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OCLC Online Computer Library Center Pattern Recognition for Technical Services: Interpreting the OCLC Environmental Scan Eric Childress Consulting Project Manager OCLC Research 2006 Ohio Library Council Technical Services Retreat Mohican Resort & Conference Center OCLC Online Computer Library Center “Future Shock” A personal perception of "too much change in too short a period of time." - Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (1970) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_Shock OCLC Online Computer Library Center This presentation The big picture The infoscape Content & Publishing Copyright & Licensing Collections & Acquisitions Metadata & Vocabularies Library Systems OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Big Picture OCLC Online Computer Library Center Big patterns Production anywhere, Global distribution Digital content & Portable devices iTunes & iPods Self-service users OffWeb: ATMs, self-check-out OnWeb: Webstores, eGov, eBanking, etc. Microcontent/Disaggregation/”My”aggregation Ringtones, e-News, RSS readers, My Yahoo/MSN/etc… Open Source & Open Content OCLC Online Computer Library Center Voices carry Individual-driven content rising: Simple, easy, free/affordable ways to share yourself: Personal web pages (Tripod, many others) Digital images (e.g., flickr, others) – including from cameraphones Blogs (Bloglines, others) Information is social & peer-to-peer (“Participative Net“) Open models (Wikipedia) Current generation shares content instinctively Brand & voice through new channels Blogging by top execs & by staff Personal branding -- Webcred is key to one‟s fortunes “Brand inside should equal Brand outside” (Tom Peters) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Data rules Deep indexing: Google, Yahoo, etc. library digitization initiatives Amazon‟s “Search inside” On demand: Google Alerts, MSN RSS, etc. Library space: netLibrary, Alexander Street, many others Instant verification: RSS, blogs, search engines, online news, opinion sites, fact checking sites, etc. combine to produce fast news, and tend to rapidly expose big lies & big spin Recommendation systems: Amazon, Apple iTunes, other retailers – “people like you chose…” Novel concepts: Pandora – suggests music based on intrinsic patterns of music you like (the “music genome”) OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Web reborn Web 1.0 A collection of websites on a shared network Web 2.0 (in progress) The network as platform Spans all connected devices Delivers software as a continually-updated service Supports an architecture of participation Consuming and remixing data from multiple sources Providing your data for consuming/remixing by others OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Content & Publishing OCLC Online Computer Library Center It’s all digital (or will be) Content is now born digital Editorial & publishing workflows are on computing platforms Systems can output various formats including electronic & physical Strong interest in digitizing older material Google Print Library project / Yahoo & Open Content Alliance / Million Books project, Project Gutenberg, others.. Many, many digital library projects Other sources – Archives, museums, government agencies, NGO & university press publication backfiles, more… OCLC Online Computer Library Center Book trade A complex space gets more complex Mergers & failures have created: Megapublishers/Media Giants Megaretailers (e.g., Wal-Mart) Web has had an impact on publishing & retail: Give e to sell p model (e.g., National Academies Press) New players: Amazon, isbn.nu, many others taking retail market share Bricks and mortar stores building web presence E-books & e-audiobooks Developing momentum (esp. STM e-books) and acceptance Novel approaches such as e-text into factual databases being tried Pricing models & copyright/DRM still pose barriers OCLC Online Computer Library Center Serial/media publishing Publisher print-to-online transition accelerating Self-aggregation Article, news item, headline replacing journal, newspaper, magazine as unit of consumption Newspapers, magazines, radio, TV: More players – more TV channels, satellite radio, Internet radio, Web news sources, Google news, etc. Audience shifting to online or alternatives (e.g., Journalism alternatives such as news blogs, alternative news outlets) Ad revenue offline not transitioning as fast as readers to online ; losing audience & revenue to Craigslist, other sales/classified ad channels OCLC Online Computer Library Center The long-tail Article (Wired 2004) by Chris Anderson Using sales data from Amazon, etc. builds a case that in the Web age, niche & end-of-sales-cycle titles [i.e. backlist] (in yellow, the long tail) in digital format should be regarded as profitable front- list: Burden (storage) and sales (e-version or POD) costs are minimal Small volume sales over a large list = significant revenue N.B. BISG estimates 2004 used book market = $2.2 Billion (111 million books, 8.4% total consumer spending on books.) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Copyright & Licensing OCLC Online Computer Library Center Copyright World copyright regime growing more uniform and less public domain/fair use friendly: WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) More signatories to Berne Convention Well-funded, powerful publishing & media interests are pressing for strong protection (e.g., DRM (digital rights management) Public domain and kindred space getting better organized: Open Content/Access movement gaining momentum Creative Commons & similar content licensing efforts Government funding bodies pressing for open access for funded research For software, various open licensing regimes, Open Software movement OCLC Online Computer Library Center Copyright & Licensing Libraries are players, but not entirely agreed on best solution – various voices advocate: Digital First Sale provision similar to physical First Sale scheme Fair use exceptions for libraries (including unlocking privileges for locked digital content) Major overhaul of copyright, Digital Millennium Act, etc. to restore Founders‟ idea of default public domain save a brief period of protection early in the life of the intellectual property Terms and conditions vary across owned and leased content in library collections: Owned content: Chiefly physical materials – Terms & Conditions usually known (First Sale doctrine) Leased content: From bundles, consortial deals, etc. for content leasing Chiefly digital, often not stored on library-controlled hardware or storage mediums Varied terms, subscription schemes, provisions for long-term access OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Collection Management & Acquisitions OCLC Online Computer Library Center Source: OCLC OCLC Online Computer Library Center Published content space… Libraries originally established to collect and manage scarce content in physical containers Now in a period of content abundance (the Web) Libraries still prone to physical collection perspective overlay on e-resources Physical materials supply chain ever more automated Ordering, processing/cataloging, ready to shelve… Digital content continues to make inroads into libraries (spending up; users want it) E-books finally gaining some traction E-audiobooks getting attention and interest from users Strong trend to access published digital remotely rather than load locally Collection/selection process trends New and improved selection tools from ILS vendors, jobbers Cooperative collection arrangements, cooperative remote storage OCLC Online Computer Library Center Source: ARL OCLC Online Computer Library Center Other parts of collections grid… Special collections: Often unique to single library -- typically high interest in digitizing, but not necessarily bandwidth/funding ARL‟s “hidden collections” work (addressing cataloging backlog) Education/research products: Opportunity for libraries to help scholarship & teaching, but not simple or inexpensive task Mostly poorly developed interfaces between systems, processes, practices in Course Mgt. Systems (CMS) & those in library services. Overlap with e-reserves? Library often invisible in CMS Open web: Varied content (akin to Grey literature) & unclear what role(s) libraries should/can play vs. search engines, Internet Archive, etc. Various slices-of-web projects: Some libraries harvest all or some content from their country‟s domain Topical/period projects such as Library of Congress‟ Election 2002 Web Archive OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Metadata & Vocabularies OCLC Online Computer Library Center Metadata Libraries have long tradition of quality: Interoperability across communities of practice Rich, authoritative descriptions (now sought by search engines, others) But things are changing in library cataloging … Severe cost consciousness & ROI (return on investment) review Cataloging is expensive, and old assumptions are being revisited – we don‟t create card catalogs much anymore, but our metadata still card catalog-oriented Are we missing opportunities? AACR2 & MARC mix content & presentation – difficult to fully leverage value Non-library staff willing to build metadata (esp. for right-side-of-grid items) – can libraries apply expertise to influence & leverage other record sources? FRBR (Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records) Very powerful rethink of relationships in content & metadata Initial work in building better OPAC displays (OCLC, RLG, VTLS, LC, others…) RDA (Resource Description & Access) [formerly “AACR3”] Addresses separating metadata content from metadata display (ISBD) Will significantly change prevailing cataloging practice OCLC Online Computer Library Center Vocabularies Controlled vocabularies are “In” Corporate sector investing & leveraging for managing internal content, driving sales in webstores Libraries, museums, archives continue to invest in formal vocabularies to facilitate search & retrieval Controlled vocabularies are “Out” Clay Shirky & other digerati have declared them passé Too big, too complicated, too old school, too slow to adopt new concepts, too closed Advocate: Tagging: Adding keyword access points to images, music files, etc. Folksonomies: collaborative categorization using freely chosen keywords Various agencies experimenting with exposing vocabularies in new, machine-readable ways (e.g., OCLC’s terminology services project) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Library Systems OCLC Online Computer Library Center New demands…. Support empowered consumption Open Source/Content IP being leveraged (e.g., Apache, Personalization Surface libraries seamlessly Point-of-need delivery (e.g., library content in non-library apps) Open standards, easy integration Many trading partners, changing often Mash-ups deliver remixed functions & data from multiple providers in a seamless, integrated experience (using tools like Greasemonkey, etc.) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Convergence Bookseller, publisher, library catalogs showing feature convergence Various efforts underway to get publisher/jobber data earlier in bibstream Big central files for searching, not federated small silos Search engines & Big bib files (Open WorldCat , RedLightGreen) But…silos make reasonable harvesting targets (OAI) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Future systems System refactoring Modularity (micro-services, remixing, multiple sources) Layering (loosely-coupled systems) Interoperability (low-friction, high reuse) Lightweight protocols gaining favor (e.g., SRW/SRU, microformats) Machine-oriented services (web services) User-centered design User-tasks-oriented designs (e.g., NCSU catalog) User-customized views/a la carte (e.g., „my” university portals) User-contributed content (tagging, etc.) OCLC Online Computer Library Center End firstname.lastname@example.org OCLC Online Computer Library Center Further reading… Rethinking how we provide bibliographic services for the University of California http://libraries.universityofcalifornia.edu/sopag/BSTF/Final.pdf “Making data work - Web 2.0 and catalogs” / Lorcan Dempsey http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000815.html “Thinking about the catalog” / Lorcan Dempsey http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000919.html OCLC Scan & other reports http://www.oclc.org/reports It’s All Good http://scanblog.blogspot.com
"Pattern Recognition for Technica"