A Research Based Model for Higher education Institutions

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A Research Based Model for Higher education Institutions Powered By Docstoc

Teresita M. Guico1*, Norma L. Menez2*, Reynalda B. Garcia3*

         The agenda of Philippine higher education is to accelerate its contribution as a collective resource in

achieving the goals of social change and nation-building. Higher education institutions are therefore expected to

cater to the imperatives of total human development and to uplift of the quality of life of the Filipinos in the context

of merging borderless global community and a borderless thinking in a global thinking society.

                  Educational institution as the backbone of social development has the social responsibility to

participate in building a community that is truly marked by reduction of, if not absence from, hunger, poverty and

crime. As partners of social change it incessantly        extend programs that will be more humane and socially

responsive to the needs of society and its people (Guico: 2007) thus, saving the constituency from the pains of

economic degradation, ecological imbalance, and social ills (Bautista, 2000). All the collaborative efforts and

resources and commitment devoted by educational institutions in partnerships with the community and concerned

agencies definitely enhance social development and lead to societal peace everyone prays for; however, in the

implementation of community extension program there are certain concerns that must be addressed to ensure the

sustainability and relevance.

         This study was conceptualized to analyze the extension programs and models used by several researchers

of Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines in order to develop an eclectic model for higher educational

institutions’ extension programs that will be more humane and responsive to the needs of the community.

    1.   to discuss salient findings and recommendations of university researches in the practice of their community

         extension services.

    2.   to present research models designed for community extension services

    3.   to propose an eclectic model of community extension program drawn from the university researches of

         higher education institutions


         The study makes use of the descriptive research since it involves description, recording, analysis and

interpretation of the existing state and condition using qualitative techniques of analyzing data and information


         A qualitative - analysis was also employed since it combined several researches relevant to the conduct of

community extension service of universities.

         The researchers also employed interview and group discussions among target community beneficiaries,

student volunteers, college administrators and university professors involved in the community program to come up

with an eclectic model for a more humane and responsive extension service.

Results and Discussions

         Several universities viewed the formulation of extension service programs as        appropriate means of

involving themselves effectively in community service and development. Consequently, a number of researches
were done to compare and concretize the best practices, approaches, program implementation with the common

objective of reaching out to the community and be a socially responsible university .

    1.   Qualitative analysis of Researches done on community Extension Programs / Services

         Based from the analysis of researches on community extension programs of different universities, it has

been proven that higher education institutions in the Philippines are socially responsive to the needs of society and

sincere in their role of uplifting the quality of life Filipinos. Community extension service is a human responsibility

of the university that needs to understand and know the community they want to serve in order to build relationships

between the school and the people (Mogol, 1999; Bautista, 2000; Montero, 2000; Carantes, 2001). Further, it

involves creative programs and activities (Sembrano,1999; Mogol,1999) thru active participation and cooperation

of volunteers concerned and the maximum utilization of available resources both by university and community

they want to serve (Tejada, 2001; Alino, 1999; Bautista, 2001 and Malo, 2003).

         Salient findings of the university researches confirm the importance of students to realize their experiential

learning that transforms them to become humane individuals (Mogol, 1999; Molina, 1999; Sembrano,1999) who,

together with coordinatros and volunteers, are committed to be part of the humane extension programs; however,

university researches also cited problems in the implementation of their programs like short term and repetitive

activities (Sembrano, 1999); limited involvement of teachers, staff and students (Abrogueña, 2005); no livelihood

trainings conducted before implementation of the program and no immediate effect among recipients (Montero,

2000). It was also noted that there is no systematic evaluation of the university program among its recipients

(Abrogueña:2005); activities do not suit the needs or interest of the intended target beneficiaries (Sembrano, 1999)

and the extension service is also described as “ningas cogon” service project of the university due to lack of

funding and lack of commitment among volunteers to sustain the program.

         These results as drawn lessons from university experiences from different regions of the country are

practical prescriptions that community extension as a process is complex, imperfect and continuously searching for

model frameworks to be compatible to the utilization of university resources and community needs. In this context,

that university researchers recommend to address the need of the community for systematic assessment of direct
recipients beneficiaries of the program (Sembrano,1999; Molina, 1999; Abrogueña, 2005) and to strengthen linkages

with non-government organizations in order to gain support to the program (Mogol, 1999; Molina, 1999)and

generating and institutionalizing the extension program within the university framework (Taginting, 1993) . As a

result Gozwa, (2001); Montero, (2000) likewise          recommended that extentionists has to focus on proposing

programs towards food production, livelihood , health and sanitation, environmental conservation and waste

management to be participated in by different colleges of university (Santos, 2001; Abrogeña, 2005) and those

which are needed by the community and which create direct impact to community members in terms of economic,

health and environmental, socio-cultural (Agtay, and An, 2006; Gonzales in An, 2006).

         It is highly evident in the qualitative - analysis of researches that universities underscore the value of social

responsibility in fulfilling their role in uplifting the quality of life of Filipinos. While it is true that university

education gives meaning and substance the realization of school vision/mission through community extension

services; there are still ways to improve in the implementation of their community program and activities. Problems,

constraints met and the weaknesses observed must be taken into consideration and new model and approaches

maybe implemented to successfully implement the extension programs. Continuous monitoring and evaluation

maybe consistently done to ensure relevance and sustainability of the programs.

2. Presentation of Models Designed for Community Extension Services

         Universities all over the Philippines have been making improvements in the kind of community extension

program that they want to deliver. With the desire of the university to address its noble mission of sharing in nation

building , several models design for community extension served as their inspirations in the hope that development

and progress maybe facilitated if not attained in a relatively short period of time.Such models include Institution

Building Model developed by Brekelbaum (1985), Tridimensional Model by Amansec (1986), Integrated

Community Development Model by Morato (1989), Context, Input, Process, Product Model by Stufflebeam used by

Bautista(2003) and the Participative, Integrative and Curriculum Based Extension Model by Pasicolan (2001).
                                      Matrix of Extension Service Models

          Models                           Best Focus/Feature                   Desired Output/Result

Institution Building                   Feasibility          study/Needs       to serve as a process
Model         (Brekelbaum,              Assessment                              model for establishing
Gertitude,                             Institutional Design                    viable integrated rural
1985)                                  Implementation                          development      service
                                       Evaluation                              centers at the regional
                                                                                level in third world

Tridimensional Model (                 Focused on the physical, socio-        For the school to be truly a
Amansec,Wilhem      B.,                 economic and religious cultural         dynamic social agent.
1986)                                   thrust                                 A               responsible
                                                                                commitment        and      a
                                                                                liberalizing   and     self-
                                                                                reliant community.

Integrated    Community                Focus on the three (3) wheels of     Aims to increase the
Development     Strategy                the development vehicle namely        productivity    of      the
Model (Morato, Eduardo                  environmental      development,       environment
A. Jr., 1989)                           Economic development and             Sacrificing the quality of
                                        people development                    the     people  and    the
                                                                              regenerative potentials of
                                                                              its resources
Stuflebeam, (CIPP) Model              Planning       discussions      to    Information obtained from
(Bautista, 1999)                       determine objectives                   the context. Input are
                                   Structuring         decisions     for     product evaluation will be
                                       instructional procedures               the bases in redefining the
                                   Implementing          decisions    to     community          extension
                                       improve procedures                     services of the school
                                   Recyling decisions to judge and
                                       react to the outcome produced
Participatory, Integrative,   Community          organizing       process    Strengthen    community
Curriculum Based              involving:                                      management capability
Extension Model (PICE              needs analysis and resource              Improved Socio-Economic
Pasicolan, 2001)                       assessment                             condition
                                   network          of      information     Empowered Community
                                       technology and resources
                                   action strategies
                                   implementation
                                   monitoring and evaluation
         The matrix of models affirmed the ideals of building a self-reliant community (Amansec, 1999),

strengthens community management capability, improved socio-economic condition, empowered the community

(Pasicolan, 2001) and increase the productivity of the environment. (Morato, 1989) in order for the university to be

truly a dynamic social agent. Further that the desired output of the models served as basis of redefining the

community extension services of the school (Stuflebeam in Bautista, 2003), in establishing a viable integrated rural

development service centers at regional level in third world countries.

         Inspite of the differences in focus and best features which indicate the uniqueness of each models, emphasis

is given in the desired output of the models that is to be humane and responsive towards social transformation.

3. Proposed Model for a More Humane Responsive Extension Programs

         Based from the analysis of models in various universities of higher education institutions, an Eclectic

Model to be a responsive university was explored. In this context, the researchers were inspired with the developed

pyramid by Caroll in 1979, which he later elaborated in 2004. An eclectic paradigm is a kind of theory rooted from

economics which was further developed by John H. Dunning in 1980. He advocated the idea behind an eclectic

paradigm, that is, to merge several isolated theories of international economics in one approach. Likewise, an

eclectic model in this research intends to merge several models and best practices of universities or higher education

institutions in order to come up with a more humane and responsive extension programs

         In the model, the researchers believed that social responsiveness of university to community also

encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic expectations that society has to academic institutions. By

countless definitions over the last 50 years, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)         is widely acknowledged

(Madsen @ Ulhoi, 2001, Moon, 2002, Van Marrenwiik,2003: Wheller, Colbert and Freeman ,2003) and Caroll’s

four part concepts has been the most durable and widely cited in literatures (Crane and Matten ,2004)
         Caroll elaborated his Pyramid of CSR in 2004 which is predicted upon the economic responsibilities of the

firm and anchored on the responsibility of management that besides making the profit, to comply with regulatory

and legal requirements to act in accordance with the societies ethics and be a good corporate citizen by contributing

to the community's quality of life.

         By this inspiration that the discussions of the model pyramid will be in accordance with the university

experiences in as far as the kind of researchers undertaken relevant to community extension and several models

proposed to end-up with more responsive extension programs.

                                Be a good Global
                                Corporate citizen

                              Be ethical                   Ethical

                Obey the law                           Responsibility

      Be profitable                                    Economic

                           Figure-1. The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility (Caroll, 2004)

         To come up with a humane, responsive and sustainable community extension program, the four kinds of

social responsibilities, economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic will be incorporated in implementing the process.

By its processes of integrating the four categories, that an eclectic model was proposed.

  Designing comex                      Voluntary                      Engaging in                 Conceptualizing and
 programs based on                participation/involv                activities or               providing resources
school vision/ mission            ement in service –             sustainable programs             for projects that will
  and trusts social               oriented activities             to promote human               enhance the quality of
    responsibility                                                 welfare and self-                       life

                                              Figure-2. Philanthropic Simulacrum

               The simulacrum discusses the functional aims of community outreach services of               higher education

    institution that conform to its philanthropic responsibility through designing community extension programs based

    on institution vision and mission of the school; and thrust of social responsibility.

               The spirit of voluntarism is initiated among students, faculty, etc. by giving them the chance to be exposed

    in service oriented activities and thus, explore relevant and active situations and conditions in the community. In the

    end, they are expected to integrate work experiences and of knowledge and learn to integrate learning experiences to


               A philanthropic extension service program works according to the school’s awareness of the needs of the

    community it hopes to serve. To fully reach out to the populace to its service areas, the institution should translate its

    social responsibility by engaging on programs that meet the needs of the target clientele. Through research, a

    sustainable program will be addressed and directed to improve the quality of life of the people. Thru the able

    involvement of university experts who will handle its resources coupled with participative efforts of the community
in utilizing available resources hence, promotion of human welfare to uplift their dignity as human persons through

self-reliance and enhancement of the quality of life of the target clientele is attained.


             Consideration and                  Respect existing                  implementation of
               recognition to                     and evolving                     projects with due
            community’s values                  ethical standards               consideration to civic,
             and ethical norms                                                   environmental and
                                                                                 basic human rights

                                                  Figure-3. Ethical Simulacrum

         Ethical responsibilities include standards, norms or expectations that reflect concern for selected

community that will manifest respect for ethical standards and basic human rights. The ethical simulacrum is seen

embracing the emerging values and norms of the adopted community that university higher education institutions

shall consider. People desire for equal consideration and           recognition as dignified human beings and expect

economic leverage from either government or the entire society, civic or recreational wherein they can pull

themselves out of the situation they are in. The university pursues the desire of CHED to accelerate extension

service program to focus on motivating people and to become purposive individuals pushes the higher education

institutions to respond to the call of community development extension service.

            Compliance to                      Compliance to                     Compliance to
           national and local                CHED and other                     Memorandum of
           government laws                   regulatory bodies                    Agreement

                                              Figure-4. Legal Simulacrum

         The legal simulacrum recognizes the legal responsibility of the university as an effective agent of change

and development. As such, it has to take cognizance that the educational system plays in uplifting the quality of life

of the Filipinos as mandated by the Philippines constitutions as.

         The state shall establish, maintain support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education

relevant to the needs of the people and society (Article XIV, Section 2 (1)).

         To intensify the extent of the aforecited constitutional provision, the state passed Republic Act 8292 known

as the Higher Education Modernization Act of 1997. This mandates the organization and management of the

Commission on Higher Education (CHED) which is responsible for the maintenance of quality college education

through its trilogy of function such as institution, research and extension service.

         Hence, the agenda of the Philippines higher education aims to accelerate its contribution as a collective

resource in achieving the goals of social change and nation building. Higher education therefore is expected to cater

to the comparatives of total human development and to uplift the quality of life of the Filipinos. These were in the

context of a merging borderless global community with a borderless global thinking population.

         In the exercise of academic power of the university in living by the tenets of social responsibility and social

responsiveness higher education should operate within the context of quality and excellence, service and virtue to

form a community of human that enjoy, peace, justice and liberation from poverty. Hence, memorandum of
agreement forges the social contract between the institution and the university’s commitment to be the agent of

change in the community. The social obligation is further sealed by the conformance to standards set by other

regulatory bodies.


         Regular allotment                                                    Maintaining
           of budget for                     Fund raising
                                              activities                      sustainable
       community extension                                                     program

                                           Figure-5. Economic Simulacrum

         Educational institution as the backbone of social development has the social responsibility to participate in

building a community that is truly marked by reduction if not absence from hunger poverty and crime. By so doing,

the institution needs to maintain its competitive status in terms of quality education to meet the demands of the times

and share the fruits of its endeavors. From the institution’s impact on society’s resources it is able to provide

allotment for social services sustained by the enterprising spirit to raise funds for the sustainability of its programs

for the less fortunate.
          PHILANTROPIC                                                    ETHICAL
         RESPONSIBILITY                                                RESPONSIBILITY
  Designing Comex programs based
   on school vision/mission and Trust                           Consideration and recognition
   social responsibilities.                                      community’s values and ethical
  Voluntary participation/involvement
   in service – oriented activities.                            Respect for existing and evolving
                                                                 ethical standards.
  Engaging in activities or
   sustainable programs to promote                              Selfless implementation of projects
   human welfare and self-reliance                               with due consideration to
                                                                 environment concerns civic and
  Conceptualizing and providing
                                                                 basic human rights.
   resources for projects that will
   enhance the quality of life.

                          HUMANE, RESPONSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE
                            COMMUNITY EXTENSION PROGRAM
                           Mission and Vision
                           Strategic Goals and Objectives with Areas of
                           Research Based Needs Assessment
                           Sustainable Programs and Activities
                           Development and Utilization of Human and
                             Material Resources both from University and the
                           Linkages with Government &
                             Non-Government Organization
                           Monitoring & Evaluation on Community

            LEGAL                                                      ECONOMIC
        RESPONSIBILITY                                               RESPONSIBILITY

 Compliance to national and local                            Regular allotment of budget for
  government laws                                              community extension

 Compliance to CHED and other                                Fund raising activities and linkages
  regulatory bodies
                                                              Maintaining a competitive position
 Compliance to Memorandum of                                  for a sustainable extension
  Agreement                                                    program

Figure-6. An Eclectic Model for a More Humane and Responsive Community Program for Tertiary Educational

                             Institutions: Drawing lessons from University Experiences
Conclusions :

From the results and discussions, the following conclusions were drawn:

 1. The researches undertaken by higher education institutions in the Philippines manifest that their community

   extension are socially responsive to the needs of the community they want to serve however, the strategies in its

   implementation are complex, imperfect and are still searching out for model framework to be more humane

   and responsive to fulfill the fundamental role of being a catalyst of social transformation; hence improve the

   quality of life of the people.

2. The models designed for community extension programs reflect the principle on man’s mission to be of service to

  others for the betterment of the community they want serve. While models are similar in its desired output and

  differ in its best feature and focus, it affirmed to the ideals of being humane, responsive in building community’s

  social transformation.

3. The proposed eclectic model for a more humane and responsive community program was framed in the context

  that a university’s community extension program must be planned with consideration on four elements of social

  responsibility as philanthropic, ethical, legal and economic.


         Researchers therefore come up with the following recommendations:

    1.   The proposed eclectic model for a more humane and responsive extension program be tried and evaluated

         and improved.
    2.   Further studies maybe explored using other researches of university in Asian and other countries


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