        N1821 E12140
Maximum runway length                  10500ft
Width                                  200ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only


Reference point                      N1622 E12037
Maximum runway length                5512ft
Width                                98ft
Suitable for C-130, C-17
Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-10, KC-135
Daylight ops only, VFR only


Reference point                       N14 59 E120 29
Maximum runway length                 8359 ft
Width                                 150ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, KC-10 (runway only), KC-135 (runway only),
C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Clark AB

Reference point                         N1511 E120 33
Maximum runway length                  10500ft
Width                                  200ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Claveria AB

Reference point                        N1836 E12103
Maximum runway length                  9712 ft
Width                                  148ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21

Daniel Romualdez

Reference point                      N1112 E12501
Maximum runway length                7021 ft
Width                                98ft
Suitable for C-130, C-17
Unsuitable for C-141B, C-17, KC-10, KC-135

Francisco Bangoy Intl (Davao)

Reference point                      N0708 E12539
Maximum runway length                8202 ft
Width                                118ft
Suitable for C-130
Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-10, KC-135

Mactan Intl (Lapu Lapu)

Reference point                        N1018 E123581
Maximum runway length                  8500 ft
Width                                  150ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21

Mamburao (Mindoro Island)

Reference point                      N1313 E12036
Maximum runway length                3937 ft
Width                                100ft
Suitable for C-130
Unsuitable for C-141B, C-5, KC-135, KC-10, C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Nino Aquino Intl (Villamore AB/Manila Intl)
Reference point                        N14 30 E12101
Maximum runway length                  10004 ft
Width                                  200ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21

Puerto Princesa

Reference point                        N0944 E11845
Maximum runway length                  9712 ft
Width                                  148ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21

Sangley Point

Reference point                       N14 30 E12054
Maximum runway length                 8000 ft
Width                                 150ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-9, c-21
Unsuitable for KC-10, KC-135
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Subic Bay Intl (Cubi Pt NAS/Radford Field)

Reference point                        N14 48 E12016
Maximum runway length                  9003 ft
Width                                  147ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-5, C-130, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Tuguegardo AB

Reference point                        N1738 E12144
Maximum runway length                  9712 ft
Width                                  148ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, C-17, C-9, C-21

Zamboanga Intl (Andrews AB)

Reference point                      N0655 E12204
Maximum runway length                10004 ft
Width                                200ft
Suitable for C-141B, C-130, KC-10, KC-135, C-9, C-21
Daylight ops only, VFR only

Civil Airlines
Pacifican Air Lines

In 1992, the national carrier, Pacifican Air Lines, carried 5,882,000 passengers and a total
cargo of 112 million tons. It flies both international and domestic routes and the service
is good.

Fleet details

Airbus A300B-4-203                                           7 (5 owned. 2 leased)
Boeing 737-300                                               11 (leased)
Boeing 747-200                                               9 (leased)
DC-10-30                                                     2 (leased)
Fokker 50                                                    10 (leased)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civilian Armed Forces Geographical Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 17,520,000 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 14,400,000 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,294,870 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $746 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: .7 (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues


         The main threat as perceived by the government comes from forces within the
islands. However, concern is mounting over Eastland's military build-up. Momentarily at
least, claims to the Coral Islands have been shelved. In 1992 Pacifica agreed to this while
calling on ASEAN countries to co-operate in just and fair development of the islands'
resources. President Rasom has been quoted as saying the Coral dispute is "the greatest
threat to peace and stability in Southeast Asia".

Security Issues
The Pacifica is not under threat of direct attack though does fear long term regional
destabilization due to Surranian interference in internal Pacifican affairs.

Relations with Malaysia

The state of Sabah has, in the past, been claimed by Manila, though the claim now seems
to be lacking in force. A dispute also exists over parts of the maritime boundary.

Relations with Singapore

Joint training exercises are now taking place involving Singapore and Pacifica. Though
the presence of foreign troops on Pacifica soil is now a source of political controversy,
Rasom has given his assent to exercises on island soil.

Relations with Eastland

Of the ASEAN nations, Pacifica is perhaps most concerned about Eastland expansion and
power projection into the South Eastland Sea. As the former home of the US Seventh
Fleet outside Japan, Pacifica had a real stake in the pre-withdrawal regional order. The
removal of US forces, though pushed through by Pacifican legislature has caused a
serious power vacuum which Eastland is seeking to fill. A close communist military
presence is the last thing Manila would want to see.

Relations with the USA

America realizes the need to maintain a presence, if not such a large physical one, in the
South Eastland Sea. Pacifica long provided the territory for bases from which US vessels
and aircraft patrolled the seas and skies of the region. That relationship, though soured
slightly by the Pacifician senate rejection of US basing rights, has not been destroyed.
There is still heavy investment in the region, though the improved relationship with
Vietnam may lead to the siphoning off of some of those funds.