Docstoc

An investigation into barbecue a

Document Sample
An investigation into barbecue a Powered By Docstoc
					An investigation
into barbecue
accidents.
                                                                            Page No
Contents
PART 1. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NUMBER AND NATURE OF BARBECUE ACCIDENTS     1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                             2

1.0   BACKGROUND                                                              5

2.0   THE STUDY AND ITS OBJECTIVES                                            6

3.0   ANALYSIS OF BARBECUE ACCIDENT DATA                                      7
      3.1  Burns Units                                                        7
      3.2 Accident and Emergency Departments                                  7
      3.3 General Practitioners                                               7
      3.4  Home Accident Surveillance System data                             7

4.0   BARBECUE ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN THE UK                                 8
      4.1   Number of barbecue accidents                                     8
      4.2 Severity of barbecue accidents                                     9
      4.3 Characteristics of people suffering barbecue accidents            10
      4.3.1 Gender                                                          10
      4.3.2 Age                                                             10
      4.3.3 Nature of the injuries                                          11
      4.4   High risks                                                      13

5.0   INTERNATIONAL ACCIDENT DATA                                           14

6.0   CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING                                             16

7.0   THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS                        19
      7.1   Market survey                                                   19
      7.2   Barbecue related sales figures                                  20
      7.3   Regional variation                                              21
      7.4   Survey of Standards                                             21
      7.4.1 General design issues                                           21
      7.4.2 Marking and instructions                                        24
      7.5   Returns, complaints and recalls                                 25
      7.6   Provision of safety information                                 25
      7.7   Supply of sample products for ergonomics appraisal              26
      7.7.1 Definition and Selection criteria                               26
      7.7.2 Testing                                                         27
      7.7.3 Safety information                                              32
                                                                                        Page No
Contents
8.0   THE USER PERSPECTIVE                                                              33
      8.1  Questionnaire                                                                33
      8.2 Group discussions                                                             33

9.0   PHASE 2. IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCT SAFETY ISSUES                                  35
      9.1  Nature of product involvement identified from HASS data                      35
      9.2 Product safety issues arising from ergonomics appraisals of sample products   38
      9.3 Input from the barbecue retail sector and consumers                           39

10.0 RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                    40
     10.1 Key safety messages for consumers                                             40
     10.1.1 Parental supervision                                                        40
     10.1.2 Inappropriate use of flammable liquids                                      40
     10.1.3 Action to take in the event of an accident                                  40
     10.1.4 Good barbecue use                                                           40
     10.2 The role of retailers and manufacturers                                       41
     10.2.1 Inappropriate use of flammable liquids                                      41
     10.2.2 Instructions and warnings                                                   41
     10.2.3 Siting of barbecues                                                         42
     10.2.4 Product packaging and design                                                42
     10.3 Future safety Standards                                                       43
     10.4 DTI publications                                                              43

11.0 CONCLUSIONS                                                                        44

APPENDIX
     1       Manufacturer’s and retailer’s questionnaire                                45
     2       Checklist for barbecue design specifications                               46
     3       Ergonomics appraisals of sample products                                   51
     4       Consumer’s questionnaire                                                   66
     5       Responses from consumer’s questionnaire                                    70
                                                                         Page No
Contents
PART 2. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING WARNINGS   73

1.0   INTRODUCTION                                                       74

2.0   CURRENT WARNINGS                                                   75

3.0   US WARNING                                                         76

4.0   CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING WARNING STUDY                            77
      4.1   Methodology                                                  77
      4.1.1 Investigation of pictograms                                  77
      4.1.2 Investigation of textual warnings                            78
      4.2 Results                                                        78
      4.2.1 Comprehension of the US pictogram                            78
      4.2.2 Impact of textual warning                                    79
      4.3 Conclusions                                                    79
      4.3.1 Comprehension of the US pictogram                            79
      4.3.2 Impact of textual warnings                                   80

5.0   RECOMMENDATIONS                                                    81

APPENDIX
     1     Charcoal suppliers contact details                            82
     2     Pictogram test sheet                                          83
     3     True/false statements                                         85
     4     Correct responses to true/false statements                    87
Part 1
An investigation into the number
and nature of barbecue accidents
Undertaken on behalf of Consumer Affairs Directorate
The Department of Trade and Industry


      Prepared by Hilary Tait MSc MA (Hons) RGN Richard Bird BA (Hons) PG dip


      June 2000




      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      The Research Institute of Consumer Ergonomics thanks and acknowledges the contributions
      of the following:
      The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, The Consumer Product Safety Commission
      in the US, The Gas Barbecue Association, and the manufacturers and retailers of barbecues who
      provided information. Particular thanks are extended to Homebase Limited, Coleman UK PLC
      and Landmann Limited for the supply of sample barbecues.
      The consumers who completed questionnaires and took part in the group discussions are
      also acknowledged.




                                                                                                      Page 1
         Executive summary
           In 1998 we estimated that there were over 1000 barbecue accidents requiring medical treatment         The main recommendations to improve product safety further are:
           in the UK. This report contains recommendations that aim to improve the level of safety associated
                                                                                                                 • Products should be supplied in robust packaging, which reduces the risk of product damage.
           with barbecue use.
                                                                                                                   The packaging should carry the manufacturer’s contact details, an estimation of time required
           In July 1999 the Research Institute of Consumer Ergonomics was asked by the DTI’s Consumer Affairs      to assemble and details of additional items and tools required (if appropriate).
           Directorate to carry out an investigation of accidents involving barbecues following information
                                                                                                                 • Products should be supplied with clear, concise instructions and safety information. These should
           gained in this study from the United States accident data; a second study was commissioned to
                                                                                                                   take the form of text supported by appropriate illustrations. (See DTI’s Government
           develop a suitable warning regarding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
                                                                                                                   consumer safety research: Writing safety instructions for consumer products, 1998).
           This first study was conducted in two main phases. Phase 1 analysed 3 main sources of data:
                                                                                                                 • On-product safety warnings are likely to prove valuable, but they should be carefully tested
           • Accident records:                                                                                     on consumers first to ensure they are as effective as possible.
             Home Accident Surveillance System (HASS) data, hospital burns units, accident and emergency
                                                                                                                 • Product design should aim to:
             departments and general practices in the UK; Accident data from the US.
                                                                                                                   1. make the assembly process easy (if required);
           • Manufacturers and retailers of barbecues:                                                             2. eliminate sharp edges or protrusions;
             A market survey of the current types of barbecues available;                                          3. ensure stability, especially when the grill is loaded;
             Information on industry code/guidelines;                                                              4. ensure that handles are insulated.
             Details of sales figures;
                                                                                                                 This study has also shown that there is a role for further safety education to help to raise awareness
             Details of any returns or complaints;
                                                                                                                 amongst consumers of the hazards of barbecuing. The key points are:
             Supply of sample products for ergonomics appraisal.
                                                                                                                 • Keep children away from a hot barbecue and provide adequate parental supervision;
           • Consumers:
             Information about using barbecues obtained through the use of questionnaires                        • Do not add lighter fuel or other flammable liquids to a burning or warm barbecue;
             and group discussions.                                                                              • Never leave a lit barbecue unattended;
           Phase 2 examined the findings of Phase 1 to identify the factors which play a part in accidents       • Never use a barbecue indoors or in confined areas because of the risk of carbon monoxide
           relating to product design, safety standards and consumer education. From these,                        poisoning which could kill;
           recommendations were made to reduce the number and severity of barbecue accidents.
                                                                                                                 • Be aware of what to do in the event of an accident occurring. Have first aid treatment and fire
           The findings of this study state that:                                                                  fighting equipment available;
           The rate of barbecue accidents occurring in the UK increased between 1994 and 1997 with a             • Limit the number of people in the vicinity of the barbecue;
           slight fall in 1998. This pattern mirrors the rate of sales of barbecues and fuels and accessories.
           The underlying trend is upwards, with a 54% increase over the five year period, and we feel it        • The person supervising the barbecue should not drink alcohol.
           will continue to rise in line with increases in barbecue sales unless preventative steps are taken.   The conclusion from the second study was, although barbecue related CO poisoning is rare in the
           Those most at risk of suffering an accident are young males, aged 7 and under. They are most likely   UK, with the increasing popularity in barbecue usage the incidence of CO poisoning may also increase.
           to receive a contact burn to the upper limbs, whilst playing in the vicinity of a burning barbecue.   Many consumers are unaware of the CO issue and need to be provided with effective warnings.
           They are most likely to require hospital treatment for their injuries and referral to an outpatient   This study has investigated the impact of 4 textual warnings and considered the effectiveness of
           clinic or General Practitioner.                                                                       the US pictogram on a British audience.

           There is a need for preventative measures to be taken to reduce the number of accidents that          The findings of this study indicate that the pictogram (without text) used in the US would not
           occur. These include the spreading of best practice to manufacturers, suppliers and retailers         be effective in the UK. However the textual warning used in the US was the preferred warning
           and consumer education.                                                                               of the British consumers questioned. Generally consumers like the details of the hazard to be
                                                                                                                 explained to them and to know of the consequences of ignoring a warning rather than simply
           This report provides a checklist of ergonomics specifications for barbecue design that is             being told not to do something.
           intended for manufacturers to enhance the usability and safety of their products. In addition,
           information is presented that seeks to improve the level of safety, which could feature in future     A number of warnings currently used in the UK indicate that barbecuing indoors is acceptable if
           industry codes of practice or a voluntary UK, European or International safety standard. Through      the area is well ventilated. The general opinion of the consumers involved in this study was that
           ergonomics appraisal of sample products, design issues were identified that relate to safe use.       people’s interpretation of “well ventilated” would differ and people should be advised that under
                                                                                                                 no circumstances should a barbecue be used indoors.



Page 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 3
                                                                                                         1.0 Background
         Manufacturers and retailers of charcoal are encouraged to take the outcome of this study into     The numbers of households owning a barbecue and the frequency of barbecuing seems
         consideration when reviewing the warnings currently carried on retail packaging and use the       to have increased significantly since the mid 1980s. Several factors are likely to have contributed
         following warning.                                                                                to this increase.
                                                                                                           There have been lifestyle changes that have led to the garden being viewed as an extension to
                                                                                                           the home and the garden has become an area of relaxation rather than a hobby activity. The media
                                                                                                           have played a part in the increase in barbecue use through the televising of cookery programmes
                                                                                                           dedicated to barbecue recipes and the impact of Australian soap operas. In addition, people
                                                                                                           generally have more disposable income than in the past and there have been several good summers
                                                                                                           in recent years. These factors have all contributed to an increase in the popularity of barbecuing.
                                                                                                           The Consumer Affairs Directorate at the DTI initiated research into barbecue related accidents
                                                                                                           when examination of HASS data (the DTI’s Home Accident Surveillance System) indicated that
                                                                                                           barbecue accidents were increasing at a greater rate than corresponded with the growth in
                                                                                                           popularity. In addition to the increase in numbers of accidents, the injuries sustained appeared
                                                                                                           to be of increasing severity. They wished to investigate the seriousness of the problem and to
         Following this research, discussions were held between major members of the Charcoal industry     identify what measures might be taken to help reduce it.
         and the Department. The outcome of these discussions were that the industry members involved,
         agreed to use the developed carbon monoxide warning on their product, when changes are made
         to their packaging.
         The Department has also put forward the recommendations to the European Standards Committee
         for inclusion into the draft standard for Barbecues.




Page 4                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 5
         2.0 The study and its objectives                                                                           3.0 Analysis of barbecue accident data
           In July 1999 the Research Institute of Consumer Ergonomics was commissioned to carry out an                  To gain a clearer understanding of the number and nature of barbecue accidents occurring in
           investigation into the number and nature of accidents involving barbecues. The study comprised               the UK, a request for relevant information was made to a variety of medical sources.
           two phases:
           Phase 1 included analysis of data on barbecue accidents from HASS, Burns Units, Accident and
           Emergency Departments and General Practices throughout the UK. In addition, data relating to             3.1 BURNS UNITS
           product range, sales, complaints or returns, and industry guidelines were sought from manufacturers          Due to the heat generated (of necessity) of the product and the need for an open fire, it was
           and retailers of barbecues and associated products.                                                          expected that at least some of the resulting injuries would be burns. Therefore we contacted
           Consumer’s experiences with barbecues were also investigated through questionnaires and                      Burns Units with a request for accident data. From the responses received it was clear that their
           group discussions.                                                                                           data was not stored in a way that would allow us to identify the involvement of a barbecue. This
                                                                                                                        was confirmed by the Secretary of the British Burn Association who holds all centralised burn
           Phase 2 built on the findings of Phase 1, and involved a more in-depth exploration of issues
                                                                                                                        injury data beyond that of HASS data. He reported that in-depth interrogation of the data was
           relating to product design. Information regarding the mechanism of injury recorded in the HASS
                                                                                                                        not possible.
           data allowed, to a certain degree, identification of the type of barbecue involved in the accident
           and in some cases, the part of, or accessory to, the barbecue. This information plus the findings
           of ergonomics appraisal of sample products and examination of current safety standards were
           incorporated into the provision of recommendations.                                                      3.2 ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS
           The overall aim of the study was to highlight best practice for manufacturers, suppliers and retailers       Of the responses received (26% response rate) from the 243 Accident and Emergency (A&E)
           and the key safety messages which need to be stressed to consumers.                                          Departments contacted throughout the UK, few were found to have computerised accident record
                                                                                                                        systems, beyond those included in the DTI’s HASS. Of those that did, the way in which the data
                                                                                                                        was coded did not allow identification of barbecue involvement. Many of the departments stated
                                                                                                                        that the only way to determine whether a particular accident was barbecue related, would be
                                                                                                                        for the medical records staff to select and read in full each of the medical records. Even then, the
                                                                                                                        fact that barbecue involvement would be noted was doubted.
                                                                                                                        Some of the A&E respondents provided anecdotal reports and estimates of cases from recollection.
                                                                                                                        The responses varied widely. One consultant reported that from the 2500 patients who present
                                                                                                                        at his hospital's A&E Department each year he did not recollect seeing any barbecue related
                                                                                                                        injuries in the last 10 years. A second consultant reported that 70 000 patients per year attend
                                                                                                                        his department and he estimated that he had seen 15 to 20 barbecue injury victims this summer.
                                                                                                                        This variation may be accounted for by geographical location, the former hospital being located
                                                                                                                        in the north of England and the latter in the south.



                                                                                                                    3.3 GENERAL PRACTITIONERS
                                                                                                                        A low response was received to the request for information from General Practitioners.
                                                                                                                        Responses that were received indicated that the method of recording medical data would not
                                                                                                                        allow detailed analysis.



                                                                                                                    3.4 HOME ACCIDENT SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM DATA
                                                                                                                        A keyword search of HASS data, from the previous 5 years, was conducted by the DTI,
                                                                                                                        to identify barbecue involvement. The search included LASS (Leisure Accident Surveillance
                                                                                                                        System) data as well.
                                                                                                                        231 cases were highlighted where barbecue involvement was the primary cause of injury.
                                                                                                                        The information from these selected cases is discussed in the following sections.

Page 6                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Page 7
         4.0 Barbecue accidents
             occurring in the UK
            The HASS data provided information on the following variables:                                              Chart 1 illustrates a clear upward trend in barbecue accidents, based on national estimates, over
                                                                                                                        the five year period.
            • Count – the number of accidents recorded;
            • Accident – a written description of the accident;
                                                                                                                        Chart 1 Barbecue accident trend
            • Article – the primary cause of the accident;
            • Mechanism – a description of how the article lead to the injury;                                   1200      National Estimate
                                                                                                                           of accidents in the UK
            • Activity – what the injured party was doing at the time the injury was sustained;
                                                                                                                 1000
            • Location – where the accident took place;
            • Injury – details of the injury sustained;                                                          800
            • Body part – which part of the body was injured;
                                                                                                                 600
            • Year – the year the patient presented at A&E;
            • Age – of the injured party in years, recorded as 0 if under 1 year old;                            400

            • Sex – of the injured party;
                                                                                                                 200
            • Outcome – the nature of the treatment and follow up procedure required.
            Analysis and interpretation of these variables allowed us to assess the nature of barbecue           Year         1994                  1995                1996                1997                 1998
            accidents occurring.

         4.1 NUMBER OF BARBECUE ACCIDENTS                                                                        4.2 SEVERITY OF BARBECUE ACCIDENTS
            The number of HASS cases per year identifying barbecues as the primary cause of accidents is
                                                                                                                        The DTI had expressed concern that barbecue accidents appeared to be increasing in severity.
            shown in Table 1, below. From these HASS figures it is possible to derive a national estimate of
                                                                                                                        An indicator of injury severity is the type of treatment received. The HASS data identifies
            the rate of accidents. The national estimates are presented below.
                                                                                                                        9 classifications of treatment received.
                                                                                                                        From these, some indication of the physical and emotional impact on the injured party and financial
            Table 1 National estimate of barbecue accidents based on HASS data                                          impact on the Health Service can be identified. The 9 classifications of treatment received are:
                                                                                                                        • Patient did not wait;
                    Year                              HASS                         National Estimate
                                                                                                                        • Examined but no treatment given;
                    1994                                  35                               713
                    1995                                  39                               713                          • Treated, no further treatment required;
                    1996                                  47                               903                          • Referred to GP;
                    1997                                  56                              1104                          • Referred to any outpatient clinic;
                    1998                                  54                              1055                          • Review at A&E;

            Table 1 shows that the number of accidents occurring over the four year period 1994 to 1997 have            • Discharged in-patient (IP), no further treatment required;
            gradually increased, with a slight decrease in 1998’s accident figures.                                     • Discharged in-patient (IP), referred to outpatient clinic;
            As the number of accidents is relatively small, the degree of confidence that can be attributed to          • Admitted to a specialist hospital.
            the national estimate is uncertain. However it gives some indication of the occurrence of barbecue
                                                                                                                        These are ordered on a scale of severity from least to most severe. However, the intervals on
            accidents nation-wide.
                                                                                                                        the scale are not equal. The classifications Referred to GP, Referred to outpatients clinic, and
                                                                                                                        Review at A&E indicate similar degrees of severity. The difference in severity of cases classified as
                                                                                                                        Discharged IP, referred to outpatient clinic and Admitted to a specialist hospital is much greater.



Page 8                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 9
                       The number of accidents in each classification for the years 1994 to 1998 are presented in Chart 2,                                 4.3.2 AGE
                       below. In addition, there is a classification for when the type of treatment required was not known.
                                                                                                                                                                 Chart 3, plots the number of barbecue accidents against the age of the injured party.

                       Chart 2 Type of treatment received
                                                                                                                                                                 Chart 3 Number of barbecue accidents by age
                 200      Number of cases                                                                                             1998
                                                                                                                                                             9
                 180                                                                                                                                                Number of accidents                                                                                      1998
                                                                                                                                      1997
                 160                                                                                                                  1996                   8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1997
                 140                                                                                                                  1995
                 120                                                                                                                  1994
                                                                                                                                                             7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1996
                 100
                                                                                                                                                             6
                 80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1995

                 60                                                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1994
                 40
                 20                                                                                                                                          4

     Severity          Patient did Examined Treated, no Referred Referred to   Review   Discharged Discharged Admitted      Unknown
                        not wait     but no     more     to GP   outpatient     A&E       IP – no      IP –       to                                         3
 (treatment)                       treatment treatment             clinic                  more    referred to specialist
                                      given   required                                  treatment outpatient hospital
                                                                                         required     clinic                                                 2

                       It can be seen that the majority of cases fell in the mid range of severity. Only 7.5 % of cases, over                                1
                       the 5 year period, were more severe, requiring hospital admission. This corresponds with the
                       general response received from Burns Units that only a small number of serious burns cases are                        Age (years)         0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 66
                       barbecue related.
                       The chart also presents the number of cases in each classification for each year. The number of                                           It can be seen that there is a cluster of accidents occurring at the younger end of the age scale.
                       cases that required admission to a specialist hospital has risen from 2 in 1994 to 5 in 1998. This                                        Particularly at risk are children aged 7 and under, (38% of accidents were to children aged 7 or
                       finding indicates that the severity of barbecue accidents may be increasing, however there are                                            less). In adulthood a second, smaller cluster of accidents can be seen from 20 years of age to
                       too few cases to be certain.                                                                                                              around the mid thirties, (26% of accidents occurred between 20 and 35 years of age).



                4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE SUFFERING BARBECUE ACCIDENTS                                                                                 4.3.3 NATURE OF THE INJURIES
                       HASS data was also used to assess the characteristics of people involved in barbecue accidents.                                           HASS injuries are recorded under a large number of different classifications, but to aid understanding
                                                                                                                                                                 of barbecue accidents the classification system was simplified into the following categories:
                                                                                                                                                                 • Closed soft tissue (bruise/contusion, unspecified tenderness or swelling, crushing);
                4.3.1 GENDER
                                                                                                                                                                 • Open soft tissue (abrasion/scratch/grazes, cut/lacerations, infection of wound);
                       The proportion of males and females suffering barbecue accidents over the period 1994 to 1998
                                                                                                                                                                 • Burn/scald (redness, radiation injury, burns of all degrees);
                       was calculated. We found more males than females have barbecue accidents. Over the 5 year
                       period, 70% of cases, presenting at A&E were male.                                                                                        • Fracture (compound or closed);
                                                                                                                                                                 • Concussion;
                                                                                                                                                                 • Other injury;
                                                                                                                                                                 • No diagnosed injury;
                                                                                                                                                                 • Unknown.
Page 10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 11
                       Chart 4 presents the number of accidents under each injury classification for the period 1994 to 1998.              The final variable to be discussed from the HASS classifications is activity. As this is age dependent,
                                                                                                                                           the activities recorded for children aged 7 and under and adults aged 20 to 35 have been selected.
                       Chart 4 Types of injuries
                                                                                                                                           In many cases the activity of the younger age group was unknown however the main activity
                 160                                                                                                                       recorded was playing (48%). For the adults the main activity was barbecuing/cooking (33%) and
                          Number of cases                                                                                       1998       lighting the barbecue accounted for 15% of cases in this classification.
                 140
                                                                                                                                1997

                 120                                                                                                                   4.4 HIGH RISKS
                                                                                                                                1996
                                                                                                                                           From the accident data it is possible to build a picture of high risks related to human characteristics
                 100                                                                                                                       and behaviour.
                                                                                                                                1995

                 80                                                                                                                        The people most at risk are:
                                                                                                                                1994
                                                                                                                                           • Male;
                 60
                                                                                                                                           • Aged 7 or under;
                 40                                                                                                                        • They are likely to be playing in the vicinity of a lit barbecue;
                                                                                                                                           • They are likely to suffer contact burns from a hot surface on the barbecue;
                 20
                                                                                                                                           • The injury they receive is likely to be so severe as to require treatment and referral to an
                                                                                                                                             outpatient clinic or GP;
Type of injury             Closed        Open        Burn/scald   Fracture   Concussion    Other    No diagnosed   Unknown
                         soft tissue   soft tissue                                         injury      injury
                                                                                                                                           • The accident is likely to occur in the garden, probably at home;
                                                                                                                                           • The body area most likely to be injured is the fingers/hand/arm region.
                       Over the 5 year period surveyed, a total of 145 accidents out of 231 resulted, not surprisingly, in
                       burn/scald injuries, more than all the other classifications combined.                                              Contributory factors are believed to include the lack of parental supervision.

                       The types of barbecue accidents that occurred to the two most vulnerable age groups (children                       A second group was identified who are at risk to a lesser degree than described above but form
                       aged 7 and under and adults aged between 20 and 35) were examined further. In the adult age                         an identifiable ‘at risk’ group. These people are:
                       group 63.5% of injuries comprised burn/scald. Of these, 30% were reported to be caused by the                       • Male;
                       inappropriate use of flammable liquids to accelerate the burning of the charcoal.
                                                                                                                                           • Aged 20 – 35 years;
                       The most common injury to children was also of the burn/scald type (69%). 9% of cases were
                                                                                                                                           • They are likely to be cooking on, or lighting, a barbecue;
                       classified as closed soft tissue which indicated a collision with the barbecue. However, no accidents
                       of this type occurred in the adult group.                                                                           • They are likely to suffer contact burns from a hot surface on the barbecue or flash back burns;
                       The proportions of each of the age groups that suffered open soft tissue injuries was 14% for                       • The injury they receive is likely to be so severe as to require treatment and referral to an
                       children and 23.5% for adults. These injuries were sustained on sharp edges and protrusions                           outpatient clinic or GP;
                       on different types of barbecues and barbecue parts. This raises concerns about the quality of                       • The accident is likely to occur in the garden, probably at home;
                       construction of the barbecues.
                                                                                                                                           • The body area most likely to be injured is the fingers/hand/arm region or face.
                       The most commonly injured body part identified from analysis of all the cases, is the fingers/hand/
                       arm with more than half (54.5%) of injuries affecting this region. This is true also for the adult age              Contributory factors are believed to include the inappropriate use of flammable liquids, the lack
                       group who suffered injuries from the inappropriate use of flammable liquids. However, in several                    of adequate safety information, and possibly, the consumption of alcohol.
                       cases burns were sustained to the face.
                       In turning to the location of the accident, 72% happen in the garden, home or patio. A number of
                       cases were classified as occurring at public venues or events. The activity of holding a barbecue
                       at a pub or fête appears to be growing in popularity. However very few cases of this type were
                       recorded and it may be that the organisers of these types of events are more conscious of the
                       need for public safety.

 Page 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Page 13
          5.0 International accident data
            Any improvements made to barbecue safety in the UK are likely to benefit from observation of         It can be seen that the proportion of injured females is higher in the US. The assumption is that
            countries that are more experienced in the use of barbecues. To this end we felt reviewing the       it is a less male dominated pastime than it is in the UK. In addition, we understand that there is a
            US experiences, where around 75% of households own and regularly use a barbecue (Barbecue            greater number of gas barbecues used in the US, and women may favour the convenience associated
            Industry Association, US), would be valuable.                                                        with this type.
            Comparison of UK and US accident rates for 1998 shows a marked difference between the two            Two age groups were identified as giving rise for concern in the UK. In the US the difference
            countries. Table 2 presents the National Estimates and rates per 100 000 of the population of        between these two age groups and the rest of the injured population is less marked. The higher
            barbecue accidents based on HASS data for the UK and National Electronic Injury Surveillance         ownership of gas barbecues in the US will tend to reduce the number of accidents caused by
            System (NEISS) data for the US.                                                                      inappropriate use of flammable liquids, which are found in the 20 to 35 year age group in the
                                                                                                                 UK. The lower incidence of injuries amongst young children in the US may be due to greater
                                                                                                                 experience with barbecues and the resultant raising of hazard awareness or ownership
            Table 2 Barbecue accident rates for UK and US (1998)                                                 of better quality barbecues.
                                                                                                                 The pattern of types of injury sustained is very similar, with burns and scalds being the most
                    Country                 National Estimate (1998)          Accident rate per 100 000          common injury and open soft tissue injuries, second. However, 9.5% of the UK injury data for 1998
                                                                                    population
                                                                                                                 was classified as unknown. Due to the hot nature of the product it is unsurprising that, for both
                       UK                                1055                             17.6                   countries, the most common injury is burns and scalds.
                                                                                                                 Although comparisons have been made between accident data for the UK and the US, differences
                       US                              15872                              57.4
                                                                                                                 in ownership and usage of barbecues, cultures, climates and range of products available have to
                                                                                                                 be born in mind. Nevertheless, there are lessons that can be learnt.
            The accident rate per 100 000 is more than three times greater in the US than the UK.                One of the major differences in the types of accidents occurring in the US is the incidence of
                                                                                                                 Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning. There were 3 cases recorded in the 1998 NEISS data, which
            A comparison of the characteristics of gender and age of the injured parties and the types of
                                                                                                                 are classified as ‘other’ in Table 3 above. These cases involved the use of barbecues in confined
            injuries sustained, is presented in Table 3 below. The percentages of the cases attributed to each
                                                                                                                 areas. In two of the cases the CO leaked through a garage wall into the house. Section 6.0, below
            category are presented for each country.
                                                                                                                 provides a detailed description of the problem and its potential impact on the UK.

            Table 3 Comparison of accident data (1998)

              Category                Variable                        % UK                       % US
              Gender                  Males                             69                        57
                                      Females                           31                        43
              Age                     7 years and under                 37                        26
                                      20 to 35 years                    28                        22
              Injury                  Closed soft tissue               5.5                       6.5
                                      Open soft tissue                  22                        30
                                      Burn/scald                       55.5                       53
                                      Fracture                          0                        3.5
                                      Concussion                        0                        1.5
                                      Other                            5.5                        5
                                      No diagnosed injury               2                         0
                                      Unknown                          9.5                        0
                                      Amputation                        0                        0.5



Page 14                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 15
          6.0 Carbon monoxide poisoning
                   Each year in the US about 25 people die from CO poisoning when they burn charcoal in enclosed                                                     The correct interpretation of the pictogram was given by 38% of consumers. In 10% of cases there
                   areas. The population most at risk is believed to be non-English speaking inhabitants. In an                                                      was critical confusion where the pictogram was interpreted as having the opposite meaning to that
                   attempt to reduce the risk of death or injury from CO inhalation, the Consumer Product Safety                                                     intended. The American National Standard ANSI Z535.1-1991 provides guidelines for procedures
                   Commission (CPSC) addressed the issues of wording, positioning of the warning, and the use                                                        for evaluating the understanding of pictogram and states criteria for acceptance. A criterion of
                   of a pictogram on the label of retail containers of charcoal.                                                                                     85% correct responses with a maximum of 5% critical confusions is suggested for acceptance of a
                                                                                                                                                                     given pictogram. The findings of this study indicate that the pictogram used in the US would not
                   Extensive enquiries to medical data sources in the UK failed to identify any record or personal
                                                                                                                                                                     be meaningful to British consumers when presented unaccompanied by text.
                   recollection of barbecue related CO poisoning fatalities. However, in 1998 one HASS case was
                   recorded when a patient attended A&E following inhalation of carbon monoxide. It is understood                                                    To evaluate the effectiveness of textual warnings, four warnings were presented to the
                   that the patient fell asleep in a shed with a lit barbecue close by. Although this is a rare case,                                                consumers involved in the trials. They were:
                   there remains a safety hazard in the UK.
                                                                                                                                                                     A) Do not use for indoor heating or cooking unless the area is well ventilated.
                   Charcoal available on the UK market today tends to be packaged in strong paper bags that carry                                                       This warning is understood to have been developed in Australia and is used on some
                   several pieces of information including the manufacturers or suppliers details, instructions for                                                     packages available in the UK.
                   use and some safety information.
                                                                                                                                                                     B) Under no circumstances burn charcoal indoors without adequate & effective
                   The safety information usually includes a warning not to burn a barbecue indoors, however the                                                        ventilation since an accumulation of fumes can be harmful.
                   majority do not provide an explanation as to why. People may believe that it is due to the risk of                                                   This warning is carried on some packages available in the UK.
                   fire and may not be aware of the CO poisoning issue.
                                                                                                                                                                     C) Carbon Monoxide Hazard. Burning charcoal inside can kill you. It gives off carbon
                   The positioning of the CO warning is often not particularly conspicuous, and in some cases the                                                       monoxide, which has no odour. Never burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.
                   issue is referred to indirectly and is embedded amongst other safety information. Use of a clear,                                                    This warning was formulated in the US and is not thought to be used in the UK.
                   meaningful warning would help to draw the consumer’s attention to the potential hazards. In order
                                                                                                                                                                     D) Never burn charcoal inside because it gives off gas, which can kill you.
                   to identify which warning would have the greatest impact on consumers, further investigation
                                                                                                                                                                        This warning was compiled from elements of other warnings and is not used in the UK.
                   was required.
                                                                                                                                                                     An established test method was adopted to objectively measure the impact of each warning on
                   In the US a pictogram is used as well as a text message. This may be effective in warning American
                                                                                                                                                                     the subjects. Four groups of consumers were asked to mark two sets of statements, relating to safe
                   consumers but may not necessarily have the same impact on British consumers. Overall the general
                                                                                                                                                                     barbecue usage, as true or false. An equal mix of true and false statements was included. Between
                   research into the effectiveness of pictograms is marked by a great deal of contradiction and
                                                                                                                                                                     each set of statements, each group was shown one of the four warnings. A different warning was
                   qualification (see the DTI’s publication ‘The role of pictograms in the conveying of consumer
                                                                                                                                                                     shown to each group and was viewed for a period of 30 seconds. The second set of statements
                   safety information’, 1997).
                                                                                                                                                                     contained the same statements as the first set but presented in a different order.
                   A separate study was carried out to test the effectiveness of CO poisoning warnings on British
                                                                                                                                                                     The impact of the warning was measured by the difference in incorrect statements before and after
                   consumers1.
                                                                                                                                                                     exposure to the warning. A mean value for each group was calculated. The results are as follows:
                   The use of a meaningful pictogram would help draw attention to the hazard and would not require
                   understanding of any one language. However CO poisoning is a difficult hazard to describe with
                   the use of symbols. The pictogram devised for use in the US (shown in Figure 1 overleaf) was                                                      Table 4 Number of incorrect responses before and after exposure to CO warning
                   shown to British consumers, without accompanying text, to assess their understanding of it.
                                                                                                                                                                            Warning             Incorrect (before)       Incorrect (after)           Difference
                   Figure 1 CO poisoning warning pictogram used in the US
                                                                                                                                                                                A                        9                     10.13                    -1.13

                                                                                                                                                                                B                      6.25                     5.25                      1

                                                                                                                                                                                C                        9                      0.67                    8.33

                                                                                                                                                                                D                        3                      0.71                    2.29




          The full details of this study can be found in "Part 2: Research and development of carbon monoxide poisoning warnings" H Tait ICE Ergonomics June 2000.
          1




Page 16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 17
                                                                                                                   7.0 The perspective
                                                                                                                       of manufacturers and retailers
          It can be seen that warning C had the greatest impact measured by the reduction in the number               We also collated data by contacting manufacturers and retailers of barbecues and barbecue
          of incorrect responses made. Consumers made more incorrect responses following exposure to                  fuels and accessories. A copy of the questionnaire sent to 64 contacts in this category is shown
          warning A which indicates that it may do more harm than good.                                               in Appendix 1. From the responses received (36% response rate) some useful information was
                                                                                                                      obtained on the range of products available on the market, safety information provided to
          The consumers were also asked to say which of the 4 warnings they thought was the best and
                                                                                                                      consumers, details of sales figures, details of consumers complaints and details of industry
          which was the worst in terms of suitability of the wording warning against the risk of CO poisoning.
                                                                                                                      guidelines. Some of the information requested was of a confidential nature and there was
          Interestingly, 90% of consumers thought that warning C was the best and 96% thought that warning
                                                                                                                      a general reluctance to divulge such information. However details of the information received
          A was the worst.
                                                                                                                      is provided in the following sections.
          Consumers were asked why they thought warning C was the best and the general feeling was that
          it got straight to the point, and was hard hitting. Although the warning appears wordy, consumers
          liked the fact that rather than just being told not to do something, more of an explanation was given.
                                                                                                                   7.1 MARKET SURVEY
          Criticisms of warning A included the fact that peoples’ understanding of the phrase “well ventilated”
          is likely to differ and consumers should not be offered this as a condition when burning charcoal           The range of barbecues currently available on the UK market is extremely diverse.
          indoors is acceptable.                                                                                      For example, one major barbecue equipment supplier sells more than 90 different models of
          Manufacturers and retailers of charcoal are encouraged to take the outcome of this study into               charcoal barbecues and over 50 different gas barbecues as well as a large range of accessories.
          consideration when reviewing the warnings currently carried on retail packaging.                            The main types of barbecues available can be divided into 7 broad categories, which are presented
                                                                                                                      in Table 5 below.


                                                                                                                      Table 5 Broad categories of barbecues available on the UK market


                                                                                                                      Category                Example/description         Type of fuel most      Example illustration
                                                                                                                                                                          commonly use
                                                                                                                      Portable                Disposable, suitcase        Charcoal
                                                                                                                                              and Hibachi




                                                                                                                      Open brazier grills     Mostly round                Charcoal
                                                                                                                                              12” to 25” diameter




                                                                                                                      Trolley                 Usually rectangular with Charcoal
                                                                                                                                              a large cooking area




                                                                                                                      Kettle                  Usually oval or round       Charcoal
                                                                                                                                              with dome shaped lid




Page 18                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 19
                    Table 5 (continued)                                                                                     7.3 REGIONAL VARIATION
                                                                                                                                To investigate the effect of geographical region on barbecue sales and usage, a request was made
                    Category                            Example/description    Type of fuel most   Example illustration         to retailers of barbecues for a breakdown of regional sales figures. Due to the confidential nature
                                                                               commonly use                                     of this information and the varying levels of detail provided, the effects of regional variation can
                    Built-in                            Kit form, the user     Charcoal                                         only be discussed in general terms.
                                                        builds own surround                                                     Sales in Scotland are reported to be much lower than in England and believed to be due to the
                                                                                                                                poorer climate resulting in less opportunity to use a barbecue.
                                                                                                                                Affluence also, not surprisingly, appears to have an effect. This is particularly so with the upper
                                                                                                                                end of the barbecue market. Barbecues in this category are found to have a higher volume of
                    Gas                                 Usually wagons         Gas                                              sales in the Home Counties. This is said to be a result of more disposable income, coupled with
                                                        with lids                                                               the large garden/patio/swimming pool type property. Specialist barbecue retailers are a fairly
                                                                                                                                rare phenomenon in the UK. However, those that do exist are virtually all in the south East of
                                                                                                                                England. These types of outlets tend to concentrate on selling smaller volumes of large high
                                                                                                                                specification barbecues.
                                                                                                                                There are indications that sales of barbecues and related products vary in regions that are
                    Electric                            Not widely available   Electricity                                      popular holiday resorts. In these areas sales of small portable barbecues are increased, as are
                                                                                                                                sales of other outdoor items.

                                                                                                                            7.4 SURVEY OF STANDARDS
                                                                                                                                There is currently no British Standard for charcoal barbecues although a CEN committee is
                                                                                                                                currently working on a draft. This report aims to aid the development of this Standard. However,
          Adapted from LOFA, The Leisure and Outdoor Furniture Association                                                      gas barbecues are covered under the BS EN 498:1998 Specification for dedicated liquefied petroleum
                                                                                                                                gas appliances – Barbecues for outdoor use. Therefore, the main focus is on charcoal barbecues
                                                                                                                                as safety standards need to be addressed, particularly as they are the most commonly owned type
          7.2 BARBECUE RELATED SALES FIGURES                                                                                    of barbecue. In the absence of specifications for charcoal barbecues, reports from manufacturers
                    In 1996, a Mintel report stated that the barbecue itself accounted for 55% of barbecue related sales        and retailers suggest that they use either French or German standards to define the current
                    with fuels and accessories accounting for the remaining of 45%. However, Market Assessment                  benchmark for safety.
                    International (1999) reported a change in the market share. Annual sales of barbecues, fuel and             A review of the French Standard (NF D 37-101 : 1981) Free-standing charcoal-burning barbecues
                    accessories reached an estimated £96M in 1998, with fuel and accessories accounting for 54% of sales.       for open-air use; and the German Standard (DIN 66 077 : 1990) Outdoor barbecues: safety
                    Both market survey reports indicated that barbecue sales have increased steadily over recent                requirements, testing is presented on next page. The areas relating to the safety aspects of
                    years and reports from manufacturers and retailers supported this. However the fluctuation of               barbecues have been considered.
                    good summer weather influences the level of sales and the slight drop in 1998’s figures is
                    attributed to poor summer weather.
                                                                                                                            7.4.1 GENERAL DESIGN ISSUES
                    The pattern of growth in barbecue and barbecue accessory sales closely resembles the pattern
                    observed with accident figures.                                                                             The main points raised in the Standards relating to the general design issues were that all edges
                                                                                                                                and corners should be free from burrs and that any metal sheeting with a thickness less than
                    Various sources reported that the demand for gas barbecues is growing strongly. Gas barbecues
                                                                                                                                0.7mm should have the edges rounded, bent over, or flattened.
                    now account for around 50% of the market value. Prices for gas barbecues have fallen sharply in
                    recent years encouraging consumers to switch to gas to take advantage of their convenience and              The following tables contain design specifications outlined in both of the standards for:
                    ease of use despite a general preference for the charcoal taste (Market Assessment International).          • Grill;
                    However charcoal barbecues are still the leading type owned.
                                                                                                                                • Grill handle;
                    Reports from manufacturers and retailers indicate that consumers are up-grading their barbecues,
                    either by changing from charcoal to gas or moving to a more sophisticated model within the                  • Assembly;
                    same product group.                                                                                         • Marking and Instructions.

Page 20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 21
          Table 6 specifications                                                                           Table 7 Grill handle specifications

          Specifications           French NFD 37-101 : 1981         German DIN 66 077 : 1990               Specifications            French NFD 37-101 : 1981         German DIN 66 077 : 1990
          Minimum grill diameter   No specification                 3mm                                    Number of handles         No specification                 Grills up to 36cm in diameter or
                                                                                                                                                                      up to 1020cm2 usable area, can
          Gap between grills       <20mm                            <20mm                                                                                             have one handle while a larger
                                                                                                                                                                      grill should have two handles.
          Grill loading            0.5kg/dm2 load grill will        0.25kg/dm2 across the usable
                                   remain stable on its supports.   area of the grill. Must lie on its     Fixed/removable           Movable grills shall be fitted   It must be possible to fit a
                                                                    support points.                                                  with a fixed or movable          removable or movable handle
                                                                                                                                     handle; a detachable handle      to the grill in such a way that
          Grill deformation        No specification                 <5% relative to the length                                       shall be acceptable if the       the grill cannot tip to the side
          after removing load                                       of the bar                                                       appliance is provided with       or forwards when loaded.
                                                                                                                                     a device in which it may be
          Moving accessories       No specification                 The user should be able to insert                                stored or on which it may be
                                                                    or remove barbecue accessories                                   hooked during use.
                                                                    and adjust the spit and change
                                                                    the position of the fuel container     Handle/spit handle        A temperature differential of    A temperature differential of no
                                                                    in accordance with the instructions,   temperature (taken        no more than 30K for metal       more than 30K for metal handles
                                                                    when the grill is loaded, without      when barbecue is          handles and 50K for wood or      and 50K for wood or plastic.
                                                                    the barbecue tipping over or a         at maximum                plastic. This covers a handle    This was based on a handle
                                                                    component becoming detached            temperature)              length of 50mm measured          length of 80mm measured
                                                                    or changing its position so that it                              from the outside end of          at the end.
                                                                    can no longer fulfil its purpose.                                the handle.

                                                                                                           User grill adjustment     …adjustment shall be capable     If the grills are height adjustable
                                                                                                                                     of being made without the        it must be possible to make
                                                                                                                                     hand coming into direct          adjustments without the hand
                                                                                                                                     contact with the grill.          coming into direct contact with
                                                                                                                                                                      the grill.




Page 22                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page 23
          Table 8 Assembly specifications                                                                               Instructions
                                                                                                                        The information given in the Standards on the instructions again tended to be broad in nature.
          Specifications               French NFD 37-101 : 1981            German DIN 66 077 : 1990                     The German Standard states:
          Assembly                     No specification                    Portable barbecues: it must be
                                                                                                                        ‘Every barbecue must be supplied with instructions for use which contain as a minimum
                                                                           possible to assemble and
                                                                                                                        information regarding:
                                                                           dismantle portable barbecues
                                                                           by following the operating                   • type designation;
                                                                           instructions without using tools
                                                                                                                        • correct assembly, if possible using illustrations;
                                                                           unless such are supplied.
                                                                                                                        • safe operation of the barbecue;
          Stability                    Loaded with 75% fuel capacity.      Loaded with 75% fuel and the
                                       Loading of 0.25kg per square        grill spit loaded with 0.5kg per             • the type of batteries used if a battery-operated electric motor is supplied or is clearly
                                       decimetre. Spit is loaded with      100mm usable length in the                     identified by types;
                                       0.5kg per 100mm length and          most unfavourable position.                  • assembly of the components of a portable barbecue;
                                       placed in the most unfavourable     Subjected to a 10o slope test.
                                       position. Subjected to a 10o        Checked whether the                          • the way to move the barbecue when it is hot;
                                       slope test.                         barbecue tips over in any                    • the way to hold the fuel container;
                                                                           position of the barbecue and
                                                                           with any setting of the fuel                 • the fuel(s) to be used;
                                                                           container or the barbecue                    • the correct method of lighting.
                                                                           accessories.
                                                                                                                        In addition, it should be indicated that:
                                                                                                                        • the barbecue must be placed on a safe base before operation;
                                                                                                                        • if the fuel container is painted, the container, filled with barbecue charcoal or briquettes,
          Marking and instructions                                                                                        must be heated up and kept very hot for at least 30 minutes prior to first use.
          There seemed to be scope to improve the layout of information given in the Standards relating                 Furthermore, the following warnings should be included:
          to on-product marking and instructions.
                                                                                                                        Do not use in enclosed spaces.
          Marking
                                                                                                                        Note: Alcohol, petrol and comparable fluids must not be used to ignite or re-ignite the barbecue.’
          The German Standard stated that on-product markings should be as follows:
                                                                                                                        Both the French and German Standards stated that directions for moving a hot barbecue should
          a) Name or trade mark of the manufacturer or supplier                                                         be included. We considered that this should not be encouraged as the action of moving a hot
             The markings must be permanent and easily legible (by casting in, stamping, enamelling or a                barbecue presents many hazards.
             permanent plate).
          b) Type designation
                                                                                                                  7.5   Returns, complaints and recalls
             The warnings must be applied to the barbecue and/or packaging.
                                                                                                                        From the responses received, reports of complaints were rare and generally explained as being
          c) Warning                                                                                                    due to a lack of understanding of the product or product misuse by the consumer. One product
          Note: Alcohol, petrol and comparable fluids must not be used to ignite or re-ignite the barbecue.             recall was reported due to a stability problem with a folding barbecue.
          The markings must still be legible after testing according to Clause 5.1 (thermal burn test) and must
          not have come off; the size of the lettering must be at least 3mm in height (for capital letters) and   7.6   Provision of safety information
          must be visible when the barbecue is in operation by means of contrast colouring (background
          and lettering).                                                                                               From the information received it appears that the extent and quality of information on safe use
                                                                                                                        of barbecues varies widely. Some retailers reported that they do not provide information to
                                                                                                                        consumers but rely on safety warnings provided by the barbecue manufacturer. Leaflets providing
                                                                                                                        information on selection and maintenance of barbecues are available for consumers from at least
                                                                                                                        one large retailer. This leaflet also contained some safety warnings.

Page 24                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 25
                In addition, the same retailer provides a more detailed leaflet on built-in barbecues which                    category we selected two barbecues one low-level hibachi type and one folding suitcase type. A
                contained information on safe siting of barbecues.                                                             pedestal and a cast iron type were selected from the open-brazier category. The two types of trolley
                                                                                                                               barbecue selected differed in that one was barrel-shaped and the other included an oven section
                                                                                                                               as well as the grill area.
          7.7   Supply of sample products for ergonomics appraisal
                                                                                                                               Most of the packaging that these barbecues were supplied in tended to be printed cardboard
                A range of sample barbecues was supplied for ergonomics appraisal, the details of which are                    boxes. All required varying degrees of assembly. We also gave consideration to selecting examples
                provided in the following sections.                                                                            to cover a range of different assembly processes.
                                                                                                                               Gas
          7.7.1 Definition and Selection criteria                                                                              The design of gas barbecues tends to be very similar. We selected 5 for appraisal, which were
                Barbecues were selected for appraisal from most of the 7 main categories described earlier. The                all trolley type and had lids. The varying features were the cost and the number of side shelves
                exceptions were electric and built-in barbecues. No accidents involving electric barbecues were                provided. One barbecue had a side burner and all required a large amount of assembly.
                found on examination of the HASS data. This type is not widely available at present.
                Although the built-in type of barbecue is more common, only 2 accidents over the past 5 years             7.7.2 Testing
                involved a built-in barbecue. Built-in barbecues are assembled using a metal grill and fuel
                                                                                                                               As part of the appraisals, each aspect of each barbecue was evaluated from the point of getting
                container sold to the consumer and bricks. It is up to the consumer to purchase or supply the
                                                                                                                               it out of its packaging to actually using the product. Each barbecue was also evaluated against
                appropriate type of bricks. Ergonomics appraisal of this type of barbecue was not carried out as
                                                                                                                               the following criteria:
                the standard of the finished barbecue is beyond the control of the manufacturer or retailer.
                                                                                                                               • Loading
                Disposable barbecues are now a common site in the supermarket encouraging impulse buying
                by consumers who may not have used barbecue before. As these barbecues are for single use                          To represent food being placed onto the cooking grill, a number of 0.5kg weights measuring
                and do not require assembly they were treated as a separate category.                                              100mm2 were positioned to cover the usable area of the cooking surface. The number of weights
                                                                                                                                   used on each barbecue depended upon the size of the cooking area.
                For the purposes of the appraisal and discussion the barbecues are categorised into 3 groups as
                follows:                                                                                                       • Stability
                • Disposable                                                                                                       All the barbecues were subjected to a stability test that was based on that described in the
                                                                                                                                   German Standard (DIN 66077) Outdoor barbecues: Safety requirements, testing 1990.
                • Charcoal
                                                                                                                               Before being tested the barbecues were loaded with weights as previously described. The barbecues
                • Gas
                                                                                                                               were then positioned on a 10 degree slope in their most onerous position. A small stop was
                Disposable                                                                                                     positioned to prevent the barbecues from sliding down the slope.
                Most of these follow the same design criteria of a pan made from pressed aluminium foil. The                   The barbecue was deemed to pass this test if it remained stable.
                charcoal is placed directly into the foil tray, and most have a sheet of paper, impregnated with
                                                                                                                               • Burning
                starter fluid, resting on top. A simple pressed grill is usually placed over the top of the impregnated
                paper and the whole product is held together by clamping the top of the foil tray over the grill.                  Each barbecue was then subjected to a burn test to simulate normal use. This involved
                                                                                                                                   following the instructions provided with each product for filling the barbecue with charcoal
                Packaging on this type of product usually comprises a cardboard tray, and a printed card presenting
                                                                                                                                   (if appropriate) and then lighting it.
                the instructions on one or both sides. The whole barbecue is then shrink wrapped in clear plastic.
                The products are usually designed to be used when placed directly onto the ground. There were                  The barbecue was then left to burn for 30 minutes (or the warm up time specified in the instructions)
                reports of radiation burns from the area where a disposable barbecue had been used then removed.               before temperature readings were taken from a number of points around the barbecue. Each
                Some disposable barbecues are now sold with a reusable stand that raises the tray off the ground.              barbecue was then left burning for a further 30 minutes and any changes in temperatures were
                Two disposable barbecues were appraised, one supplied with a stand and one without.                            recorded. This was repeated until the recorded temperatures reached a maximum. A copy of the
                                                                                                                               checklist is provided in Appendix 2. Full details of the appraisals are given in Appendix 3, however
                Charcoal
                                                                                                                               Tables 9, 10 & 11 present the main findings. Comments apply only to the barbecues appraised
                From the range of barbecues that are charcoal or briquette burning, we selected examples of                    and may not apply to all barbecues available on the market.
                portable, open brazier, trolley and kettle barbecues. The design of kettle barbecues does not vary
                much and so only one example was selected for appraisal from this category. Within the portable,
                open-brazier and trolley categories there is a still large degree of variation. From the portable

Page 26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 27
          Table 9 Main findings from the ergonomics appraisal of disposable barbecues                     Table 10 Main findings from the ergonomics appraisal of charcoal barbecues

          Characteristic Comments                                                                         Characteristic Comments
          Packaging      At this level in the market place the type of packaging was considered to be     Packaging      Limited information was given on the packaging. Generally a lack of warnings.
                         appropriate. Both barbecues had a printed top sheet with the main instructions                  A couple had parts damaged but the packaging was not.
                         printed on the underside. To make the product more attractive to the consumer
                         one of the top sheets was colour printed with photographs of the barbecue in     Instructions   The quality of the print of most of the instructions had considerable scope
                         use. The only area of concern relating to the packaging was that the cooking                    for improvement. Some provided multi-lingual instructions that made the
                         grill tended to have sharp edges and when removing the plastic covering,                        instructions look complex and confusing. Some English text lost its clarity
                         care had to be taken to avoid being scratched/cut by these.                                     through poor translation. One set of instructions was well laid out while
                                                                                                                         another had a good balance between text and diagrams. For one of the
          Instructions   Instructions were brief as no or minimal assembly was required.                                 barbecues, instructions for assembly were not covered.
                         Both followed a similar format having a single sheet of instructions. Layouts
                         had warnings and safety information highlighted which was considered to          Assembly       Tended to be of a lower quality than gas types. A number had suffered
                         be a good feature. Information was also given advising the consumer that                        damage, which in some cases exposed sharp edges. Generally many
                         the barbecue should be extinguished as soon as the cooking is completed.                        different types of fixings were used for each barbecue. One example
                         One also stated the method to be used.                                                          of a better quality product only had one type of fixing. This helped the
                                                                                                                         assembly process. Many of the parts lists had technical information and/or
          Use            Difficult to light – method of dropping match under impregnated paper                           descriptions that could cause confusion. Orientation of parts was difficult
                         did not work – long match or taper required to light barbecue.                                  because of poor diagrams or in the case of one example, a design that we
                         Low to ground – improves stability however there is a greater chance                            considered to be very poor. Some parts were impossible to assemble
                         of being accidentally stepped on. Hot ground – due to direct siting on                          because of poor design or, unsuitable fixings.
                         ground, particular hazard if barbecue is moved whilst still hot. Reusable
                         stand – removes the hazard of a hot ground – but not appropriate for soft        Use            Most passed the tilt test, although there were a number which would fail
                         surfaces such as sand. Burning time – smaller size contains less charcoal                       under certain conditions, e.g. if it was loaded with food. Some of the designs
                         therefore the overall burning times tended to be not much more than                             caused particular concern, e.g. the cast iron model that was very top heavy.
                         1.5 hours. Evenness of burning – both tended to burn fairly evenly, t                           Lighting of some of the barbecues was very difficult, especially when trying
                         his may be a result of minimal surrounding materials that absorb heat.                          to get an even cooking surface. Burning temperatures varied considerably
                                                                                                                          from one product to another, although on one barbecue the temperatures
                                                                                                                         measured were found to be significantly lower. This was considered to be
                                                                                                                         a result of having a separate ash collection tray that was suspended within
                                                                                                                         the main box. None of the barbecues had on-product warnings.




Page 28                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 29
          Table 11 Main findings from the ergonomics appraisal of gas barbecues                               Table 11 (continued)

          Characteristic Comments                                                                                   Characteristic Comments
          Packaging      Most had very similar packaging. Packaging tended to be of a good quality                  Assembly         Once the parts were identified it was impossible, on some occasions, to
                         and was robust. The larger packaging accommodated additional information                                    determine the orientation of particular parts until further on in the assembly
                         that could be read by the consumer. This facility was used to good effect by                                process, resulting in the necessity for a degree of disassembling. All had
                         some of the manufacturers. The instructions on one barbecue were sealed                                     a large number of different fixings (some of the supplied fixings were different
                         in a bag attached to the out side of the box. This was considered to be a good                              from those shown on the fixing list). There were a number of cases where
                         idea in that it may encourage users to read the instructions before they opened                             holes did not align. This made it difficult or impossible to assemble certain
                         the box. One barbecue had two different names printed on the box that could                                 sections. On all but one of the barbecues there was only one gas connection
                         lead to confusion. Information relating to American specification gas                                       required to connect the flexible pipe to the regulator. The instructions generally
                         containers could also confuse UK consumers.                                                                 describe in detail how to fit and check all the gas assemblies however they
                                                                                                                                     are supplied connected. A major concern was that the method of clamping
          Instructions   Because of the complex nature, instructions tended to be fairly comprehensive.                              the pipe to the regulator was usually described as fitting a jubilee type clamp.
                         This often resulted in a lot of text that can be off putting to consumers.                                  However on most of the barbecues a simple squeeze clamp was fitted and
                         Some parts/fixings lists tended to be insufficient or confusing, and others                                 none of the instructions described the method of fitting.
                         had substituted fixings that were not shown on the parts list. A number of gas
                         related issues are covered which are required under BS EN 498. Many only had               Use              All passed the tilt test although we noted that due to the generic design, they
                         illustrations showing the assembly process. Some had warnings at appropriate                                tended to be top heavy. All but one lighted easily with the piezo ignition system.
                         places throughout the assembly section while others had sections dedicated                                  This system is common to gas barbecues. A spark is generated to ignite the gas
                         to safety and warnings. Again because of the nature of these barbecues, it was                              without the need for an additional power source. The exception failed due to
                         considered better to integrate warnings at appropriate points to minimise the text                          incorrect assembly resulting from the inability to determine the size of the
                         presented in general warning sections. Some of the diagrams were poor, which                                spark gap. All the lids became very hot very quickly when lighted. This hazard
                         created difficulties with the assembly process. The print quality of some of the                            was not readily apparent, as the lids tended to be a fair distance away from the
                         instructions was poor and often resulted in difficult to read text and diagrams                             burners. The lid tended to be very hot next to the lid handle. The weather
                         that were difficult to comprehend. Instructions supplied in the form of a single                            during testing was windy and some of the burners blew out. It was not
                         booklet were considered to be better than those supplied in a number of                                     obvious that this had occurred. On-product information varied from the
                         separate booklets.                                                                                          specifications of BS EN 498 on lighting instructions which were printed on
                                                                                                                                     some examples next to the gas burner controls.
          Assembly       High degree of assembly required with all the barbecues. The sequence
                         shown for assembly was generally good although there were instances
                         where the sequence could be improved to facilitate assembly. Tools required
                         were usually basic – but there were occasions where specialist tools were
                         required. On many it was quite difficult to identify the appropriate parts.
                         This was considered to be a result of poor diagrams and lack of parts labelling.
                         None had labelled parts.




Page 30                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 31
                                                                                                              8.0 The user perspective
          7.7.3 Safety information                                                                                  Finally, we sought the views and experiences of consumers familiar with barbecues. Two
                                                                                                                    methods were employed: questionnaires and group discussions.
               The safety information supplied with the barbecues was found to vary a great deal, from none
               to quite detailed warnings. Examples of warnings supplied that are generic to all types of
               barbecues include:
                                                                                                              8.1   Questionnaire
               • Keep your children and pets at a safe distance;
                                                                                                                    As a means of identifying a barbecue user perspective, a questionnaire (Appendix 4) was issued
               • Never take the barbecue indoors;                                                                   to and completed by 25 consumers who were regular users of barbecues. Full details of the responses
                                                                                                                    received are provided in Appendix 5.
               • Do not move the barbecue while it is hot;
                                                                                                                    However the main findings were
               • Locate on a firm and level surface;
                                                                                                                    • The majority owned a charcoal barbecue (88%);
               • Keep clear of any combustible materials;
                                                                                                                    • The majority would like to up-grade their barbecue in the future (68%);
               • Do not leave unattended;
                                                                                                                    • The rate at which people use their barbecue has not increased over time
               • Warning: accessible parts may be very hot.
                                                                                                                      (44% – no change, 28% – less often and 28% – more often);
                                                                                                                    • The minority has experienced accidents or near misses with a barbecue (32%).


                                                                                                              8.2   Group discussions
                                                                                                                    Twenty four consumers attended group discussions where various barbecuing issues were discussed.
                                                                                                                    Points of note included:
                                                                                                                    • Consumers are experimenting more with different types of food than in the past;
                                                                                                                    • The weather influenced the degree of use of the barbecue;
                                                                                                                    • Several third party reports of the use of barbecues in confined areas such as garages;
                                                                                                                    • Many concerns were voiced regarding food hygiene issues;
                                                                                                                    • Consumers are perhaps not aware of the need to use heat resistant bricks when building a
                                                                                                                      home-made barbecue;
                                                                                                                    • There is a need for constant reminders of safety issues;
                                                                                                                    • Several reports of inappropriate use of flammable liquids that had not resulted in an accident;
                                                                                                                    • There were no reports of advice being given on the siting of a barbecue.
                                                                                                                    The consumers were asked what safety issues need to be addressed. The topics raised were
                                                                                                                    as follows:
                                                                                                                    • Inappropriate use of lighting fluid;
                                                                                                                    • The need for fire fighting equipment;
                                                                                                                    • The need for an exclusion zone around the barbecue primarily to keep children away but also
                                                                                                                      to keep anyone not involved in the barbecuing process away;
                                                                                                                    • Alcohol issues;
                                                                                                                    • Appropriate siting of a barbecue;
                                                                                                                    • Disposal of hot coals;
                                                                                                                    • Advice on first aid.

Page 32                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 33
                                                                                                             9.0 Phase 2. Identification
                                                                                                                 of product safety issues
          Many consumers stated a need for a constant reminder of hazards and safety warnings and they             Phase 2 of this study involved consideration of the issues relating to product design, recommendations
          suggested that there was room for improvement in the methods adopted.                                    for remedial action and consumer education.
          In addition, consumers were consulted on what product design issues they felt needed to be               One of the aims was to identify product design problems that contributed to the accident occurring.
          addressed. The main points raised were:                                                                  This was achieved through:
          • Issues of stability of the barbecue, with recommendations for provision of some type of                • further analysis of HASS data, in particular the classifications of Mechanism of injury and Article;
            anchor or stabiliser;
                                                                                                                   • consideration of the findings from the ergonomics appraisals of sample products;
          • Minimum height recommendations;
                                                                                                                   • consideration of information supplied by manufacturers and retailers;
          • Controls over poor quality barbecues currently on the market;
                                                                                                                   • consideration of consumer’s reported experiences.
          • Guidelines on the quantity of charcoal to use, or restriction of amount through product design
            e.g. a shallow fuel tray that holds a limited amount of fuel;
                                                                                                             9.1   Nature of product involvement identified from HASS data
          • Instructions for safe use.
                                                                                                                   From the HASS data it was often possible to identify the type or part of the barbecue or barbecue
                                                                                                                   accessory involved. In some cases the product involved was not described in sufficient detail,
                                                                                                                   however it was often possible to identify the product through interpretation of the description
                                                                                                                   of the accident.
                                                                                                                   Interpretation of the data permitted identification of the types of barbecue involved. These are
                                                                                                                   described as:
                                                                                                                   • Disposable;
                                                                                                                   • BBQ;
                                                                                                                   • Gas;
                                                                                                                   • Home-made BBQ.
                                                                                                                   The classification “BBQ” is used where no other type is defined and where the description indicates
                                                                                                                   that it is a charcoal barbecue. The classification “charcoal” indicates cases where charcoal itself
                                                                                                                   was the primary cause of injury. The cases classified as “fuel” are where people were injured
                                                                                                                   through inappropriate use of flammable liquids. There were two classifications of barbecue
                                                                                                                   parts that were responsible for causing injury; the grill and the lid.
                                                                                                                   In two of the cases, smoke was the primary cause of injury and 6 cases were classified as “other”.
                                                                                                                   The causes of these were:
                                                                                                                   • splashing of hot fat;
                                                                                                                   • an item of clothing blowing off a clothes line onto a lit barbecue, and igniting, resulting in a
                                                                                                                     bystander suffering burns;
                                                                                                                   • the ignition of thinners used when cleaning a barbecue, resulting in burns to the user;
                                                                                                                   • ignition of petrol when a lawnmower was being refuelled in close proximity to a lit barbecue,
                                                                                                                     resulting in burns to the user;
                                                                                                                   • two cases where plastic bags lying in close proximity ignited, resulting in burns to bystanders.
                                                                                                                   Information regarding the article involved is presented in Chart 5, next page.




Page 34                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page 35
                       Chart 5 Type of barbecue or barbecue accessory involved                                                           Table 12 Mechanism of injury by product or part type

                 160                                                                                                                     Product/       Mechanism of injury                                           No of cases
                          Number of accidents                                                                                     1998
                                                                                                                                         product part
                 140
                                                                                                                                  1997   Disposable     Burns by radiation of heat from site where barbecue
                                                                                                                                         barbecue       was previously placed                                             3
                 120
                                                                                                                                  1996                  Open injury caused by sharp edges or protrusions                  2
                 100                                                                                                                     Total                                                                            5
                                                                                                                                  1995
                                                                                                                                         Charcoal       Contact burn from hot surface                                     77
                 80                                                                                                                      barbecue       Open injury from sharp edge or protrusion                         37
                                                                                                                                  1994
                                                                                                                                                        Closed injury resulting from falls from or against barbecue       14
                 60
                                                                                                                                                        Unknown                                                           7
                 40                                                                                                                      Total                                                                           135
                                                                                                                                         Lid            Contact burn from hot lid                                         3
                 20
                                                                                                                                                        Open injury from sharp edge or protrusion                         3
  Barbecue or          Disposable    BBQ        Lid      Fuel     Charcoal    Gas    Home made     Grill    Smoke      Other                            Injury sustained when lid fell                                    1
                                                                                        BBQ
accessory type                                                                                                                           Total                                                                            7
                                                                                                                                         Fuel           Inappropriate use of flammable liquids
                       It can be seen that the majority of accidents fall under the classification of ‘BBQ’ and are most likely                         (either by injured or third party)                                35
                       to be the charcoal type. The second most common primary cause of accidents is the inappropriate                   Charcoal       Contact burn from hot charcoal                                    9
                       use of flammable liquids on lit barbecues, classified as ‘fuel’. These findings indicate that charcoal
                                                                                                                                                        Injury to eyes from sparking of charcoal fragments                4
                       barbecues are responsible for more accidents than disposable, gas or home made barbecues
                       combined. This is not surprising as charcoal barbecues are the most common type owned.                            Total                                                                            13

                       A combination of information regarding the mechanism of injury, the type of injury sustained                      Gas            Burn by ignited gas                                               6
                       and the primary cause of injury (type of barbecue or accessory item) obtained from the HASS                                      Closed injury resulting from falling cylinder                     2
                       data, provides a clearer picture of the nature of accidents occurring. This combined information                                 Contact burn from hot surface                                     1
                       is presented, for the 5 year period, in Table 12, overleaf.
                                                                                                                                         Total                                                                            9
                                                                                                                                         Home made      Insufficient details                                              2
                                                                                                                                         barbecue
                                                                                                                                         Grill          Open injury from sharp edge or protrusion                         6
                                                                                                                                                        Contact burn from hot grill                                       5
                                                                                                                                                        Injury sustained when grill fell                                  4
                                                                                                                                         Total                                                                            15
                                                                                                                                         Smoke          Smoke inhalation                                                  1
                                                                                                                                                        Smoke in eyes                                                     1
                                                                                                                                         Total                                                                            2
                                                                                                                                         Other          Burns caused by involvement of secondary item
                                                                                                                                                        e.g non-barbecue related items igniting following contact
                                                                                                                                                        with a barbecue, or a dog knocking over a barbecue.               8
                                                                                                                                         TOTAL                                                                           231

  Page 36                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 37
                The information presented in Table 12 provides further information regarding the type of accidents   9.3   Input from the barbecue retail sector and consumers
                occurring and the nature of the barbecue or barbecue accessory involvement.
                                                                                                                           The views of manufacturers and retailers of barbecues and consumers agreed on a number of
                The key points of note are:                                                                                issues. The findings from both groups indicated that charcoal barbecues are the most commonly
                                                                                                                           used. Both groups reported weather influences, with sales being affected by particularly poor
                • Of the cases that are known to involve a disposable barbecue, the majority were burns by
                                                                                                                           weather and consumers reporting that usage was very much influenced by weather conditions.
                  radiation of heat from the site where the barbecue had previously been placed. This accounted
                  for 1% of all the accidents;                                                                             Reports of up-grading of barbecues came from both groups, however the groups differed on the
                                                                                                                           nature of the up-grading. The manufacturers and retailers reported a shift in preference from
                • The most common type of accident is a contact burn when using a charcoal barbecue (33 %);
                                                                                                                           charcoal to gas with gas barbecues now accounting for around 50% of the market value.
                • The second most common type of accident is cuts or lacerations from sharp edges or protrusions           Consumers did not support this claim. Only 4% of consumers questioned currently owned a gas
                  on charcoal barbecues (16%);                                                                             barbecue and only 8% expressed a desire to change to this type in the future. Nonetheless, 68%
                • Accidents (excluding burns) involving lids or grills account for 6% of injuries recorded.                of consumers claimed that they would up-grade to a more sophisticated model of the type that
                  The type of barbecue that these parts are from is not known;                                             they currently use.

                • 3.5% of accidents are caused by non-barbecue related items (plastic bags, pets etc.) being too           Consumers complained about the lack of safety information provided with products. Retailers
                  close to the barbecue;                                                                                   currently seem to rely heavily on the barbecue manufacturer to supply product or packaging
                                                                                                                           which provides consumers with safety information. However, due to the proportion of products
                The fuels most likely to be used with a charcoal barbecue (lighter fluid and charcoal) account for         that are imported, safety information is often not provided or is of poor quality.
                20% of injuries recorded.
                                                                                                                           Customer complaints reported by retailers were attributed to a lack of product understanding or
                                                                                                                           product misuse. The accident data supports this claim to a certain extent, with a large number of
          9.2   Product safety issues arising from ergonomics appraisals of sample products                                accidents resulting from inappropriate use of flammable liquids. Where manufacturers are aware
                                                                                                                           of foreseeable misuse, it would clearly be useful to take advantage of any product design factors
                A number of issues were identified where there was scope for improvement. This section highlights
                                                                                                                           to reduce the likelihood of the misuse occurring where this is possible.
                the areas where improvements could be made; however the comments do not apply to all
                the barbecues appraised.
                In some instances the packaging was inadequate and failed to protect the barbecue from
                damage whilst in transit. In addition, the manufacturers contact details were either not provided
                or were unclear.
                The instructions ranged in quality, depth and clarity. In one example of a charcoal barbecue,
                assembly instructions were not provided. In other examples the assembly process looked more
                complex than it was, due to the pages of instructions given in a number of different languages. A
                number suffered from poor translation and a poor balance between text and diagrams.
                The degree of assembly varied greatly from none with a disposable barbecue to a large degree
                with some of the gas barbecues.
                The extent of assembly required with some of the gas barbecues gave rise for concern. This offered
                a serious possibility of error particularly with an inexperienced consumer.
                The provision of safety information was often lacking and none of the charcoal barbecues carried
                on-product warnings.
                In use, the hazard associated with the ground heating under a disposable barbecue was noted
                and the use of a stand was found to reduce this. A number of the charcoal barbecues proved
                difficult to light and failed our tilt test under the most onerous conditions.




Page 38                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Page 39
          10.0 Recommendations
                Having identified the problem areas, we can make recommendations that aim to improve                 10.2 The role of retailers and manufacturers
                consumer education and the level of product safety.
                                                                                                                          Through ergonomics appraisal of a range of types of barbecue available on the UK market, a number
                                                                                                                          of issues were identified that increase the risk to consumers. Manufacturers and retailers have a
                                                                                                                          role to play in increasing the level of safety associated with barbecues. Recommendations are
          10.1 Key safety messages for consumers
                                                                                                                          made that aim to improve product safety.
                The are a number of key safety messages that have arisen from the findings of this study that
                should be passed on to consumers.
                                                                                                                     10.2.1 Inappropriate use of flammable liquids
                                                                                                                          It is apparent that consumers are not heeding warnings regarding inappropriate use of flammable
          10.1.1 Parental supervision
                                                                                                                          liquids. There is a need for research into more effective methods of educating the consumer.
                The number of young children injured indicates a lack of parental supervision. It is suggested
                                                                                                                          Inappropriate use of flammable liquids is thought to result from frustration experienced when
                that an exclusion zone be set up around the vicinity of the barbecue within which children are
                                                                                                                          the barbecue does not ignite properly or goes out.
                not permitted. Ball games should be forbidden and animals should also be kept away.
                                                                                                                          There are products that help remove this frustration such as impregnated bags containing
                                                                                                                          charcoal where the bag itself is lit which, in turn, ignites the charcoal. New products are being
          10.1.2 Inappropriate use of flammable liquids                                                                   introduced on the market that also reduce the risk of flash back burns, such as gel lighter fuel.
                The number of accidents related to inappropriate use of inflammable fluids is another problem             Manufacturers can play a valuable role by further exploring technology to develop higher quality
                area. Generally, products carry warnings against this practice and anecdotal reports indicate that        products that remove or reduce the need for this dangerous practice.
                people are well aware of the associated risks. It is apparent that the warning is not being heeded
                so continued consumer education that causes an impact is needed.
                                                                                                                     10.2.2 Instructions and warnings
                                                                                                                          The findings of this study indicate that there is room for improvement with instructions on
          10.1.3 Action to take in the event of an accident                                                               assembly and safe use currently supplied with barbecues. Clear and concise instructions should
                Advice on first aid treatment, particularly what to do in the event of burns, is sought and should        be supplied with the barbecue that cover assembly (where appropriate) and use of the barbecue.
                be provided to the consumer.                                                                              To aid understanding and suit different consumer needs, the instructions should contain a good
                                                                                                                          balance between text and illustrations.
                The use of fire fighting equipment such as a dry powder extinguisher and fire blanket should
                be recommended.                                                                                           The use of multilingual instructions should be avoided unless presented in a helpful way.
                                                                                                                          Separate sections, each in a different language are preferable to a mixture of languages throughout
                                                                                                                          the instructions. If instructions are given in several different languages they tend look long and
          10.1.4 Good barbecue use                                                                                        complicated and will be off-putting for the consumer. An alternative method could be to supply
                                                                                                                          multilingual instructions with perforated pages. The consumer could be instructed to discard all
                A barbecue should never be used indoors or in a confined area due to the risk of carbon monoxide
                                                                                                                          information in languages that were foreign to them. Manufacturers and retailers should also be
                poisoning. Consumers are often unaware of this hazard and further education is required.
                                                                                                                          aware of the reduction in quality of instructions through poor translation and poor print quality.
                Consumers should be advised that one person should tend the barbecue and all other people
                                                                                                                          It is recommended that a parts list with appropriate illustrations that facilitates identification of
                are excluded from the immediate vicinity. The person barbecuing should not drink alcohol, not
                                                                                                                          the parts be supplied with the product.
                wear trailing clothing, should use long handled tools and flame retardant gloves. The barbecue
                should never be left unattended.                                                                          Information should be included in the instructions regarding:
                If possible the barbecue should be allowed to cool completely in an appropriate place, before             • appropriate siting of the barbecue;
                handling. People should be aware that the barbecue retains heat for a long period of time after           • safe lighting procedure;
                cooking as accidents have occurred with a hot barbecue or coals the day after use.
                                                                                                                          • safe operation;
                                                                                                                          • creation of a safe environment.
                                                                                                                          Consumers should be warned of the hazard of radiation burns from the site of a disposable
                                                                                                                          barbecue after it has been removed.


Page 40                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 41
                Research is underway that aims to identify the most effective carbon monoxide poisoning warning                 • there should be no sharp edges or protrusions on the product parts;
                that should be carried on all barbecues and barbecue accessories posing this hazard.
                                                                                                                                • the process should be straightforward, and should ideally be able to be completed by a single
                                                                                                                                  person without the help of others;
          10.2.3 Siting of barbecues                                                                                            • all parts should be easily identifiable and illustrations should clearly show the orientation of
                                                                                                                                  parts. Consideration should be given to stating that all parts should be labelled.
                More advice has to be given to consumers regarding appropriate siting of barbecues. Limited
                information is currently offered. There is, perhaps, a role for retailers as well as manufacturers here.        Recommendations regarding use are:
                Advice should include:                                                                                          • there should be no sharp edges or protrusions on the (assembled) product;
                • the barbecue should be used outdoors only and in outdoor areas where there is good                            • the (assembled) product should be stable especially with a loaded grill.
                  circulation of air to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning;
                                                                                                                                Recommendations regarding instructions and safety warnings are:
                • the barbecue should be sited in an area free from over-hanging trees or other over-hanging
                                                                                                                                • the instructions should ideally be in the form of a single booklet/sheet with the text in
                  articles that could ignite;
                                                                                                                                  a single language;
                • the barbecue should be sited aware from wooden fencing that could ignite;
                                                                                                                                • the assembly process should include both descriptive text for each section grouped together
                • the barbecue should be sited away from paths where traffic is likely to pass to avoid collisions                with suitable clear diagrams;
                  or contact with the hot barbecue;
                                                                                                                                • there should be a warnings section describing positive actions that the consumer should take
                • the barbecue should be sited on a level surface to avoid it toppling.                                           and explanations as to why,
                (see DTI’s Government consumer safety campaign leaflets, Sowing the seeds of safety and Do it                   • warnings should be grouped together and highlighted by a suitable method such as different
                safely in the garden)                                                                                             colour text or ‘boxed’ text.
                                                                                                                                It is recommended that warnings displayed in the information should be duplicated on the packaging
                                                                                                                                in a clear and concise way. It is also vital that warnings and safety instructions are developed in
          10.2.4 Product packaging and design
                                                                                                                                consultation with consumers. Focus group testing is one way of ensuring safety warnings and
                A recommendation specific to disposable barbecues is:                                                           instructions adopted will be effective.
                • the barbecue should be supplied with a stand to reduce the hazard of radiation burns from                     The final and most relevant design issue is that of surfaces becoming hot. Review of the accident
                  the heated site after the barbecue has been removed.                                                          data revealed that the most common injury sustained is burns or scalds resulting from contact
                Recommendations regarding the packaging of all types of barbecue are:                                           with hot surfaces. Due to the nature of the product this is a unavoidable hazard, however several
                                                                                                                                features could reduce this risk. Products should be supplied with heat resistant handles. They
                • it should be robust enough to protect the barbecue from damage;                                               should also be stable and carry on-product warnings alerting the consumer to the hazard.
                • it should carry the time required for the assembly process (where necessary);
                • it should carry details of additional items and tools required for the assembly process                  10.3 Future safety Standards
                  (where necessary);
                                                                                                                                The information presented in this report, including our review of German and French charcoal
                • it should carry the manufacturer’s contact details.                                                           barbecue Standards, our recommendations to further consumer education and improve product
                Recommendations that apply to barbecues requiring assembly are:                                                 safety, as well as the key findings from analysis of the accident data, should all feed into the
                                                                                                                                formulation of a British Standard for charcoal barbecues.
                • the design of the product should be such that it aids the assembly process;
                • there should be as few parts as possible;
                                                                                                                           10.4 DTI publications
                • the range of types of fixings should be kept to a minimum;
                                                                                                                                The DTI have published a range of consumer safety leaflets that include advice on safe barbecue
                • the need for specialised tools should be removed;
                                                                                                                                use. “Do it safely in the garden” and “Sowing the seeds of safety” are leaflets that address hazards
                • if tools are required they should be of the type that most consumers are likely to possess;                   in the garden. Also covered is advice on appropriate siting of barbecues and warnings to encourage
                • the design of the parts should be such that incorrect assembly is obvious or impossible;                      adequate supervision of children in the vicinity of barbecues and against the use of barbecues
                                                                                                                                indoors due to the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Page 42                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 43
          11.0 Conclusions
            From the findings of this study it is possible to identify factors that contribute to the occurrence
            of barbecue accidents and to identify who is most likely to be injured and in what way. Analysis
            and interpretation of the HASS data lead to identification of the number and nature of accidents
            occurring. Product design issues were identified from sample product appraisals and a picture of
            current barbecue ownership and use was obtained from manufacturers and retailers and through
            consumer questioning and group discussions.
            The information obtained can be used to predict barbecue accident rates in the future, however,
            due to the range of influencing variables such as the weather, the prediction is somewhat blurred.
            Many manufacturers and retailers predict a significant change from charcoal barbecues to gas.
            The risks associated with this type of barbecue may be reduced as the accident data reported a
            large number of accidents resulting from inappropriate use of flammable liquid and the need for
            this should be eliminated with gas barbecues. However the major cause of injury was contact
            with hot surfaces and this hazard will still be present with gas barbecues.
            It has also been suggested that consumers are up-grading barbecues to ones with a greater range
            of features. Concerns have been voiced that an increase in complexity of the barbecue may bring
            with it an increase in accident rates.
            Barbecuing, whatever the type of barbecue used, is predicted to increase in popularity and as a
            consequence accidents rates will increase accordingly, unless remedial measures are taken.




Page 44
Appendix 1
MANUFACTURER’S AND RETAILER’S QUESTIONNAIRE


    DTI Barbecue Accidents Questionnaire
    Please use additional sheets of paper if needed.
    – What is your involvement in the barbecue market, e.g. manufacturer, retailer?
    – Please tell us about the range of models of barbecues or barbecue products you supply.
      Promotional literature would be helpful.
    – Could you provide us with the cost per item?
    – If you supply barbecues, could you tell us about the features each model carries (if this is not
      provided in the literature)?
    – Do you provide your customers with information on safe use of barbecues? If so could you send
      a copy of the information to us?
    – We are interested in studying trends in ownership of barbecues over the last 10 years. Could
      you provide us with details of sales figures and a break down of the types of barbecues sold. If
      this is not possible, could you describe any changes in ownership over the past 10 years?
    – If the company has European or International divisions, could you include sales figures and other
      relevant information for these?
    – Are you able to provide us with any samples of your range? This will bring our attention to any
      current or new designs and enable us to take account of them in the work.
    – Could you provide details of any returns or complaints?
    – Are there any industry guidelines that you work to. If so could you provide information on them?
    – As we are trying to reach as wide an audience as possible in this request for information, do you
      know of any other people whom we should contact? These may include people involved in:
       • the manufacture of barbecues
       • the supply of barbecues
       • the supply of barbecue accessories
       • the supply of barbecue fuel
    Thank you for your help. Please now return this questionnaire in the envelope provided.




                                                                                                          Page 45
          Appendix 2
          CHECKLIST FOR BARBECUE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS                                          Safety Instructions                                                  Yes   No   N/A
              Product:                                                                          Are any hazards highlighted and described?                           ❑     ❑    ❑
              Manufacturer:                                                                     Is safety information separate from rest of text?                    ❑     ❑    ❑
              Type:                                                                             Is the level of each hazard identified?                              ❑     ❑    ❑
                                                                                                Is the following stated?
              Packaging                                                        Yes   No   N/A      The actions or uses which present the hazard                      ❑     ❑    ❑
              Type of box/packaging                                            ❑     ❑    ❑        What the factors are which increase the level of risk             ❑     ❑    ❑
              Is manufacturer’s/supplier’s address shown?                      ❑     ❑    ❑        How to avoid the hazard                                           ❑     ❑    ❑
              Is make/model clearly shown?                                     ❑     ❑    ❑        What to do if the hazard is encountered                           ❑     ❑    ❑
              Any warnings on box? (state)                                     ❑     ❑    ❑        What should not be done if the hazard is encountered?             ❑     ❑    ❑
              Is there any damage on the box?                                  ❑     ❑    ❑     Is the safety information:
              Hazards with opening box? (state)                                ❑     ❑    ❑        Definite, precise and unambiguous?                                ❑     ❑    ❑
                                                                                                   Realistic?                                                        ❑     ❑    ❑
              Instructions                                                     Yes   No   N/A      Placed at the beginning of the instructions – if it is general?   ❑     ❑    ❑
              Were the instructions visible/accessible when opening the box?   ❑     ❑    ❑        Placed at an appropriate point where it is needed?                ❑     ❑    ❑
              Content Advice given to keep the instructions?                   ❑     ❑    ❑        Highlighted?                                                      ❑     ❑    ❑
              Instructions apply to one model only?                            ❑     ❑    ❑        Placed on the product?                                            ❑     ❑    ❑
              Are the following included?:
                 Product name and manufacturer                                 ❑     ❑    ❑     Layout/organisation
                 Table of contents                                             ❑     ❑    ❑        Is the text readable?                                             ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Introduction                                                  ❑     ❑    ❑        Is order ok                                                       ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Safety information                                            ❑     ❑    ❑        Are illustrations/tables next to relevant text?                   ❑     ❑    ❑
                 List of components                                            ❑     ❑    ❑        Are illustrations clear?                                          ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Handling information                                          ❑     ❑    ❑        Is there a balance between text and illustrations?                ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Assembly information                                          ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Operating instructions                                        ❑     ❑    ❑     On Product information
                 Fault diagnostic                                              ❑     ❑    ❑        Good position?                                                    ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Routine servicing                                             ❑     ❑    ❑        Permanently attached?                                             ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Professional overhauling                                      ❑     ❑    ❑        Suitable?                                                         ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Disposal instructions                                         ❑     ❑    ❑        Manufacturer’s/supplier’s information?                            ❑     ❑    ❑
                 Are the instructions complete?                                ❑     ❑    ❑




Page 46                                                                                                                                                                               Page 47
          Assembly                                                        Yes     No       N/A   Use
          Was there any visible damage on any of the parts?               ❑        ❑       ❑     Procedure:
          Was there a parts list?                                         ❑        ❑       ❑     – Use instructions to fill with charcoal/lava (do not light)
          Were parts labelled?                                            ❑        ❑       ❑     – Place weights ‘reasonably’ all over BBQ grills
          Were parts easily identified?                                   ❑        ❑       ❑     Comments:
          Was any assembly required?                                      ❑        ❑       ❑     Check stability on flat surface (find most onerous position – shift weights to that area – does this
                                                                                                 effect the stability further?
          If parts list – were any parts missing?                         ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                 Details of most onerous position:
          Ease of assembly (if required)                                  ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                                                                                                 Yes     No    N/A
          Were there any problems encountered in the assembly procedure
          when the instructions were followed?                            ❑        ❑       ❑     Was the product stable,
                                                                                                 when sited on a 10 degree slope (in most onerous position)                       ❑      ❑      ❑
          Were any tools required?                                        ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                 Comments:
          If so, were they basic (screwdriver, adjustable spanner)?       ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                 Burning
          Were any tools provided?                                        ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                    What was the ambient temperature during burning?                              ❑      ❑      ❑
          If so what
                                                                                                    Were controls easy to use?                                                    ❑      ❑      ❑
          Hazards during assembly?
                                                                                                    Were they safe?                                                               ❑      ❑      ❑
          Time taken?
                                                                                                    Was opening the lid easy?                                                     ❑      ❑      ❑
          Was time reasonable for type of product?
                                                                                                    Was it safe?                                                                  ❑      ❑      ❑
          Quality of manufacture                                                Tick box
                                                                                                    Was moving/adjusting the cooking grills easy?                                 ❑      ❑      ❑
             Good                                                                  ❑
                                                                                                    Was it safe?                                                                  ❑      ❑      ❑
             Reasonable                                                            ❑
                                                                                                    Was moving/adjusting the airflow vents easy?                                  ❑      ❑      ❑
             Poor                                                                  ❑
                                                                                                    Was it safe?                                                                  ❑      ❑      ❑
          Quality of fasteners (nuts and bolts)
                                                                                                 Time required for conditioning (or 30mins if not stated)
             Good                                                                  ❑
                                                                                                 Temperature after conditioning 6 various points
             Reasonable                                                            ❑
                                                                                                    1
             Poor                                                                  ❑
                                                                                                    2
          Any hazards associated with the assembled product               ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                    3
          Were any parts missing?                                         ❑        ❑       ❑
                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                    5
                                                                                                    6




Page 48                                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 49
                                                                                                       Appendix 3
          Leave to burn for 30mins – record temperature                                                ERGONOMICS APPRAISALS OF SAMPLE PRODUCTS
             1
             2
                                                                                                       DISPOSABLE BARBECUES
             3
                                                                                                           DISPOSABLE NO.1
             4
                                                                                                           Packaging
             5
                                                                                                           This product was supplied shrink wrapped in plastic. On the front of the box there were warnings
             6                                                                                             stating that the user should read the instructions before lighting. In addition it stated that the
          If temperature has changed, leave for further 30mins – record temperature                        cardboard tray should be removed before use. The manufacturer’s name and address were not
                                                                                                           shown on the packaging.
             1
                                                                                                           The packaging was easily removed and was considered to be appropriate although there were
             2                                                                                             some fairly sharp edges present at the ends of the pressed cooking grid.
             3                                                                                             Instructions
             4                                                                                             The instructions provided with the product were informative and concise. In addition, information
             5                                                                                             was also provided for the disposal of the barbecue. No advice was given to retain the instructions.
                                                                                                           In the safety instructions there were a number of warnings and instructions were given to extinguish
             6
                                                                                                           the barbecue by sprinkling it with water as soon as cooking is finished.
          Ground temp (only if fire box is within 100mm of the ground) after 1.5hrs
                                                                                                           Assembly
                                                                                                           No assembly was required.
          Gas only                                                                    Yes   No   N/A
                                                                                                           Use
          Is there only one connection required (to the cylinder)?                    ❑     ❑    ❑
                                                                                                           The barbecue passed the tilt test when loaded with weights.
          Describe if more than one:
                                                                                                           Attempts were made to light the barbecue with a match, but it was found to be too short as the
          Is guidance given for testing leaks?                                        ❑     ❑    ❑         flame had to be introduced to the under side of the impregnated sheet which was positioned
          Is there a auto fuel shut off valve (flame blow out)?                       ❑     ❑    ❑         under the grill. Therefore, in order to light the barbecue, a spill was required which was long enough
                                                                                                           to pass through the cooking grill and to be positioned under the impregnated sheet.
          Is there a fuel level indicator?                                            ❑     ❑    ❑
                                                                                                           Once the impregnated sheet was lit, the barbecue was left to burn. After 30 minutes most of the
          Method of lighting burners:                                                                      charcoal was observed to be burning. Temperatures were then taken at various points around
                                                                                                           the edge of the grill. Temperatures ranged from 110-140oC.
                                                                                                           The barbecue was then moved and the temperature of the concrete slab on which it had been
                                                                                                           sitting was recorded. This was 78oC.




Page 50                                                                                                                                                                                                             Page 51
          DISPOSABLE NO. 2                                                                                        CHARCOAL BARBECUES
          Packaging                                                                                                  CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 1
          This barbecue came supplied with a reusable stand.                                                         Packaging
          The packaging was similar to the other two examples, having a cardboard box with shrink plastic            This barbecue had a one piece enamelled basin top which incorporated shelves at each end.
          wrapping. Warnings on the packaging state that the stand should only be used with a disposable             Underneath the main cooking area there was an oven which was designed to both cook food and
          barbecue which is 280mm x 310mm in size. It also states that the user should follow the instructions,      keep it warm. Because of the large size of this barbecue the box was also large and bulky. It was
          they should not move the product after lighting it and that they should ensure that the barbecue           colour printed with photos of the barbecue and had a yellow triangle with text warning that the
          is cold before any attempt is made to move it.                                                             box was heavy.
          The wording was found to be generally clear and concise.                                                   Warnings on the box stated that the user should read the instructions carefully.
          Instructions                                                                                               Instructions
          Again the instructions were considered to be adequate. In the safety instructions, as well as the          The instructions were supplied in a clear plastic bag and placed in the box. They were in the form
          conventional warnings, the text also states that the barbecue should be extinguished after use,            of a six sided fold out sheet.
          that it should not be refilled and that the area underneath the barbecue gets very hot.
                                                                                                                     The front cover had a parts list and illustrations of the various parts.
          Assembly
                                                                                                                     The second page showed a parts list for fixings with illustrations. There were also some warnings
          Tray inserted into a reusable stand                                                                        to consider before assembling the barbecue.
          Use                                                                                                        The introduction to the assembly was well laid out and advised checking of parts for inclusion,
          This barbecue passed the tilt test when loaded with weights. It was tested both with and without           damage, and to clear any holes which have been covered with paint or enamel. It then stated the
          the use of the reusable stand.                                                                             tools that were required to assemble the barbecue, and suggested, for ease, to initially hand
                                                                                                                     tighten the nuts.
          To light the barbecue a spill was required which was long enough to pass through the cooking
          grill and to be positioned under the impregnated sheet. If a match was used it was very difficult          The assembly section then showed a number of stages which had text and illustrations throughout.
          to light the sheet.                                                                                        The text was considered to have a good content as it clearly described the orientation of parts
                                                                                                                     and the method of assembling the specific part. However, some of the English was unclear. The
          After the barbecue was left to burn for 30 minutes the temperatures were recorded. Around the              illustrations on the other hand were poor and confusing.
          corners of the reusable stand the temperature ranged from 25-34oC and around the top of the
          tray the temperature ranged from 40-89oC. After a further 30 minutes the temperature was again             The final page showed good information on barbecue safety and instructions for usage.
          measured. On the stand, the temperature ranged between 23oC and 45oC. On the tray the temperature          Assembly
          had decreased to between 30oC and 62oC which suggested that the charcoal was beginning to go out.
                                                                                                                     The assembly of this barbecue was very difficult. This was principally down to the poor construction
          The temperature of the ground was taken at this point and it was found to be 12oC which was the            of the barbecue. It was very difficult and almost impossible to hold nuts in place in small gaps,
          ambient temperature at the time of the testing. This compares to 78oC measured on barbecue 1.              while trying to thread bolts through a number of areas. Although no damage was apparent on
                                                                                                                     the box, the top of some of the legs were bent and had to be straightened prior to assembly.
                                                                                                                     Use
                                                                                                                     The barbecue passed the tilt test.
                                                                                                                     On lighting, it took some time to ignite and various areas had to be lit separately to achieve some
                                                                                                                     degree of even burning. It was noted that this barbecue had no air vents so this could have been
                                                                                                                     a contributing factor.
                                                                                                                     After 30 minutes the barbecue was not ready for use so it was left for a further 30 minutes to
                                                                                                                     ensure that there was a reasonable burning area. The temperature of the front of the barbecue
                                                                                                                     was recorded as 112oC. The metal section of the handle reached approximately 40oC where as
                                                                                                                     the back surround reached between 70oC and 124oC. After a further 30 minutes the temperatures
                                                                                                                     remained approximately the same.


Page 52                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page 53
          CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 2                                                                               CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 3
          Packaging                                                                                             Packaging
          This barbecue was a very simple circular design and it featured a single pedestal leg and round       This barbecue was similar in design to the gas barbecues, in that it had a hinged lid and a bowl
          base. No warnings were shown on the packaging which was in the form of a cardboard box.               in which the charcoal was suspended on a separate hearth.
          Instructions                                                                                          There were no warnings shown on the box but the model number and manufacturer’s address
                                                                                                                was shown.
          The instructions were in the form of a folded A3 sheet. The front cover showed photos of three
          similar barbecues complete with model numbers.                                                        Instructions
          The text was supplied in six different languages. The English had obviously been translated           The instructions inside the box, were obscured by parts. They comprised of a single folded A3
          because some of the wording was incorrect. Exploded diagrams were shown of two different,             sheet (into A4) which was printed in black and white on all sides.
          but similar barbecues.
                                                                                                                When opened out, one side of the instructions showed a relatively poor exploded diagram with
          The instructions for use were somewhat confusing, which was primarily down to the poor translation.   a parts list. At the bottom of this page there was a list of the tools required. Opposite this was a
                                                                                                                fixings parts list with diagrams and the assembly instructions. A telephone help-line number was
          Assembly
                                                                                                                also given.
          This barbecue was very easy to assemble and the fact that the instructions were reasonably
                                                                                                                On the other side, safety tips, warnings and lighting instructions were given.
          poor did not hinder the assembly process. The assembly was made easier because of the fact
          that only 14 nuts and bolts were used and these were of all the same size.                            Assembly
          Use                                                                                                   The assembly of this barbecue was quite complex. This was exaggerated by the fact that the diagrams
                                                                                                                were confusing and there were many different sorts of fixings required for the assembly.
          The barbecue passed the tilt test.
                                                                                                                During assembly it was noted that the legs were of different lengths, this was not referred to in
          On lighting the barbecue burned well and temperatures were recorded after 30 minutes.
                                                                                                                the instructions and the diagram did not illustrate this. It is quite likely that the consumer would
          All temperatures were relatively low in the range 30-45oC, apart from the temperature of the          assemble the product incorrectly, without realising. There were also a few cases where the text
          underside of the cooking pan at the top of the legs. This was recorded as 250oC.                      describes an action which is confusing and the diagram does not aid understanding.
                                                                                                                Use
                                                                                                                The barbecue passed the tilt test.
                                                                                                                Because of the design of the barbecue having a separate bowl from the fire hearth, the temperature
                                                                                                                of the surfaces after 30 minutes were very reasonable. The highest temperature recorded was
                                                                                                                134oC around the vent on top of the lid. Other temperatures ranged from 23oC on the handle to
                                                                                                                58-119oC on the inside of the cooking pan.




Page 54                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 55
          CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 4                                                                                 CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 5
          Packaging                                                                                               Packaging
          This barbecue was a simple low level design which incorporated a cooking pan and two small              This barbecue consisted of a cast iron burner and grill support which was supported on three legs.
          adjustable height grills. The barbecue was supplied in a printed card box which did not show            When assembled it stood approximately 590mm high.
          any warnings or manufacturer’s name and address.
                                                                                                                  The barbecue was supplied in a printed card box which clearly showed the model details and
          Instructions                                                                                            the manufacturer’s address.
          The instructions were supplied in a plastic bag and were placed on top of the parts in the box.         Instructions
          They were in the form of a printed, folded single sheet of A4.
                                                                                                                  The instructions for this barbecue were supplied as two separate A4 sheets. The first sheet
          The front page showed a photograph of the assembled barbecue. Opening the instructions the              displayed an exploded diagram with a parts and fixings list. At the bottom of this page a list of
          next two pages showed an exploded diagram, parts list and fixings list, followed by the assembly        tools required was also provided. On the rear of this sheet, assembly instructions and a telephone
          instructions and warnings. Each section of the instructions was well laid out and easily identified.    help line number were given.
          On the rear of the instructions there was a general section relating to barbecue use.                   On the second sheet, safety tips and warnings were given on one side while lighting instructions
                                                                                                                  were given on the other.
          Assembly
                                                                                                                  Assembly
          Before starting the assembly, the parts were checked against the lists and there were a number
          of fixings were found to be missing.                                                                    When assembling the barbecue it was noted that the nuts and bolts supplied with the product
                                                                                                                  were different to those specified in the instructions.
          There were some parts which were difficult to identify and to determine the orientation. When
          fixing the handles to the side of the hearth, the pilot holes in the wooden sections were too big,      The wording in the instructions for the assembly steps was confusing in the way it referred to
          resulting in the loose fitting of the screws. The edges of the metal legs were also considered to       the fixings. For example, it stated to use, 5 x 15mm bolts (this could either mean to use five, 15mm
          be sharp.                                                                                               bolts or use a bolt that measures 15mm by 5mm).
          When assembly was complete there were a number of fixings left over.                                    Again there were some doubt as to the correct orientation of some of the sections.
          Use                                                                                                     Use
          When the barbecue was loaded with the weights used for stability testing, a degree of                   With the weights added the barbecue was very top heavy. It failed the 10o slope test.
          deformation of the grill was noted. However the barbecue passed the tilt test.
                                                                                                                  The barbecue was left for 20 minutes (as stated in the instructions) before temperatures were
          The barbecue was lit fairly easily and after 30 minutes various temperatures were recorded. The         recorded. The temperature of the vent reached 102oC, whereas the temperature above the vent
          temperatures were very high especially near to the vent (328oC) and on the vent (240oC). After a        reached 156oC. The temperature in other areas ranged between 52oC and 80oC.
          further 30 minutes burning the temperatures were slightly less as the charcoal had started to go out.




Page 56                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 57
          CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 6                                                                                  CHARCOAL BARBECUE NO. 7
          Packaging                                                                                                Packaging
          This barbecue was a conventional spherical kettle type design which featured three legs and it           This barbecue was a low level design and was in the shape of a barrel. The lid section was designed
          was mounted on wheels. It had a removable lid which could be attached to the side of the barbecue        to act as an additional grilling surface if it was opened fully.
          to act as a wind break.
                                                                                                                   The barbecue was supplied in a printed box. The manufacturer’s address and the make and model
          It was supplied in a printed box with the name of the manufacturer and the model name clearly shown.     were clearly shown.
          Instructions                                                                                             Although the packaging was not damaged there was a fair degree of damage evident on the main
                                                                                                                   sections of the barbecue which exposed a number of sharp edges. One of the hinges for the lid
          Four separate sets of instructions in four languages were supplied and they were in the form of
                                                                                                                   was also broken.
          6 separate printed sheets of A4 held together with a staple. The English section consisted of two
          printed sheets. On the first page there were some general tips for assembly followed by a somewhat       Instructions
          unclear exploded diagram, and a parts list.
                                                                                                                   The instructions were in the form of a single sided A4 sheet.
          The second page covered a preparation section, fixings list and assembly instructions. Finally, on
                                                                                                                   The top of the sheet showed a very unclear exploded view diagram. Under this was a rendering
          the last page, safety tips were given together with lighting instructions and the manufacturer’s name,
                                                                                                                   of the completed barbecue. This was followed by a number of warnings, some of which were in
          address and contact number.
                                                                                                                   poor English, followed by lighting instructions and a parts list. There were no assembly instructions.
          It was noted that instructions in other languages seemed to offer less information.
                                                                                                                   Assembly
          Assembly
                                                                                                                   As there were no assembly instructions, the consumer would be left to their own devices to
          When assembly was commenced, it was noted that the barbecue had been supplied with some                  determine how to put the barbecue together. The poor diagram meant that the selection and
          sections pre-assembled.                                                                                  finding the correct orientation of the parts was not easy.
          Assembly was relatively straightforward, although some sharp edges were noted around the top             However, the assembly was reasonably straightforward, although there were a number of sharp
          of the lid.                                                                                              edges exposed by the damaged sections and the edges of the vents.
          Use                                                                                                      Use
          The barbecue passed the tilt test even when the lid was positioned on the side.                          With the lid, section being used as a lid the barbecue only just remained standing on a horizontal
                                                                                                                   surface. When subjected to the slope test it failed. However, when loaded with weights the
          The barbecue was left to burn for 30 minutes. Temperatures were measured on various surfaces.
                                                                                                                   barbecue passed this test.
          No extreme temperatures were recorded.
                                                                                                                   With one section used as a barbecue and the other as the lid the barbecue was left to burn for
                                                                                                                   30 minutes before temperatures were recorded. On the body at the top of the grill the temperature
                                                                                                                   reached 133oC. On other areas the temperatures were reasonable. With the lid closed the
                                                                                                                   temperature of the handle positioned on top of the lid reached 145oC.




Page 58                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page 59
          GAS BARBECUES                                                                                                GAS BARBECUE NO. 2
              GAS BARBECUE NO. 1                                                                                       Packaging
              Packaging                                                                                                Again this barbecue was supplied in a large, printed box. The manufacturer’s address was clearly
                                                                                                                       displayed, but there were no warnings shown on the packaging. The name of the barbecue was
             The barbecue was supplied in a large cardboard box. The box had a full colour printed label covering
                                                                                                                       unclear as it was printed on to the box by means of a large format dot matrix type printer. There
             most of the box, which showed illustrations of the assembled barbecue . There were no warnings
                                                                                                                       was also information about filling gas bottles for the North American market which could be
             printed on the box and the manufacturer’s address was not shown. There were no hazards
                                                                                                                       confusing to the user.
             encountered while opening the box.
                                                                                                                       Instructions
              Instructions
                                                                                                                       The instructions for this barbecue were supplied in the form of two separate A4 booklets and
             The instructions for this barbecue were in the form of a single A5 pamphlet which had a photograph
                                                                                                                       2 printed leaflets. One leaflet was a guarantee form with a registration document attached for the
             of the assembled barbecue on the front cover. The instructions were well laid out and included
                                                                                                                       North American market. The other leaflet highlighted and gave information about a new type of
             a contents page, parts list and a separate warnings section together with a help line telephone
                                                                                                                       shelf which was incorporated with the barbecue.
             number. However no recommendations were made to retain the instructions, and no manufacturer’s
             address was shown                                                                                         The first booklet showed the assembly process. The front cover of this had drawings of 4 similar
                                                                                                                       looking barbecues with different names. The assembly drawings had no supplementary text
             The assembly section has both diagrams and text in each section. The text was not too wordy but
                                                                                                                       accompanying them but each stage showed the parts and the diagrams were clear. At the end of
             some of the diagrams were unclear.
                                                                                                                       the booklet there was a parts list for the four barbecues shown on the front cover. This was very
             Following on from the assembly section was a section on preparation, installation and warnings,           confusing. On the back of the booklet there was an exploded view of the barbecue with part
             followed by lighting, storage and cleaning.                                                               numbers labelled.
              Assembly                                                                                                 The second booklet was described as the owner’s manual. This had the names of three
              The assembly of this barbecue was relatively straightforward. This was aided by the instructions.        barbecues printed on the cover but had no reference to the fourth name (which was the name of
                                                                                                                       the barbecue supplied). This booklet went into great detail about the safety aspects of using the
             The lid was mounted before the gas burner was fitted. With the lid in position it made it difficult       barbecue. The text was very wordy and some information referred to different markets. The last
             to manhandle the barbecue to attach the burner.                                                           page showed a trouble shooting table.
             When attaching the electrode for the piezo ignition, the instructions state to leave a set gap between    Both booklets showed the manufacturer’s name and address.
             the burner and the top of the electrode. With the electrode in position when the burner is placed
             on top it was impossible to see the gap. Therefore the user has to guess the position of the electrode.   Assembly

              Use                                                                                                      Again the assembly of this barbecue was relatively straightforward although text would have
                                                                                                                       helped to explain points in the different sections.
              Although this barbecue passed the 10o slope test it was considered to be top heavy.
                                                                                                                       It was unclear which part to use when selecting from two similar parts in the first stage’s parts
             The instructions state to light the burners for 10 minutes to condition the barbecue. The barbecue        list. In the third stage the other similar part is used, and the parts list show both of the parts with
             had to be lit with a taper because the piezo ignition would not work. After 10 minutes the                the wrong one crossed out. This should have been shown on the first stage.
             temperature were taken at various points . The top of the lid (which was closed) reached 100oC,
             whereas the temperature of the handle, gas knobs and metal near to the knobs had only                     A later diagram shows the assembly of the gas knobs. The diagram shows the barbecue having
             reached between 22-30oC.                                                                                  3 knobs, when it has only 2 knobs. This again could confuse the user.

             After a further 30 minutes burning time with the lid left closed, the lid temperature had reached         Use
             122oC and the other points had reached between 39-48oC.                                                   This barbecue appeared to be very stable when subjected to the tilt test.
             It was not obvious to the user that the lid would be very hot as there was quite a gap between            With the lid closed the barbecue was conditioned for 10 minutes. The temperature of the lid
             the burners and the top of the lid.                                                                       reached 150oC, whereas the temperature of the metal next to the gas controls reached 30oC.
                                                                                                                       After 30 minutes burning, the lid temperature had reached 259oC and the temperature around
                                                                                                                       the controls had reached 73oC, whereas the handle on the lid reached 44oC.




Page 60                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 61
          GAS BARBECUE NO. 3                                                                                       Use
          Packaging                                                                                                This barbecue performed satisfactorily when subjected to the tilt test.
          This barbecue was supplied in a single colour printed cardboard box. The model, manufacturer’s           The barbecue was conditioned for 20 minutes on full flame with the lid closed. The top of the lid
          address and a number of warnings were displayed on the box. Also stated were the tools that were         reached 171oC and the glass window reached 130oC. However the lid handle and the gas controls
          needed to assemble the barbecue.                                                                         reached between 18 and 29oC.
          Instructions                                                                                             After a further 30 minutes the temperatures of the various surfaces were approximately 10oC higher.
          The instructions for this barbecue were supplied in the form of a single A4 booklet and two              This barbecue had a temperature gauge fitted to the glass window. However it only showed high
          additional single sheets.                                                                                and low settings and did not show any temperature display readings.
          One separate sheet comprised an ‘erratum’ to the instructions which was a replacement diagram
          which appeared to be identical apart from part number references (which were wrong on the
          erratum and were right in the instructions!)
          The other single sheet was in the form of a sticky label and had text in 7 languages relating to the
          correct placement of the lava rock on the grill.
          The front cover of the booklet showed a computer generated image of the barbecue together with
          a number of warnings, and the manufacturer’s name and address.
          In the assembly instructions only diagrams were shown. A parts list was given for each assembly
          stage. A number of warnings were highlighted throughout this stage.
          The operation and maintenance section of the instructions described how to attach the regulator
          and operate the barbecue. This section was considered to be very wordy.
          Comprehensive warnings were supplied in the operation section but again they were very wordy
          and therefore they may not be read.
          The last page of the instructions had a trouble shooting table.
          Throughout the instructions the print quality was considered to be poor.
          Assembly
          The assembly of this barbecue was relatively straightforward although the main problem tended
          to relate to the quality of the diagrams. It was sometimes very difficult to determine the correct
          orientation of parts.
          On a number of occasions it was possible to assemble parts, only to find out later that they were
          incorrectly assembled, this meant having to dismantle sections.
          As this barbecue had a number of different features parts there were a number of different types
          of fixings. Some fixings that had been shown on the parts list had been substituted for similar items,
          but this all added to the confusion. There were a few fixings missing which prevented a tray from
          being fitted and after assembly was completed there were a number of fixings left over.
          When fitting the gas pipe, pincers had to be used to crimp the pipe clamp. No instructions were
          given to show how this should be done. The instructions showed using a hose clip to attach the pipe.




Page 62                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 63
          GAS BARBECUE NO. 4                                                                                      GAS BARBECUE NO. 5
          Packaging                                                                                               Packaging
          This barbecue was from the same manufacturer as number 3. It therefore had the same type of             Again this barbecue was manufactured by the same company as 3 and 4. Therefore it had a similar
          packaging and warnings. In addition to these, the instructions were supplied sealed in a ‘data bag’     box and warnings. The name of the barbecue printed on the box lid was different to that shown
          on the outside of the packaging.                                                                        elsewhere on the box and to that shown on the instructions.
          Instructions                                                                                            Instructions
          Although this barbecue was made by the same manufacturer, the instructions were in the form             This barbecue was made by the same manufacturer as 3 and 4. The instructions were in an
          of an A3 fold out assembly sheet and a separate operation and use booklet.                              identical form to that of barbecue number 4.
          The style of the text and diagrams and warnings were very similar to those on barbecue number 3.        Therefore the style of the text and the diagrams and warnings were very similar to those on
                                                                                                                  barbecue number 4.
          Assembly
                                                                                                                  Assembly
          As this barbecue was a simpler version of barbecue number 3, the assembly was very similar, if a
          little more straightforward.                                                                            Once again this barbecue was assembled in a similar way to 3 and 4, and it had very similar problems.
          Again it was difficult to identify orientation of parts. One of the diagrams was also incorrect as it   In addition, the screws provided to attach the gas taps, and electrode to the frame had a variation
          showed items from barbecue number 3 which are not included on this barbecue.                            of a torx type head. It is not considered that a torx screwdriver would be in the average user’s set
                                                                                                                  of tools and there was no mention on the packaging that a torx screwdriver was required.
          Some of the fixing holes did not align which made it very difficult to attach certain items.
                                                                                                                  Use
          As on barbecue number 3, pincers had to be used to crimp the pipe clamp. No instructions were
          given to show how this should be done. The instructions showed using a hose clip to attach the pipe.    This barbecue performed in a very similar way to barbecue numbers 3 and 4.
          Use
          This barbecue performed in a very similar way to barbecue number 3.




Page 64                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 65
          Appendix 4
          CONSUMER’S QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                              8. For what sort of event do you have a barbecue?
             BARBECUE USER QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                           You may tick more than one box if required.                                     ❑
             The following questionnaire aims to find out barbecue user’s opinions and experiences of using        1. Social gathering (Adults only)                                               ❑
             barbecues. It forms part of a study into the nature of barbecue accidents occurring in the UK on      2. Social gathering (Children present)                                          ❑
             behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry.
                                                                                                                   3. Family meal (Week-ends only)                                                 ❑
             Note: If required, please continue on the blank paper provided.
                                                                                                                   4. Family meal (Mid-week)                                                       ❑
             Views and opinions expressed in this questionnaire will be treated as confidential and will not
             be attributable to an individual when the report is produced.                                         5. Other (please give details below)                                            ❑

             1. What type of barbecue do you use?                                                               9. Has this changed since you first started barbecuing?

                You may tick more than one box if required.                                                        Yes                                                                             ❑

                1. Charcoal                                                                              ❑         No                                                                              ❑

                2. Kettle                                                                                ❑      10. If so, describe how.

                3. Disposable                                                                            ❑
                4. Gas                                                                                   ❑      11. Barbecues often require assembly prior to use. Have you ever assembled a barbecue?

                5. Brick-built                                                                           ❑         Yes                                                                             ❑

                6. Other (please give details below):                                                              No                                                                              ❑
                                                                                                                12. If you have assembled a barbecue, did you experience any problems?

             2. Could you provide a description(s) or illustration(s) of it/them?                                  Yes                                                                             ❑
                                                                                                                   No                                                                              ❑

             3. Is this your first barbecue?                                                                    13. If “Yes” what sort of problems have you experienced?

                Yes                                                                                      ❑         You may tick more than one box if required

                No                                                                                       ❑         1. No instructions                                                              ❑

             4. If “No”, what types of barbecues have you owned in the past?                                       2. Inadequate instructions                                                      ❑

                (Please give in chronological order)                                                               3. Missing parts                                                                ❑
                                                                                                                   4. Damaged parts                                                                ❑

             5. How long have you been barbecuing?                                                                 5. Sharp edges                                                                  ❑
                                                                                                                   6. Unable to put parts together                                                 ❑

             6. How often have you barbecued in the last 12 months?                                                7. Other (please give details below)                                            ❑


             7. Has this changed since you first started barbecuing?
                1. Less often                                                                            ❑
                2. More often                                                                            ❑
                3. No change                                                                             ❑



Page 66                                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 67
          14. What fuels do you burn on your barbecue?                        17. What other accessories do you use with your barbecue?
             You may tick more than one box if required                          You may tick more than one box if required
             1. Charcoal                                                  ❑      1 Oven gloves                                                                        ❑
             2. Instant/Impregnated briquettes                            ❑      2 Tongs                                                                              ❑
             3. Lumpwood & briquette mix                                  ❑      3 Fish broiler                                                                       ❑
             4. Coconut shell briquettes                                  ❑      4 Spatula                                                                            ❑
             5 Wood                                                       ❑      5 Brush                                                                              ❑
             6 Gas                                                        ❑      6 Skewer                                                                             ❑
             7 Other (please give details below)                                 7. Fork                                                                              ❑
                                                                                 8. Other (please give details below)
          15. Do you find your barbecue easy to light?
             Yes                                                          ❑   18.Does your barbecue have any other attachments?
             No                                                           ❑      You may tick more than one box if required
          16. What fuels/accessories do you use to light your barbecue?          1. Side burner/s                                                                     ❑
             You may tick more than one box if required                          2. Oven                                                                              ❑
             1. Lighting cubes                                            ❑      3. Rotisserie (powered)                                                              ❑
             2. Lighting fluid                                            ❑      4. Spit (manual)                                                                     ❑
             3. Lighting gel                                              ❑      5. Fondue set                                                                        ❑
             4. Bellows                                                   ❑      6. Hotplate                                                                          ❑
             5. Barbecue charcoal starter                                 ❑      7. Other (please give details below)
             6. Paper                                                     ❑
             7. Wood                                                      ❑   19. In what way would you upgrade your barbecue in the future?
             8. None                                                      ❑
             9. Other (please give details below)                             20. Have you ever actually had or nearly had an accident when using your barbecue?
                                                                                 Yes                                                                                  ❑
                                                                                 No                                                                                   ❑
                                                                              21. If “Yes”, please provide details.


                                                                              Many thanks for taking the time to complete this questionnaire. Remember your opinions and
                                                                              experiences form an important part of this study.




Page 68                                                                                                                                                                    Page 69
          Appendix 5
          RESPONSES FROM CONSUMER’S QUESTIONNAIRE                                                           Topic                          Response
                                                                                                            Problems with assembly         25% have experienced problems with assembly
           Topic                                         Response                                                                          Types of problems experienced:
                                                                                                                                           • No instructions
           Type of barbecue owned or used                88% Charcoal                                                                      • Inadequate instructions
                                                         32% Home-made/brickbuilt                                                          • Missing parts
                                                         20% Disposable                                                                    • Sharp edges
                                                         12% Kettle                                                                        • Unable to put parts together
                                                         4% Gas
                                                                                                            Most common fuel used          Charcoal (96%) with 36% specifying instant or
           Number of barbecues owned                     16% One                                                                           impregnated charcoal and 44% specifying a mix
                                                         80% Owned other barbecues in the past                                             of lumpwood and briquettes
                                                         40% Currently own more than one
                                                                                                            Lighting the barbecue          80% of respondents found the barbecue easy to light
           Upgrading of barbecues over time              16% Upgraded.                                                                     Most commonly used lighting products:
                                                                                                                                           • Lighting cubes (64%)
           How long have people been barbecuing?         Range: 5 to over 30 years. Mean 14.7                                              • Paper (36%)
                                                                                                                                           • Lighting fluid (28%)
           How often have barbecues been used            Range: Twice in past year to 2-3 times per week.
                                                                                                                                           • Wood (28%)
           in the past 12 months?                        Mean 8.8 times per year.
                                                                                                            Barbecue accessories           Most commonly used accessories:
           Has the rate of barbecuing                    28% – Less often
                                                                                                                                           • Tongs (96%)
           changed over the years?                       28% – More often
                                                                                                                                           • Fork (84%)
                                                         44% – No change
                                                                                                                                           • Skewer (72%)
           What sort of events do people barbecue for?   68% – Social gathering (Adults only)                                              • Brush (60%)
                                                         72% – Social gathering (Children present)                                         • Oven gloves (44%)
                                                         60% – Family meal (Week-ends only)                                                • Spatula (40%)
                                                         20% – Family meal (Mid-week)
                                                                                                            Barbecue attachments           64% no attachments
                                                         24% – Other (public functions, camping, holiday)
                                                                                                                                           Most common attachments:
           Has this changed since you                    36% – Yes                                                                         • Manual spit
           first started barbecuing?                     64% – No                                                                          • Powered rotisserie

           Reasons for increase in use                   33% – More ordinary meals                          Hotplate Upgrading barbecues   32% Would not want to upgrade
                                                         11% – More social gatherings                                                      24% Would upgrade to a larger model
                                                         11% – Since having children                                                       24% Would like somewhere to keep food warm
                                                         11% – Take barbecue on camping trips                                              12% Would like a more stable barbecue
                                                                                                                                           8% Would switch to gas
           Reasons for decrease in use                   11% – Fed up with inconvenience & cleaning
                                                         of barbecue                                        Accidents with barbecues       32% Have had or nearly had an accident
                                                         22% – children have grown up and left home                                        The details of the accident were:
                                                                                                                                           • Involved accelerants (37%)
           Assembling a barbecue                         64% Have experience of assembling a barbecue                                      • Resulted in minor contact burns (37%)
                                                                                                                                           • Children collided with barbecue (12%)
                                                                                                                                           • The barbecue fell over (12%)




Page 70                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 71
          Part 2
          Research and development of carbon
          monoxide poisoning warnings
          UNDERTAKEN ON BEHALF OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS DIRECTORATE
          THE DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY


                Prepared by Hilary Tait MSc MA (Hons) RGN
                Research Institute of Consumer Ergonomics




          June 2000


Page 72                                                          Page 73
          1.0 Introduction                                                                                          2.0 Current warnings
            In July 1999 the Research Institute of Consumer Ergonomics was commissioned to carry out an               Charcoal available on the UK market today tends to be packaged in strong paper bags that carry
            investigation into the number and nature of accidents involving barbecues. This research was              several pieces of information including the manufacturer’s or supplier’s details, instructions for
            initiated by The Consumer Affairs Directorate at the DTI when examination of HASS data (the DTI’s         use and some safety information. The safety information usually includes a warning not to burn
            Home Accident Surveillance System) indicated that barbecue accidents were increasing at a greater         a barbecue indoors, however the majority do not provide an explanation as to why. People may
            rate than corresponded with the growth in popularity of barbecues.                                        believe that it is due to the risk of fire and may not be aware of the CO poisoning issue.
            The overall aim of the barbecue accident study was to highlight best practice for manufacturers,          In the UK, typical safety information found on a charcoal bag reads:
            suppliers and retailers and the key safety messages which need to be stressed to consumers.
                                                                                                                         Safety Warning
            Any improvements made to barbecue safety in the UK were considered to benefit from observation
                                                                                                                         • Ensure barbecue is placed on a flat surface and well away from dry vegetation or any other
            of countries that are more experienced in the use of barbecues. To this end a review of the US
                                                                                                                           readily flammable material;
            experiences, where around 75% of households own and regularly use a barbecue (Barbecue
            Industry Association, US), was considered to be valuable.                                                    • Always use a proprietary barbecue lighter fuel. Never use alcohol, petrol or other volatile
                                                                                                                           substances. Never add fluid to a burning or warm barbecue;
            One of the major differences in the types of accidents occurring in the US is the incidence of
            Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning. Each year in the US about 25 people die from CO poisoning                    • Never barbecue indoors or in an enclosed area;
            when they burn charcoal in enclosed areas. The population most at risk is believed to be non-                • Never leave a lighted barbecue unattended especially when children are present;
            English speaking inhabitants. In an attempt to reduce the risk of death or injury from CO inhalation,
            the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) addressed the issues of wording, positioning of                • Never move a lighted barbecue and ensure that ashes have cooled before cleaning.
            the warning, and the use of a pictogram on the label of retail containers of charcoal.                    The positioning of the CO warning is often not particularly conspicuous, and in this example is
            Extensive enquiries to medical data sources in the UK failed to identify any record or personal           referred to indirectly and embedded amongst other safety information. Use of a clear, meaningful
            recollection of barbecue related CO poisoning fatalities. However, in 1998 one HASS case was              warning would help to draw the consumer’s attention to the potential hazards. In order to identify
            recorded when a patient attended A&E following inhalation of carbon monoxide. It is understood            which warning would have the greatest impact on consumers, further investigation was required.
            that the patient fell asleep in a shed with a lit barbecue close by.
            The DTI were concerned that, although this was a rare case, there remained a safety hazard in
            the UK and they commissioned a separate study to investigate the effectiveness of CO warnings
            carried on charcoal packaging. This report details the findings of that study.




Page 74                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 75
                                                                                                                    4.0 Carbon monoxide poisoning
          3.0 US warning                                                                                                warning study
                In the US, to overcome the language barrier, a pictogram is used as well as a text message.                      Prior to investigating the effectiveness of CO poisoning warnings on British consumers, the views
                The warning used is illustrated in Figure 1 below.                                                               of charcoal suppliers were sought. We were keen to gain their support whilst accepting that the
                                                                                                                                 effectiveness of a warning could not be compromised by deferring to their views. A list of the
                Figure 1 CO warning used in the US
                                                                                                                                 charcoal suppliers that were contacted is included in Appendix 1.
                                                                                                                                 Responses were received from 8 of the 12 charcoal suppliers contacted. Of these, 5 were in favour
                                                                                                                                 of inclusion of, or change to, CO warnings and 1 was against. One respondent did not answer the
                                                                                                                                 question and the other was unsure.
                                                                                                                                 The supplier that was against change stated that the warning they currently provided was used
                                                                                                                                 in Australia.
                                                                                                                                 The warning’s effectiveness was claimed to be supported by the fact that there have been no
                                                                                                                                 reported incidents of CO poisoning in Australia. However, although CO poisoning from charcoal
                                                                                                                                 barbecues is uncommon in Australia, in 1993 eight, non-English speaking people suffered CO
                                                                                                                                 poisoning following indoor use of a charcoal barbecue for heating.1 In addition, a warning that
                                                                                                                                 is meaningful to Australians will not necessarily have the same impact on British people.
          This may be effective in warning American consumers but may not necessarily have the same impact                       Some suppliers were concerned about the wastage of current packaging if any changes were
          on British consumers. Overall, the general research into the effectiveness of pictograms is marked by a                not phased in slowly. However, generally they stated that there would be no major implications
          great deal of contradiction and qualification (see the DTI’s publication ‘The role of pictograms in the                if warning were altered.
          conveying of consumer safety information’, 1997). The wording of the warning is similar to warnings
          currently employed in the UK but it is important to test all warnings on consumers to ensure that the
          message is being understood.
                                                                                                                        4.1 METHODOLOGY
                                                                                                                                 Group discussions were held to investigate:
                                                                                                                                 • British consumers’ understanding of the US pictogram;
                                                                                                                                 • The effectiveness of textual CO poisoning warnings.
                                                                                                                                 29 members of the public (15 females and 14 males) attended the group discussions. They ranged
                                                                                                                                 in age from 19 to 70 years and had no prior knowledge that the tests were related to charcoal use
                                                                                                                                 or CO poisoning.



                                                                                                                        4.1.1 INVESTIGATION OF PICTOGRAMS
                                                                                                                                 The use of a meaningful pictogram may help to draw attention to the hazard and would not require
                                                                                                                                 understanding of any one language. However CO poisoning is a difficult hazard to describe with
                                                                                                                                 the use of symbols. The pictogram devised for use in the US (shown in Figure 2 overleaf) was
                                                                                                                                 shown to British consumers, without accompanying text, to assess their understanding of it.
                                                                                                                                 Figure 2 CO poisoning warning pictogram used in the US




                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                                        Jelinek, G (1994) Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning from charcoal barbecues. SPUMS Journal Vol 24. No3.

Page 76                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 77
              An open ended test procedure was adopted which required the subjects to state the meaning of         4.2.2 IMPACT OF TEXTUAL WARNING
              the pictogram. No clues were provided and the pictogram was presented out of context i.e. not
                                                                                                                       The number of incorrect statements ticked by consumers was calculated and a mean value for
              on charcoal packaging. Three other pictograms were also shown and subjects were asked to
                                                                                                                       each group was generated. The results are as follows:
              state their understanding of these. A copy of the test sheet is shown in Appendix 2.

                                                                                                                       Table 1 Number of incorrect responses before and after exposure to CO warning
          4.1.2 INVESTIGATION OF TEXTUAL WARNINGS
              Four warnings were included in the trials. They were:                                                           Warning             Incorrect (before)        Incorrect (after)           Difference
                                                                                                                                  A                        9                      10.13                    -1.13
              A) Do not use for indoor heating or cooking unless the area is well ventilated.
                 This warning is understood to have been developed in Australia and is used on some                               B                       6.25                    5.25                       1
                 packages available in the UK.                                                                                    C                        9                       0.67                    8.33
              B) Under no circumstances burn charcoal indoors without adequate & effective ventilation                            D                        3                       0.71                    2.29
                 since an accumulation of fumes can be harmful.
                 This warning is carried on some packages available in the UK.                                         It can be seen that warning C led to the greatest reduction in the number of incorrect responses.
                                                                                                                       Consumers made more incorrect responses following exposure to warning A.
              C) Carbon Monoxide Hazard. Burning charcoal inside can kill you. It gives off carbon
                 monoxide, which has no odour. Never burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.                    The consumers were also asked to say which of the 4 warnings they thought was the best and which
                 This warning was formulated in the US and is not thought to be used in the UK.                        was the worst in terms of suitability of the wording warning against the risk of CO poisoning.
              D) Never burn charcoal inside because it gives off gas, which can kill you.
                 This warning was compiled from elements of other warnings and is not used in the UK.
                                                                                                                       Table 2 Ratings of best and worst warning
              An established test method was adopted to objectively measure the impact of each warning on
              the subjects. Four groups of consumers were asked to mark two sets of statements, relating to safe                                                       A              B             C              D
              barbecue usage, as true or false. An equal mix of true and false statements was included.                Best warning                                     0             1            26              2
              Between each set of statements, each group was shown one of the four warnings. A different warning       Worst warning                                   28             1             0              0
              was shown to each group and was viewed for a period of 30 seconds. The second set of statements
              contained the same statements as the first set but presented in a different order. A copy of the
                                                                                                                       Of the consumers questioned, 90% thought that warning C was the best and 96% thought that
              statements used is shown in Appendix 3.
                                                                                                                       warning A was the worst.
              The impact of the warning shown was measured by the difference in incorrect statements before
              and after exposure to the warning. Appendix 4 shows the correct statements as denoted by the
              white cells.                                                                                         4.3 CONCLUSIONS


          4.2 RESULTS                                                                                              4.3.1 COMPREHENSION OF THE US PICTOGRAM
              The following section details the results of the consumer testing.                                       The American National Standard ANSI Z535.1-1991 provides guidelines for procedures for
                                                                                                                       evaluating the understanding of pictograms and states criteria for acceptance. A criterion of 85%
                                                                                                                       correct responses with a maximum of 5% critical confusions is suggested for acceptance of a
          4.2.1 COMPREHENSION OF THE US PICTOGRAM                                                                      given pictogram. In this study only 38% of consumers gave the correct interpretation and 10%
                                                                                                                       were critically confused by the pictogram. Therefore the findings of this study indicate that the
              The correct interpretation of the pictogram was given by 38% of consumers. In 10% of cases there
                                                                                                                       pictogram used in the US would not be meaningful to British consumers when presented
              was critical confusion where the pictogram was interpreted as having the opposite meaning to
                                                                                                                       unaccompanied by text.
              that intended. In addition 14% of consumers thought that the cross indicated the cancellation of
              a previous message.




Page 78                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 79
                                                                                                                         5.0 Recommendations
              In the US, objections were raised regarding the use of an “X” rather than a single slash as is               Although barbecue related CO poisoning is rare in the UK, with the increasing popularity in barbecue
              traditionally used to denote prohibited actions. It was felt that this would lead to confusion and           usage the incidence of CO poisoning may also increase. Many consumers are unaware of the CO
              that the “X” obscured more of the dangers depicted within the circle.                                        issue and need to be provided with effective warnings. This study has investigated the impact of
                                                                                                                           4 textual warnings and considered the effectiveness of the US pictogram on a British audience.
              This was supported by the findings of the UK study. 14% of British consumers were confused by
              the “X” thinking that it indicated cancellation of a previous message.                                       The findings of this study indicate that the pictogram (without text) used in the US would not be
                                                                                                                           effective in the UK. However the textual warning used in the US was the preferred warning of the
                                                                                                                           British consumers questioned. Generally consumers like the details of the hazard to be explained
          4.3.2 IMPACT OF TEXTUAL WARNINGS                                                                                 to them and to know of the consequences of ignoring a warning rather than simply being told
                                                                                                                           not to do something.
              The subjects who attended the group discussions had no prior knowledge of the content of the
              tests, however each person came with preconceived ideas regarding barbecues and charcoal use.                A number of warnings currently used in the UK indicate that barbecuing indoors is acceptable if
              Each subject was able to express an opinion as to whether or not the statements were true or false.          the area is well ventilated. The general opinion of the consumers involved in this study was that
              However, the responses they made to the first set of statements differed somewhat from the responses         people’s interpretation of “well ventilated” would differ and people should be advised that under
              made to the second set of statements. The only factor that altered between sets of statements was            no circumstances should a barbecue be used indoors.
              the viewing of a warning for 30 seconds. The assumption is that the warning that has the greatest            Manufacturers and retailers of charcoal are encouraged to take the outcome of this study into
              impact will lead to the greatest change in responses between sets of statements. The most effective          consideration when reviewing the warnings currently carried on retail packaging.
              warning is argued to be the one that leads to the greatest reduction in incorrect statements.
              The results of the study indicate that warning C “Carbon Monoxide Hazard. Burning charcoal inside
              can kill you. It gives off carbon monoxide, which has no odour. Never burn charcoal inside homes,
              vehicles or tents” had the greatest positive impact of the 4 warnings used. Viewing of warning C lead
              to the greatest reduction in the number of incorrect responses made between sets of statements.
              The fact that consumers made more incorrect responses following exposure to warning A indicates
              that it may have negative effects.
              When asked which warning consumers thought was best and worst, the responses interestingly
              correspondence with the measured impact. Warning C had the greatest impact and was rated the
              best warning by 90% of the consumers questioned. 96% of consumers thought that warning A was
              the worst and this was shown to have a negative impact in the marking of the true/false statements.
              Consumers were asked why they thought warning C was the best and the general feeling was that
              it got straight to the point, and was hard hitting. Although the warning appears wordy, consumers
              liked the fact that rather than just being told not to do something, an explanation as to why was given.
              Criticisms of warning A included the fact that people’s understanding of the phrase “well ventilated”
              is likely to differ and consumers should not be offered this as a condition under which the burning
              charcoal indoors is acceptable.




Page 80                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 81
          Appendix 1                                                                                                                                    Appendix 2
          CHARCOAL SUPPLIERS CONTACT DETAILS                                                                                                            PICTOGRAM TEST SHEET
                                                                                                                                                            Pictograms are pictures that stand for a word or group of words. There are 4 presented below and
          Name                Company             Address 1           Address 2           City              Postal Code   Fax number     Tel number
                                                                                                                                                            I would like to know what word or words come to mind when you look at them.
          Mr Douglas Bagnall Bagnalls             Station Yard        Station Road,       Kidlington,       OX5 3AX       01869 350918 01869 351150
                             Haulage Ltd                              Enslow              Oxfordshire
          Mr Richard Norris   Parlour Products Farndon                Farndon Road,       Leicestershire    LE16 9NP      01858 410168 01858 469800         Pictogram 1
                                               Business Centre        Market Harborough
          Mr John Shadbolt    Rectella            Queensway House Queensway,              Lancashire        BB7 1AU       01200 452015 01200 442299
                              International                       Clitheroe
          Mr Jeff Hull        Landmann Ltd        PO Box 28           Kidderminster       Worcs             DY12 2EZ      01299 251134   01299 250909
          Mr Chris Kleanthos Big K Charcoal       Whittington Hill    Stoke Ferry         Norfolk           PE33 9TE      01366 500395 01366 500147
                             Merchants Ltd
          Mr Peter Briscoe    CPL Chartan         Lawn Road           Carlton             Worksop, Notts.   S81 9LB       01909 541222 01909 541200
                              Aldred              Industrial Estate   in Lindrick
          Mr Steve Barnes     BPL Group           Marley Lane         Battle              East Sussex       TN33 0RE      01424 870527   01424 870333
          Sir                 British Fuels Ltd   51 Brimington       Chesterfield        Derbyshire        S41 9BE       01246 268525 01246 454501
                                                  Road North                                                                                                Word or words that come to mind or say if you are unsure or do not know.
          Mr Tony Brett       Pagan               Germains Farm      Kelvedon Hatch       Brentwood, Essex CM14 5TL       01277 362466 01277 364141
                              Marketing Ltd       Kelvedon Hall Lane
          Mr Geoff Cox        Bio Regional        Sutton Ecology      Honeywood Walk      Carshalton        SM5 3NX       020 8773 2878 020 8773 2322
                              Group               Centre                                  Surrey
          Mr Dan Kelley       British Charcoal                                            Sheffield                       0114 234 4932 0114 234 4932
                              Group
          Sir                 Forestry Contracting                                                                                       01467 651595
                              Association                                                                                                                   Pictogram 2
          Mr Jonathan         Plum Products       Plum House          72 High Street      Woking            GU21 4SZ
          Schaffer                                                    Horsell             Surrey




                                                                                                                                                            Word or words that come to mind or say if you are unsure or do not know.




Page 82                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Page 83
                                                                                     Appendix 3
          Pictogram 3                                                                TRUE/FALSE STATEMENTS
                                                                                         Statement                                                      True   False   Don’t know
                                                                                         Suitable for use even when the area is not well ventilated.     ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never use in prohibited areas.                                  ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Carbon monoxide is a hazard.                                    ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Always burn charcoal without effective ventilation.             ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Do not use for indoor heating.                                  ❑      ❑          ❑

          Word or words that come to mind or say if you are unsure or do not know.       Always use in prohibited areas.                                 ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is all right to burn charcoal indoors.                       ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never use a gas barbecue in the garage.                         ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.    ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.            ❑      ❑          ❑

          Pictogram 4                                                                    Burning charcoal gives off gas.                                 ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to burn charcoal indoors.                            ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never use indoors.                                              ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to burn charcoal
                                                                                         in the kitchen with an extractor fan running.                   ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Carbon monoxide can kill you.                                   ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Always barbecue in an enclosed area.                            ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is all right to use indoors.                                 ❑      ❑          ❑
          Word or words that come to mind or say if you are unsure or do not know.       It is all right to burn charcoal
                                                                                         without adequate ventilation.                                   ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never barbecue indoors.                                         ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never burn charcoal indoors.                                    ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to burn charcoal inside.                             ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Never burn charcoal in the kitchen
                                                                                         even with an extractor fan running.                             ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Suitable for use for indoor cooking.                            ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is all right to barbecue in the conservatory.                ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to barbecue indoors.                                 ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Burning charcoal gives off carbon monoxide.                     ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Burning charcoal inside can kill you.                           ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         Always use in a well ventilated area.                           ❑      ❑          ❑
                                                                                         It is okay to use a gas barbecue in the garage.                 ❑      ❑          ❑


Page 84                                                                                                                                                                             Page 85
                                                                            Appendix 4
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal indoors.         ❑   ❑   ❑   CORRECT RESPONSES TO TRUE / FALSE STATEMENTS
          An accumulation of fumes is not harmful.              ❑   ❑   ❑       Statement                                                      True   False   Don’t know
          Carbon monoxide will not kill you.                    ❑   ❑   ❑       Suitable for use even when the area is not well ventilated.     ❑      ✔          ❑
          Never use in confined spaces.                         ❑   ❑   ❑       Never use in prohibited areas.                                  ✔      ❑          ❑
          Carbon monoxide has no odour.                         ❑   ❑   ❑       Carbon monoxide is a hazard.                                    ✔      ❑          ❑
          An accumulation of fumes can be harmful.              ❑   ❑   ❑       Always burn charcoal without effective ventilation.             ❑      ✔          ❑
          Burning charcoal does not give off carbon monoxide.   ❑   ❑   ❑       Do not use for indoor heating.                                  ✔      ❑          ❑
          Do not use unless the area is well ventilated.        ❑   ❑   ❑       Always use in prohibited areas.                                 ❑      ✔          ❑
          Never burn charcoal inside.                           ❑   ❑   ❑       It is all right to burn charcoal indoors.                       ❑      ✔          ❑
          Burning charcoal does not give off gas.               ❑   ❑   ❑       Never use a gas barbecue in the garage.                         ✔      ❑          ❑
          Gas won’t kill you.                                   ❑   ❑   ❑       It is okay to burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.    ❑      ✔          ❑
          Do not use for indoor cooking.                        ❑   ❑   ❑       Never burn charcoal inside homes, vehicles or tents.            ✔      ❑          ❑
          Carbon monoxide has a smell.                          ❑   ❑   ❑       Burning charcoal gives off gas.                                 ✔      ❑          ❑
          Carbon monoxide is not a hazard.                      ❑   ❑   ❑       It is okay to burn charcoal indoors.                            ❑      ✔          ❑
          Burning charcoal inside will not kill you.            ❑   ❑   ❑       Never use indoors.                                              ✔      ❑          ❑
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal                                  It is okay to burn charcoal
          without adequate ventilation.                         ❑   ❑   ❑       in the kitchen with an extractor fan running.                   ❑      ✔          ❑
          Never barbecue in the conservatory.                   ❑   ❑   ❑       Carbon monoxide can kill you.                                   ✔      ❑          ❑
          Suitable for use in confined spaces.                  ❑   ❑   ❑       Always barbecue in an enclosed area.                            ❑      ✔          ❑
          Suitable for use for indoor heating.                  ❑   ❑   ❑       It is all right to use indoors.                                 ❑      ✔          ❑
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal                                  It is all right to burn charcoal
          without effective ventilation.                        ❑   ❑   ❑       without adequate ventilation.                                   ❑      ✔          ❑
          Never barbecue in an enclosed area.                   ❑   ❑   ❑       Never barbecue indoors.                                         ✔      ❑          ❑
          Some gases can kill you.                              ❑   ❑   ❑       Never burn charcoal indoors.                                    ✔      ❑          ❑
                                                                                It is okay to burn charcoal inside.                             ❑      ✔          ❑
                                                                                Never burn charcoal in the kitchen
                                                                                even with an extractor fan running.                             ✔      ❑          ❑
                                                                                Suitable for use for indoor cooking.                            ❑      ✔          ❑
                                                                                It is all right to barbecue in the conservatory.                ❑      ✔          ❑
                                                                                It is okay to barbecue indoors.                                 ❑      ✔          ❑
                                                                                Burning charcoal gives off carbon monoxide.                     ✔      ❑          ❑
                                                                                Burning charcoal inside can kill you.                           ✔      ❑          ❑
                                                                                Always use in a well ventilated area.                           ✔      ❑          ❑
                                                                                It is okay to use a gas barbecue in the garage.                 ❑      ✔          ❑


Page 86                                                                                                                                                                    Page 87
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal indoors.         ✔   ❑   ❑
          An accumulation of fumes is not harmful.              ❑   ✔   ❑
          Carbon monoxide will not kill you.                    ❑   ✔   ❑
          Never use in confined spaces.                         ✔   ❑   ❑
          Carbon monoxide has no odour.                         ✔   ❑   ❑
          An accumulation of fumes can be harmful.              ✔   ❑   ❑
          Burning charcoal does not give off carbon monoxide.   ❑   ✔   ❑
          Do not use unless the area is well ventilated.        ✔   ❑   ❑
                                                                            March 2001
          Never burn charcoal inside.                           ✔   ❑   ❑
          Burning charcoal does not give off gas.               ❑   ✔   ❑
          Gas won’t kill you.                                   ❑   ✔   ❑   Research commissioned by the Consumer Affairs Directorate, DTI.
          Do not use for indoor cooking.                        ✔   ❑   ❑
          Carbon monoxide has a smell.                          ❑   ✔   ❑                   Department of Trade and Industry
          Carbon monoxide is not a hazard.                      ❑   ✔   ❑                   1 Victoria Street
          Burning charcoal inside will not kill you.            ❑   ✔   ❑                   London
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal                                              SW1H 0ET
          without adequate ventilation.                         ✔   ❑   ❑
          Never barbecue in the conservatory.                   ✔   ❑   ❑
                                                                            Carried out under contract by:
          Suitable for use in confined spaces.                  ❑   ✔   ❑
                                                                                            Hilary Tait MSc, MA (Hons), RGN: and
          Suitable for use for indoor heating.                  ❑   ✔   ❑
                                                                                            Richard Bird BA (Hons), PG Dip.
          Under no circumstances burn charcoal
          without effective ventilation.                        ✔   ❑   ❑
          Never barbecue in an enclosed area.                   ✔   ❑   ❑
          Some gases can kill you.                              ✔   ❑   ❑




                                                                            URN 01/722




Page 88

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:186
posted:4/13/2010
language:English
pages:51