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					                         PSI Online
                         The Socioeconomic Effects of Public
                         Sector Information on Digital
                         Networks:
                         Toward a Better Understanding of
                         Different Access and Reuse Policies

                         Summary of Session Three: Measuring
                         the Economic and Social Costs and
                         Benefits of PSI: Evaluation of the
                         Existing Approaches and Suggestions for
                         Future Work

5 February 2008, OECD Headquarters Conference Centre, Paris
Chairs: A) Eivind Lorentzen, B) Jean-Jacques Sahel
Rapporteurs: A) Juan Carlos de Martin, B) Tilman Merz
Overview
I. Questions for Discussion
II. Break Out Session A–
    Government and PSI
    Supply-Side Experts
III. Break Out Session B –
     Industry Representatives
     and Users
IV. Summary
             I. Questions for Discussion
1. What are the commonalities and differences among the various analytical
   methods identified and presented in Session two and in this Session?
2. What are the most effective metrics/indicators that can assess particular
   kinds of information/policies? What approaches and metrics/indicators
   effectively measure the network effects of the use of PSI online?
3. What are the main strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, e.g., their
   accuracy, comprehensiveness, relevance, validity and reliability?
4. What still needs to be known about the application of these methods to the
   evaluation of public information policies in the online environment?
5. What are theoretical frameworks, models and best practices used in
   assessing other information products or services that can be applied to the
   assessment of different policies of access to and reuse of digital PSI?
6. What are some future directions for the better study and measurement of
   access to and reuse of PSI online?
7. What other questions or issues should be raised in this context?
            II. Break Out Session A
            – Government
            Representatives and
            PSI Supply-Side Experts




Session A
              Session A – Overview
 Revised Questions for Discussion
 1. What are the main strengths and weaknesses of these
    approaches, e.g., their accuracy, comprehensiveness,
    relevance, validity and reliability?
 2. What are theoretical frameworks, models and best
    practices used in assessing other information products
    or services that can be applied to the assessment of
    different policies of access to and reuse of digital PSI?
 3. What are possible future directions for the better study
    and measurement of access to and reuse of PSI online?


Session A
      Question 1 – Existing Approaches
 1. What are the main strengths and weaknesses of these
    approaches, e.g., their accuracy, comprehensiveness,
    relevance, validity and reliability?

 • At this stage, no methodology seems clearly superior or
   general enough to be singled out.
 • Need to proceed with more research using multiple
   methodologies.




Session A
     Question 2 – Relevant Frameworks
 2. What are theoretical frameworks, models and best
    practices used in assessing other information products or
    services that can be applied to the assessment of different
    policies of access to and reuse of digital PSI?
 • Existing frameworks could facilitate/cross-fertilise PSI
   analysis:
     o   Open Access / Scientific Publishing
     o   Open Source / Free Software
     o   Assessing experience in specific sectors
         (meteorological services, geo-information, etc.)
 • Existing research on the role of the public sector

Session A
            Question 3 – Future Directions
 3. What are possible future directions for the better study
    and measurement of access to and reuse of PSI online?


            a) OECD PSI Manual
            b)PSI “Repository”
            c) Academic Research




Session A
                       a) OECD PSI Manual
 Working towards a manual
 for PSI data collection and
 analysis of PSI policies
  •   Progress in measurement of PSI
      policies needed
  •   Project would ideally involve
      statisticians, national accountants as
      well as PSI experts
  •   A similar model was successfully used
      by OECD DSTI in co-operation with
      Eurostat in 1999 to produce a manual
      on data collection and analysis in the
      environmental goods and services
      industry

Session A
                a) OECD PSI Manual
 An OECD PSI Manual would…
 • take into account the OECD PSI Policy Principles;
 • address different audiences, such as
    • Practitioners
    • Re-users
    • PSI Holders
    • National accountants;
 • clarify the extent and kinds of PSI;
 • make measurement practices more comparable;
 • promote involvement of additional stakeholders
   (regional, global, statistical entities, etc.).

Session A
                     a) OECD PSI Manual
 Stakeholders from the following groups need to be
 identified and involved
    • PSI Holders
     •   PSI Users and Re-users
     •   NGOs
     •   Libraries
     •   Publishers
     •   Sectoral bodies/communities (meteorological, geo-
         information, etc.)



Session A
                     b) PSI Repository
 Requires Clarification of Several Dimensions
    • Content

     •   Format (portal, database, forum, etc.)
     •   Ideally not a passive repository but a platform for
         proactive knowledge creation (e.g. Wiki, forum, etc.)
     •   Link to existing EPSIplus Project (EU-specific, future
         funding issues)
     •   Language
     •   How can a general PSI portal serve specific
         communities?

Session A
            c) Future Academic Research
 Considerations
     1. Specific topics (see following slide)
     2. Research funders: EC, foundations, etc.
     3. Workshop/conferences
     4. Online journal
     5. Awards for theses and dissertations
     6. The PSI manual




Session A
             c) Future Academic Research
 Specific Topics
     •   Special attention should be paid to research on
         individual users and on social effects of PSI use/re-use
     •   Network effects and network externalities (both
         positive and negative) need new assessment methods
     •   Role of automated knowledge extraction and re-use
     •   Pilot projects to test different approaches
     •   Promoting involvement of young researchers



Session A
            III. Break Out Session B –
            Industry Representatives
            and Users




Session B
              Session B – Overview
     1. General Points on Future Directions and
        Measurement of PSI Policy Impacts
     2. OECD PSI Principles
     3. PSI Definitions
     4. Repository for Mutual Support in Measuring PSI
     5. Data Collection
     6. Mapping the Value Chain
     7. Potential further Studies




Session B
       1. General Points on Future Directions and
       Measurement of PSI Policy Impacts
   • Session aims to generate ideas on next steps for research,
     measurement and analysis; also for follow-up to the OECD
     policy principles
   • Need to produce facts and analysis for policy makers,
     businesses and users
   • Need policy evaluation over time or across countries, using
     the same methodologies
   • Possibly focus on top-5 PSI sectors across a number of
     countries – although these may differ by country
   • Impact of PSI policy can depend on different political and
     institutional contexts – including at the sub-national level
   • Broad support for looking at comparative experiences, e.g.
     telecoms liberalisation, environmental goods
Session B
        2. OECD PSI Principles

    • Broad interest in OECD PSI principles
    • Theme is recommendation to “disseminate widely at
      lowest cost possible”
    • Importance of preparing framework and gathering
      information for any future review (once approved)
    • Pay attention to the immediate obstacles which the
      application of the principles might pose for public
      finances




Session B
        3. PSI Definitions

    • Importance of understandable and comparable
      definitions, e.g. product definitions, to go forward
      with the manual (on data collection and analysis)
    • Important to make research more easily comparable
      and more focussed
    • Potentially an approach that classifies types of PSI by
      function (end-use) is useful, rather than or in
      addition to, a product or activity approach




Session B
       4. Repository
    Elements could include
    • Coordination of the different levels of surveys
    • Exchange of approaches to, and tools for, data collection
      (questionnaires; model questionnaires; how to contact users)
    • Exchange of survey results
    • Database of best practices for PSI policy (e.g. on low-cost
      diffusion of PSI)
    • Efforts towards a classification of types of PSI (e.g. by product
      or by function)
    • Function as reference for survey design, classifications, and
      other activities
    Needs structuring and long-term management; not discussed
      how it would be made operational
Session B
       5. Data Collection (1/2)
    • Accounting practices, different product/activity/functions
      classifications make analysis of PSI market development difficult
    • Some bodies can more easily collect data (e.g. national
      competition bodies compared with academics)
    • Care must be taken in designing and conducting surveys

    Surveys
    • OECD successfully develops model questionnaires (e.g. use of ICT
       in businesses, use of ICT in households)
    • Ensure consistency and adherence to best practices in surveys
    • Survey design depends on understanding how people use PSI
    • What information to gather? E.g. obstacles to re-use and use
    • Grouping survey respondents: E.g. in analysing survey data, OFT’s
       contractor grouped PSIHs by pricing regime

Session B
       5. Data Collection (2/2)
   Sampling methods – Survey points of contact with users and re-users
   • Must take into account potential (currently unsatisfied) demand for
     PSI use and re-use
   • Potentially make public announcement about PSI research in fora
     used by current and potential data requesters
   • Publicly funded libraries serve as distributors of much government
     information in North America and Scandinavia – good opportunity
     to learn about users, particularly citizen users
   • Data from applications based on Freedom of Information
     legislation may provide information on PSI use and (potentially
     unsatisfied) demand




Session B
        6. Mapping the Value Chain
   • Value created via re-use depends very much on the product
   • Map PSI supply and demand, building on previous work
   • Analyse value chains for re-use: Where are costs incurred, where is
     most value created
   • Model value chains in terms of activities/business processes
   • Attach costs to value chain components
   • Can reveal at which step of the value chain obstacles to value
     creation lie

   • How to value social and economic impacts: Obstacles to re-use and
     use can be ranked by the number of people affected or by the
     magnitude of the economic cost



Session B
        7. Further Studies
    a) Transition costs of changing policy regimes (e.g. from/to UK
       trading fund model)
    b) Substitution of PSI by non-government information: Pay
       attention to where and why this is happening and quality of
       created data
    c) Examine PSI licensing costs across sectors/access
       regimes/countries
    d) Network externalities of PSI-based user-created content
    e) Draw parallels to other areas and comparative situations: e.g.
       impacts of telecommunications liberalisation
    f) Include PSI policy in measuring government performance




Session B
                        IV. Summary
                        – Sessions A & B




Session A   Session B
     IV. Summary – Sessions A & B

    •   Importance of OECD PSI Principles and follow-up
    •   Manual to improve measurement: strong case
    •   Repository: strong case but some issues to be clarified
    •   Academic research: strong case, new topics and
        approaches proposed: Clarify PSI definitions, further
        data collection, mapping the value chain




Session A    Session B

				
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