AN ECLECTIC MODEL FOR A MORE HUMANE AND RESPONSIVE
COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS: DRAWING LESSONS FROM UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCES
Teresita M. Guico1*, Norma L. Menez2*, Reynalda B. Garcia3*
The agenda of Philippine higher education is to accelerate its contribution as a collective resource in
achieving the goals of social change and nation-building. Higher education institutions are therefore expected to
cater to the imperatives of total human development and to uplift of the quality of life of the Filipinos in the context
of merging borderless global community and a borderless thinking in a global thinking society.
Educational institution as the backbone of social development has the social responsibility to
participate in building a community that is truly marked by reduction of, if not absence from, hunger, poverty and
crime. As partners of social change it incessantly extend programs that will be more humane and socially
responsive to the needs of society and its people (Guico: 2007) thus, saving the constituency from the pains of
economic degradation, ecological imbalance, and social ills (Bautista, 2000). All the collaborative efforts and
resources and commitment devoted by educational institutions in partnerships with the community and concerned
agencies definitely enhance social development and lead to societal peace everyone prays for; however, in the
implementation of community extension program there are certain concerns that must be addressed to ensure the
sustainability and relevance.
This study was conceptualized to analyze the extension programs and models used by several researchers
of Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines in order to develop an eclectic model for higher educational
institutions’ extension programs that will be more humane and responsive to the needs of the community.
1. to discuss salient findings and recommendations of university researches in the practice of their community
2. to present research models designed for community extension services
3. to propose an eclectic model of community extension program drawn from the university researches of
higher education institutions
The study makes use of the descriptive research since it involves description, recording, analysis and
interpretation of the existing state and condition using qualitative techniques of analyzing data and information
A qualitative - analysis was also employed since it combined several researches relevant to the conduct of
community extension service of universities.
The researchers also employed interview and group discussions among target community beneficiaries,
student volunteers, college administrators and university professors involved in the community program to come up
with an eclectic model for a more humane and responsive extension service.
Results and Discussions
Several universities viewed the formulation of extension service programs as appropriate means of
involving themselves effectively in community service and development. Consequently, a number of researches
were done to compare and concretize the best practices, approaches, program implementation with the common
objective of reaching out to the community and be a socially responsible university .
1. Qualitative analysis of Researches done on community Extension Programs / Services
Based from the analysis of researches on community extension programs of different universities, it has
been proven that higher education institutions in the Philippines are socially responsive to the needs of society and
sincere in their role of uplifting the quality of life Filipinos. Community extension service is a human responsibility
of the university that needs to understand and know the community they want to serve in order to build relationships
between the school and the people (Mogol, 1999; Bautista, 2000; Montero, 2000; Carantes, 2001). Further, it
involves creative programs and activities (Sembrano,1999; Mogol,1999) thru active participation and cooperation
of volunteers concerned and the maximum utilization of available resources both by university and community
they want to serve (Tejada, 2001; Alino, 1999; Bautista, 2001 and Malo, 2003).
Salient findings of the university researches confirm the importance of students to realize their experiential
learning that transforms them to become humane individuals (Mogol, 1999; Molina, 1999; Sembrano,1999) who,
together with coordinatros and volunteers, are committed to be part of the humane extension programs; however,
university researches also cited problems in the implementation of their programs like short term and repetitive
activities (Sembrano, 1999); limited involvement of teachers, staff and students (Abrogueña, 2005); no livelihood
trainings conducted before implementation of the program and no immediate effect among recipients (Montero,
2000). It was also noted that there is no systematic evaluation of the university program among its recipients
(Abrogueña:2005); activities do not suit the needs or interest of the intended target beneficiaries (Sembrano, 1999)
and the extension service is also described as “ningas cogon” service project of the university due to lack of
funding and lack of commitment among volunteers to sustain the program.
These results as drawn lessons from university experiences from different regions of the country are
practical prescriptions that community extension as a process is complex, imperfect and continuously searching for
model frameworks to be compatible to the utilization of university resources and community needs. In this context,
that university researchers recommend to address the need of the community for systematic assessment of direct
recipients beneficiaries of the program (Sembrano,1999; Molina, 1999; Abrogueña, 2005) and to strengthen linkages
with non-government organizations in order to gain support to the program (Mogol, 1999; Molina, 1999)and
generating and institutionalizing the extension program within the university framework (Taginting, 1993) . As a
result Gozwa, (2001); Montero, (2000) likewise recommended that extentionists has to focus on proposing
programs towards food production, livelihood , health and sanitation, environmental conservation and waste
management to be participated in by different colleges of university (Santos, 2001; Abrogeña, 2005) and those
which are needed by the community and which create direct impact to community members in terms of economic,
health and environmental, socio-cultural (Agtay, and An, 2006; Gonzales in An, 2006).
It is highly evident in the qualitative - analysis of researches that universities underscore the value of social
responsibility in fulfilling their role in uplifting the quality of life of Filipinos. While it is true that university
education gives meaning and substance the realization of school vision/mission through community extension
services; there are still ways to improve in the implementation of their community program and activities. Problems,
constraints met and the weaknesses observed must be taken into consideration and new model and approaches
maybe implemented to successfully implement the extension programs. Continuous monitoring and evaluation
maybe consistently done to ensure relevance and sustainability of the programs.
2. Presentation of Models Designed for Community Extension Services
Universities all over the Philippines have been making improvements in the kind of community extension
program that they want to deliver. With the desire of the university to address its noble mission of sharing in nation
building , several models design for community extension served as their inspirations in the hope that development
and progress maybe facilitated if not attained in a relatively short period of time.Such models include Institution
Building Model developed by Brekelbaum (1985), Tridimensional Model by Amansec (1986), Integrated
Community Development Model by Morato (1989), Context, Input, Process, Product Model by Stufflebeam used by
Bautista(2003) and the Participative, Integrative and Curriculum Based Extension Model by Pasicolan (2001).
Matrix of Extension Service Models
Models Best Focus/Feature Desired Output/Result
Institution Building Feasibility study/Needs to serve as a process
Model (Brekelbaum, Assessment model for establishing
Gertitude, Institutional Design viable integrated rural
1985) Implementation development service
Evaluation centers at the regional
level in third world
Tridimensional Model ( Focused on the physical, socio- For the school to be truly a
Amansec,Wilhem B., economic and religious cultural dynamic social agent.
1986) thrust A responsible
commitment and a
liberalizing and self-
Integrated Community Focus on the three (3) wheels of Aims to increase the
Development Strategy the development vehicle namely productivity of the
Model (Morato, Eduardo environmental development, environment
A. Jr., 1989) Economic development and Sacrificing the quality of
people development the people and the
regenerative potentials of
Stuflebeam, (CIPP) Model Planning discussions to Information obtained from
(Bautista, 1999) determine objectives the context. Input are
Structuring decisions for product evaluation will be
instructional procedures the bases in redefining the
Implementing decisions to community extension
improve procedures services of the school
Recyling decisions to judge and
react to the outcome produced
Participatory, Integrative, Community organizing process Strengthen community
Curriculum Based involving: management capability
Extension Model (PICE needs analysis and resource Improved Socio-Economic
Pasicolan, 2001) assessment condition
network of information Empowered Community
technology and resources
monitoring and evaluation
The matrix of models affirmed the ideals of building a self-reliant community (Amansec, 1999),
strengthens community management capability, improved socio-economic condition, empowered the community
(Pasicolan, 2001) and increase the productivity of the environment. (Morato, 1989) in order for the university to be
truly a dynamic social agent. Further that the desired output of the models served as basis of redefining the
community extension services of the school (Stuflebeam in Bautista, 2003), in establishing a viable integrated rural
development service centers at regional level in third world countries.
Inspite of the differences in focus and best features which indicate the uniqueness of each models, emphasis
is given in the desired output of the models that is to be humane and responsive towards social transformation.
3. Proposed Model for a More Humane Responsive Extension Programs
Based from the analysis of models in various universities of higher education institutions, an Eclectic
Model to be a responsive university was explored. In this context, the researchers were inspired with the developed
pyramid by Caroll in 1979, which he later elaborated in 2004. An eclectic paradigm is a kind of theory rooted from
economics which was further developed by John H. Dunning in 1980. He advocated the idea behind an eclectic
paradigm, that is, to merge several isolated theories of international economics in one approach. Likewise, an
eclectic model in this research intends to merge several models and best practices of universities or higher education
institutions in order to come up with a more humane and responsive extension programs
In the model, the researchers believed that social responsiveness of university to community also
encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic expectations that society has to academic institutions. By
countless definitions over the last 50 years, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) is widely acknowledged
(Madsen @ Ulhoi, 2001, Moon, 2002, Van Marrenwiik,2003: Wheller, Colbert and Freeman ,2003) and Caroll’s
four part concepts has been the most durable and widely cited in literatures (Crane and Matten ,2004)
Caroll elaborated his Pyramid of CSR in 2004 which is predicted upon the economic responsibilities of the
firm and anchored on the responsibility of management that besides making the profit, to comply with regulatory
and legal requirements to act in accordance with the societies ethics and be a good corporate citizen by contributing
to the community's quality of life.
By this inspiration that the discussions of the model pyramid will be in accordance with the university
experiences in as far as the kind of researchers undertaken relevant to community extension and several models
proposed to end-up with more responsive extension programs.
Be a good Global
Be ethical Ethical
Obey the law Responsibility
Be profitable Economic
Figure-1. The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility (Caroll, 2004)
To come up with a humane, responsive and sustainable community extension program, the four kinds of
social responsibilities, economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic will be incorporated in implementing the process.
By its processes of integrating the four categories, that an eclectic model was proposed.
Designing comex Voluntary Engaging in Conceptualizing and
programs based on participation/involv activities or providing resources
school vision/ mission ement in service – sustainable programs for projects that will
and trusts social oriented activities to promote human enhance the quality of
responsibility welfare and self- life
Figure-2. Philanthropic Simulacrum
The simulacrum discusses the functional aims of community outreach services of higher education
institution that conform to its philanthropic responsibility through designing community extension programs based
on institution vision and mission of the school; and thrust of social responsibility.
The spirit of voluntarism is initiated among students, faculty, etc. by giving them the chance to be exposed
in service oriented activities and thus, explore relevant and active situations and conditions in the community. In the
end, they are expected to integrate work experiences and of knowledge and learn to integrate learning experiences to
A philanthropic extension service program works according to the school’s awareness of the needs of the
community it hopes to serve. To fully reach out to the populace to its service areas, the institution should translate its
social responsibility by engaging on programs that meet the needs of the target clientele. Through research, a
sustainable program will be addressed and directed to improve the quality of life of the people. Thru the able
involvement of university experts who will handle its resources coupled with participative efforts of the community
in utilizing available resources hence, promotion of human welfare to uplift their dignity as human persons through
self-reliance and enhancement of the quality of life of the target clientele is attained.
Consideration and Respect existing implementation of
recognition to and evolving projects with due
community’s values ethical standards consideration to civic,
and ethical norms environmental and
basic human rights
Figure-3. Ethical Simulacrum
Ethical responsibilities include standards, norms or expectations that reflect concern for selected
community that will manifest respect for ethical standards and basic human rights. The ethical simulacrum is seen
embracing the emerging values and norms of the adopted community that university higher education institutions
shall consider. People desire for equal consideration and recognition as dignified human beings and expect
economic leverage from either government or the entire society, civic or recreational wherein they can pull
themselves out of the situation they are in. The university pursues the desire of CHED to accelerate extension
service program to focus on motivating people and to become purposive individuals pushes the higher education
institutions to respond to the call of community development extension service.
Compliance to Compliance to Compliance to
national and local CHED and other Memorandum of
government laws regulatory bodies Agreement
Figure-4. Legal Simulacrum
The legal simulacrum recognizes the legal responsibility of the university as an effective agent of change
and development. As such, it has to take cognizance that the educational system plays in uplifting the quality of life
of the Filipinos as mandated by the Philippines constitutions as.
The state shall establish, maintain support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education
relevant to the needs of the people and society (Article XIV, Section 2 (1)).
To intensify the extent of the aforecited constitutional provision, the state passed Republic Act 8292 known
as the Higher Education Modernization Act of 1997. This mandates the organization and management of the
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) which is responsible for the maintenance of quality college education
through its trilogy of function such as institution, research and extension service.
Hence, the agenda of the Philippines higher education aims to accelerate its contribution as a collective
resource in achieving the goals of social change and nation building. Higher education therefore is expected to cater
to the comparatives of total human development and to uplift the quality of life of the Filipinos. These were in the
context of a merging borderless global community with a borderless global thinking population.
In the exercise of academic power of the university in living by the tenets of social responsibility and social
responsiveness higher education should operate within the context of quality and excellence, service and virtue to
form a community of human that enjoy, peace, justice and liberation from poverty. Hence, memorandum of
agreement forges the social contract between the institution and the university’s commitment to be the agent of
change in the community. The social obligation is further sealed by the conformance to standards set by other
Regular allotment Maintaining
of budget for Fund raising
community extension program
Figure-5. Economic Simulacrum
Educational institution as the backbone of social development has the social responsibility to participate in
building a community that is truly marked by reduction if not absence from hunger poverty and crime. By so doing,
the institution needs to maintain its competitive status in terms of quality education to meet the demands of the times
and share the fruits of its endeavors. From the institution’s impact on society’s resources it is able to provide
allotment for social services sustained by the enterprising spirit to raise funds for the sustainability of its programs
for the less fortunate.
Designing Comex programs based
on school vision/mission and Trust Consideration and recognition
social responsibilities. community’s values and ethical
in service – oriented activities. Respect for existing and evolving
Engaging in activities or
sustainable programs to promote Selfless implementation of projects
human welfare and self-reliance with due consideration to
environment concerns civic and
Conceptualizing and providing
basic human rights.
resources for projects that will
enhance the quality of life.
HUMANE, RESPONSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE
COMMUNITY EXTENSION PROGRAM
Mission and Vision
Strategic Goals and Objectives with Areas of
Research Based Needs Assessment
Sustainable Programs and Activities
Development and Utilization of Human and
Material Resources both from University and the
Linkages with Government &
Monitoring & Evaluation on Community
Compliance to national and local Regular allotment of budget for
government laws community extension
Compliance to CHED and other Fund raising activities and linkages
Maintaining a competitive position
Compliance to Memorandum of for a sustainable extension
Figure-6. An Eclectic Model for a More Humane and Responsive Community Program for Tertiary Educational
Institutions: Drawing lessons from University Experiences
From the results and discussions, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The researches undertaken by higher education institutions in the Philippines manifest that their community
extension are socially responsive to the needs of the community they want to serve however, the strategies in its
implementation are complex, imperfect and are still searching out for model framework to be more humane
and responsive to fulfill the fundamental role of being a catalyst of social transformation; hence improve the
quality of life of the people.
2. The models designed for community extension programs reflect the principle on man’s mission to be of service to
others for the betterment of the community they want serve. While models are similar in its desired output and
differ in its best feature and focus, it affirmed to the ideals of being humane, responsive in building community’s
3. The proposed eclectic model for a more humane and responsive community program was framed in the context
that a university’s community extension program must be planned with consideration on four elements of social
responsibility as philanthropic, ethical, legal and economic.
Researchers therefore come up with the following recommendations:
1. The proposed eclectic model for a more humane and responsive extension program be tried and evaluated
2. Further studies maybe explored using other researches of university in Asian and other countries
Abroguena ACA-AC, Anna Liza, (2005). “A Three Year Community Outreach Plan for Lourdes Elementary
School”. A Practicum Paper. Xavier University, Ateneo de Cagayan,Cagayan de Oro City.
Alino, Josefina A. (1991), “Attitude of Teachers, Administrators and Supervisors toward Community School
Participation in Community Development”, Unpublished Thesis. Zamboanga State University.
Amansec, Wilhelm B. (1986). Responsible Commitment Beyond the Academe Life Today. Article
Bautista, Agripino T.,(2000) . “Adminstrators and Teachers participation in community Development of the
Mangyans of Oriental Mindoro”. Unpublished Thesis. Divine World College of Calapan, Oriental Mindoro.
Brekelbaum, Gertitude. (1985). “A Paradisciplinary Approach to Institutional Building in the Third World:
Integrated Rural Development Service Centers at the Regional Level (Volumes I and II)”. Dissertation Abstract
Carantes, Joselito A. (2001). “Involvement of Elementary School Teachers and Community Development in Baguio
City”. Unpublished Thesis. University of Baguio
Carroll, Archie B. & Hartfield John D. (1990) . An Empirical Examination of Relationship Between Corporate
Social Responsibility and Profitability . Management Journal (June 1990)
Caroll, A.B. (1983). A Three Dimensional Model of Corporate Performance. Academy of Management Review,
4(4), p. 497-505
Caroll Archie. B. The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility Toward the Moral management of organizational
Stakeholders, business Horizons, July - August 1991. (online) available from
http://www.sdsu.edu/faculty/dunnweb/rprnts.pyramid of csr.pdf.
Constitution of the Philippines (1997).
De Chavez, Ernesto M. (2002). “Research and Extension Services” Unpublished paper presented at Batangas State
University, Batangas City .
Higher Education Modernization Act, 1997.
Guico, Teresita M., (2007). “Social Responsiveness of the Community Extension Program of Lyceum of the
Philiipines University” . Unpublished Dissertation,. Manuel L. Quezon University. Manila. 2007.
Madsen, H. & Ulhoi, J.P. (2001). Integrating Environmental and Stakeholder Management, Business
Strategy and the Environment, p. 77-88
Matten, D. & Crane, A. (2005). Corporate Citizenship: Towards an Extended Theoretical Conceptualization.
Academy of management Review, 30(1), p. 166-179
Mogol, Celso M. (1999). “The Community Extension Service Program of Higher Education Institutions in Boac,
Marinduque: A Proposed community Extension Program”. Unpublished dissertation, Centro Escolar University,
Molina, Trinidad D. (1999). “ A Study on the Communiry Service Program of the Assumption College of Davao.
Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Cagayan de Oro City.
Molo, Asuncion H. (2003). “Community School Program of the Division of Bulacan”. Unpublished Thesis. Bulacan
Montero, Josephine.,(2000). An Assessment of the Community Extension Program of the University of Mindanao
Tagum College: Basis for Improvement”. Unpublished dissertation. Southwestern University. Cebu City
Morato, Eduardo A. (1989). Strategic Intervention for Development Managers, vol.1, Asian Institute of
Pasicolan, Dante P. (2007). “Development of a Community Extension Model : Towards Effective Extension
Services of Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines for Needy Local Communities”. IFSO. Ethnicity :
Social-Cultural and Economic Challenges. p. 219-230.
Santos, Miguel R., (2001). “ Assessment of Selected Governmental Programs in Nueva Ecija: Basis for a Proposed
Integrated Outreach Program for Araullo University”. Unpublished Dissertation. Centro Escolar University. Manila.
Sembrano, Josefina O., (1999). An Evalutation of the Community Service Program of the Dela Salle University-
College of Saint Benilde. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Asian Social Institute, Manila
Strategy and the Environment, p.77-78
Taginting, Cerafina M.P (1993). “An Assessment o the Community Extension Program of Pamantasan ng Lungsod
ng Maynila”. Doctoral Dissertation. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Manila.
Tejada, Gary F. (2001). “Community Development of Basis Education School in Pangasinan”. Unpublished Thesis.