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					            AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: CIVIL LIBERTIES

                                      Political Science 305
                                    Lewis and Clark College
                                          Spring 2004


Instructor: Brian Danoff, Ph.D.
Office: Albany 208
Phone: 503-768-7604
E-mail: bdanoff@lclark.edu
Office hours: Mondays and Wednesdays, 3:15-4:15
Class meeting time: MWF 12:40-1:40; MWF 1:50-2:50
Room: Miller 102; Odell 001

Course Description:

Judicial review – the power of the Supreme Court to strike down laws that conflict with the
Constitution – is often said to be in tension with our democratic values. Why should unelected
Justices have the ability to override the will of democratically elected legislatures? A standard
answer is that the Supreme Court needs the power of judicial review in order to protect individual
liberty and minority rights against the tyranny of the majority. This course examines how the
Court has approached this task of protecting civil liberties. We will focus on a variety of
controversial issues, including free speech, religious freedom, racial and gender discrimination,
the right to privacy, and civil liberties after September 11.

Required Texts:

The following books are available for purchase at the Lewis & Clark Bookstore:

       David Cole, Enemy Aliens
       Louis Fisher, American Constitutional Law, Volume Two: Constitutional Rights: Civil
        Rights and Civil Liberties, Fifth Edition

There are also required readings on the syllabus marked ―Electronic reserve.‖ These readings can
be accessed on-line through the Lewis and Clark Library site.

Requirements, Policies and Procedures:

Evaluation and Grading: The requirements for the course are: attendance and participation; two
papers; an in-class mid-term examination; and a final examination. The final grade will be
calculated as follows:

Attendance (including promptness) and participation:      15%
Two 5-6 page papers:                                      40% (20% each)
Midterm:                                                  20%
Final examination:                                        25%




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                        Explanation of Requirements and Assignments

Attendance and participation: Attendance is required. A significant amount of absences will
definitely lower your grade. Active class participation is strongly encouraged (and rewarded).
You are able to participate actively in class when you have read the assigned readings in advance;
when you are able to restate the important information and arguments found there; and when you
have formulated interesting questions or comments in response to these readings. I may also
assign pop quizzes, which will be factored into the attendance and participation portion of your
grade.

Midterm Examination: The midterm will consist of short identification questions and essay
questions.

Final Examination: The final exam will emphasize material from the second half of the course.
Like the midterm, it will require students to answer short identification questions and essay
questions.

Papers: You will write two papers of 5-6 pages.

Absences from Exams and Late Papers -- Only extreme, unexpected and well-documented
emergencies will constitute an excuse for failing to sit for an examination. As a general matter, I
will be very reluctant to accept excuses for failing to sit for an exam. Late papers will be
penalized. I will subtract 10 points per business day from your grade on the assignment.

OTHER POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Academic Integrity—You are encouraged to discuss the course materials and the assignments
and to prepare for exams with your fellow students. Still, all written work must be your own.
Violations of standards of academic integrity may be addressed through formal disciplinary
procedures. The Lewis & Clark Academic Integrity Policy is available in The Pathfinder or, on
the web, at http://www.lclark.edu/cgi-bin/catalog2002.cgi?policproc.dat .

Retain Hard Copies of All Work—You are required to retain hard copies of all work
completed, as well as all work completed and returned, over the course of the semester.

Students with Disabilities—If you experience any disability that requires individual
accommodations to facilitate your participation and work in this course, you should request
accommodations through the Student Support Services Office. Their website is:
http://www.lclark.edu/~access/ .

Student Advisement— My office hours are Mondays and Wednesdays, 3:15-4:15. I encourage
you to come in to talk with me as often as you would like. My office is at Albany 208. You may
also e-mail me at bdanoff@lclark.edu .




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COURSE OUTLINE AND SCHEDULE OF ASSIGNMENTS

Wednesday, Jan. 21: First day of class: Introduction to the course

Friday, Jan. 23: Constitutional interpretation and democratic theory
     William Hudson, ―The Imperial Judiciary.‖ Electronic reserve.

Monday, Jan. 26: The communitarian critique of “rights talk”
   Mary Ann Glendon, ―Rights Talk.‖ Electronic reserve.
   Texas v. Johnson (1989). Fisher, 505-8.

Wednesday, Jan. 28: The Nationalization of the Bill of Rights
   Palko v. Connecticut (1937). Fisher, 680-682
   Adamson v. California (1947). Electronic reserve.
   Gideon v. Wainwright (1963). Fisher 692-4.
   Duncan v. Louisiana (1968). Fisher, 673-75

Friday, Jan. 30: Free speech
     John Stuart Mill, ―On Liberty.‖ Electronic reserve.
    In-class video: Hate.com

Monday, Feb. 2: Free speech and the two “Red Scares”
   Schenk v. United States (1919). Fisher, 465-66.
   Abrams v. United States (1919). Fisher, 467-9.
   Gitlow v. New York (1925). Fisher, 469-71.
   Whitney v. California (1927). Fisher, 471-73.
   Dennis v. United States (1951). Fisher, 473-6.
   Yates v. United States (1957). Fisher, 476-78.
   David Cole, Enemy Aliens, pp. 105-44.

Wednesday, Feb. 4: Regulating speech
   Tinker v. Des Moines (1969). Fisher, 905-7 .
   Cohen v. California (1971). Fisher, 496-99.
   R.A.V. v. St. Paul (1992). Fisher, 499-502.

Friday, Feb. 6: Hate speech on campus
     Charles R. Lawrence III, ―If He Hollers Let Him Go: Regulating Racist Speech on
        Campus.‖ Electronic reserve.
     Nadine Strossen, ―Regulating Racist Speech on Campus: A Modest Proposal?‖
        Electronic reserve.

Monday, Feb. 9: Obscenity
   Roth v. United States (1957). Fisher, 567-69.
   Miller v. California (1973). Fisher, 569-72.
   Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton (1973). Fisher, 572-74.
   New York v. Ferber (1982). Fisher, 575-77.
   Reno v. ACLU (1997). Fisher, 577-81.




                                                                                        3
Wednesday, Feb 11: Campaign finance reform and free speech
   Buckley v. Valeo (1976). Fisher, 1059-1064.
   Ira Glasser, ―Free speech and campaign finance reform.‖ Electronic reserve.
   McConnell v. F.E.C. (2003). Electronic reserve

Friday, Feb. 13: Freedom of the press
     Fisher, 521-523.
     House Debate on the Sedition Act of 1798. Fisher, 524-26.
     Near v. Minnesota (1931). Fisher, 530-33.
     New York Times. v. United States (1971). Electronic reserve.
     Branzburg v. Hayes (1972). Fisher, 533-36.

Monday, Feb. 16: Libel
   New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964). Fisher, 550-553.
   Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1988). Fisher, 556-559.
              -- PAPER #1 due today --

Wednesday, Feb. 18: Free exercise of religion
   Reynolds v. United States (1878). Electronic reserve.
   Sherbert v. Verner (1963). Electronic reserve.
   Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972). Electronic reserve.
   Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940). Fisher, 594-96.
   West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943). Fisher, 596-8.

Friday, Feb. 20: The constitutional dialogue on religious accommodations
     Employment Davison v. Smith (1990). Fisher, 616-18.
     Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah (1993). Electronic reserve.
     Stephen Carter, ―The Accommodation of Religion.‖ Electronic reserve.

Monday, Feb. 23: Financial assistance to sectarian schools; the teaching of evolution
   Everson v. Board of Education (1947). Fisher, 631-33
   Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971). Fisher, 633-36.
   Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002). Fisher, 636-39.
   Edwards v. Agguilard (1987). Electronic reserve.

Wednesday, Feb. 25: School prayer
   Engel v. Vitale (1962). Fisher, 645-7.
   Congressional Hearings on School Prayer. Fisher, 647-8.
   Wallace v. Jaffree (1985). Fisher, 648-50.
   School District of Abington Township v. Schempp. (1963).
   Lee v. Weisman (1992). Fisher, 651-3.
   Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000). Fisher, 654-6.

Friday, February 27: The pledge of allegiance case
     Newdow v. United States Congress (9th circuit decision). Electronic reserve.




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Monday, March 1: Racial discrimination
   Donald Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case. Electronic reserve.
   Dredd Scott v. Sandford (1857). Fisher, 789-92.
   Civil Rights Cases (1883). Fisher, 796-99.

Wednesday, March 3: Racial discrimination (cont.)
   Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Fisher, 799-802.
   Government’s Brief in Brown. Fisher, 811-12.
   Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Fisher, 812-14.
   Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971). Fisher, 819-21.
   Milliken v. Bradley (1974). Fisher, 821-23.

Friday, March 5: Racial discrimination (cont.)
     Shelley v. Kraemer (1948). Fisher, 827-29.
     Congress Interprets the Commerce Clause. Fisher, 831-32.
     Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (1964). Fisher, 832-35.
     Loving v. Virginia (1967). Electronic reserve.

Monday, March 8: Midterm exam

Wednesday, March 10: Affirmative action
   Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978). Electronic reserve.
   Richmond v. Crosson. Electronic reserve.

Friday, March 12: Affirmative action (cont.)
     Hopwood v. Texas (1996). Electronic reserve.
     ―When the Field is Level.‖ Electronic reserve.
     Gratz v. Bollinger (2003). Electronic reserve.
     Grutter v. Bollinger (2003). Electronic reserve.

Monday, March 15: Gender discrimination
   Frontiero v. Richardson (1973). Fisher, 879-81.
   Craig v. Boren (1976). Fisher, 881-4.
   Michael M v. Sonoma County Superior Court (1981). Fisher, 884-885.
   Rostker v. Goldberg (1981). Fisher, 892-4.
   Senate Debates Women in Combat. Fisher, 894-5.
   United States v. Virginia (1996). Fisher, 895-99.

Wednesday, March 17: Gender discrimination (cont.)
   Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls (1991). Fisher, 890-92.
   Martha Minnow, ―The Dilemma of Difference.‖ Electronic reserve.
   Richard Wasserstrom ―The Assimilationist Ideal.‖ Electronic reserve.

Friday, March 19: The death penalty
     Furman v. Georgia (1972). Fisher, 712-14.
     Gregg v. Georgia (1976). Fisher, 714-17.
     McCleskey v. Kemp (1987). Fisher, 714-17.




                                                                                   5
--- SPRING BREAK --

Monday, March 29: Civil liberties after September 11
   David Cole, Enemy Aliens, 1-82, 183-233.

Wednesday, March 31: Civil liberties after September 11
   Padilla v. Rumsfeld (2003). Electronic reserve.

Friday, April 2: The right to privacy
     William Leuchtenburg, ―Mr. Justice Holmes and Three Generations of Imbeciles.‖
       Electronic reserve.
     Buck v. Bell (1927). Fisher, 935-36.
     Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Fisher, 942-5
     The Right to Privacy: The Bork Hearings. Fisher, 990-93.

Monday, April 5: Abortion rights
   Roe v. Wade (1973). Fisher, 953-56.
   Hyde Amendment of 1976: Congressional Debate. Fisher 956-68.
   Harris v. McRae (1980). Fisher, 958-61.
   Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992). Fisher, 966-70.

Wednesday, April 7: Abortion rights (cont.)
   Jack Hitt, ―Who will Do Abortions Here?‖ Electronic reserve.
   Eileen McDonagh, ―Abortion Rights Alchemy and the United States Supreme Court.‖
      Electronic reserve.

Friday, April 9: The right to die
     Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health (1990). Fisher, 975-77
     ―The philosopher’s brief.‖ Electronic reserve.
     Vacco v. Quill. Fisher, 978-99.

Monday, April 12: Gay rights
    Bowers v. Hardwick (1986). Fisher, 984-86.
Video: Ballot Measure 9
               -- Paper #2 due today --

Wednesday, April 14: Class cancelled today

Friday, April 16: Gay rights (cont.)
     Romer v. Evans (1996). Electronic reserve.

Monday, April 19: Gay rights (cont.)
   Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000). Electronic reserve.
   Lawrence v. Texas (2003). Electronic reserve.




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Wednesday, April 21: Search and seizure
   Coolidge v. New Hampshire (1971). Fisher, 745-48.
   California v. Ciraolo (1986). Fisher, 749-50.
   United States v. Ross (1982). Fisher, 751-53.
   Terry v. Ohio (1968). Fisher, 753-56.
   Chimel v. California (1969). Fisher, 756-58.

Friday, April 23: The exclusionary rule
     Weeks v. United States (1914). Fisher, 772-73.
     Mapp v. Ohio (1961). Fisher, 773-76.
     Stone v. Powell (1976). Fisher, 777-79.
     United States v. Leon (1984). Fisher, 779-82.

Monday, April 26: The fifth amendment and self-incrimination
   Escobedo v. Illinois (1964). Fisher, 694-97.
   Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Fisher, 697-99.
   Dickerson v. United States (2000). Fisher, 669-701.
   Oregon v. Elstad (1985). Fisher, 702-4.

Wednesday, April 28: Political representation
   Baker v. Carr (1962). Fisher, 1040-42.
   Reynolds v. Sims (1964). Fisher, 1045-47.
   Shaw v. Reno (1993). Fisher, 1047-50.
   Miller v. Johnson (1995). Fisher, 1050-53.

Final exam: Wednesday, May 5, 8:30-11:30; Monday, May 3, 1:00-4:00




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