Sociology 120_ Winter 2008 by chenboying

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									Sociology 120, Winter 2008
Altenhofel: Final Exam Study Guide

100 of the following will be on the quiz. Each is worth1 point.


Determine whether each of the following passages is (or contains) an argument.

1.     Will a beverage begin to cool more quickly in the freezer or in the regular part of the
       refrigerator? Well, of course it‟ll cool faster in the freezer! There are lots of people who don‟t
       understand anything at all about physics and who think things may begin to cool faster in the
       fridge. But they‟re sadly mistaken.
       A. Argument
       B. no argument

2.     It‟s true that you can use your television set to tell when a tornado is approaching. The reason
       is that tornadoes make an electrical disturbance in the 55 megahertz range, which is close to
       the band assigned to channel 2. If you know how to do it, you can get your set to pick up the
       current given off by the twister. So your television set can be your warning device that tells you
       when to dive for the cellar.
       —Adapted from Cecil Adams, The Straight Dope
       A. Argument
       B. no argument

3.     Some of these guys who do Elvis Presley imitations actually pay more for their outfits than
       Elvis paid for his! Anybody who would spend thousands just so he can spend a few minutes
       not fooling anybody into thinking he‟s Elvis is nuts.
       A. Argument
       B. no argument

4.     You‟d better not pet that dog. She looks friendly, but she‟s been known to bite.
       A. Argument
       B. no argument

5.    It is obvious why some men have trouble understanding why women become upset over
pornography. Pornography depicts women as servants or slaves, and men cannot conceive of
themselves in this role.
      A. Argument
      B. no argument

6.     I don‟t care how well Thompson played last week. If he misses practice one more time, he‟s
       not going to play in the tournament, and that‟s that.
       A. Argument
       B. no argument

7 Which of the following best completes this sentence? "When a sentence has a truth value, we mean
that it..."
A) is either true or false, even if we cannot necessarily determine which it is.
  B) is false.
  C) is true.
  D) is neither true nor false.
For each passage, identify which of the items that follows best states the primary issue discussed in
      the passage.

8.    “The president‟s basic problem, in my opinion, is that she is too unemotional. She makes all
      her decisions on cold logic and seems to ignore the human dimension. If you don‟t believe me,
      I offer as proof the way she withdrew her support for her brother-in-law when he was charged
      with tax evasion. After that, he couldn‟t get elected dog catcher.”
      a.      Whether the president should have withdrawn support for her brother-in-law
      b.      Whether you should believe me about the president
      c.      Whether the president has a serious problem
      d. Whether the president is too unemotional

9.    The Republicans‟ proposal to cut taxes on capital gains (profits from selling real estate, stocks,
      and bonds) is not a sop for the wealthy. It is a way to stimulate investment and ultimately to
      create jobs. That‟s why it is in everyone‟s interest to support the proposal.
      a.     Whether the proposal is a sop for the wealthy
      b.     Whether the proposal is a way to stimulate investment and ultimately to create jobs
      c.     Whether stimulating investment and creating jobs is a good thing
      d.     Whether it is in everyone‟s interest to support the proposal

10.   I think there should be a speed limit for the “spandex” bicycle racers that feel the need to run
      those of us that don‟t ride or walk as fast off the road and into the bushes in Bidwell Park. The
      park is for everyone‟s pleasure and enjoyment, and more often than not it is spoiled by those
      few who feel they are superior to the rest of us. Approximately eight out of ten times my family
      and I have ridden our bikes through the park at least one of us has just about been plowed
      over by one of those egotistical speeders.
      —From a letter to the editor
      a.      Whether there should be a speed limit for bicycle racers
      b.      Whether bicycle racers are egotistical
      c.      Whether the park is for everyone‟s pleasure
      d.      Whether outings to the park are frequently spoiled by bicycle racers

11.   Should welfare recipients repay the state before they collect their winnings from the lottery? On
      the one hand, if you borrow money from somebody and win the lottery with it, you should repay
      the loan out of your winnings. But on the other hand, welfare is not a loan. It is a payment to
      people to help them improve their lives in the best way they can.
      a.     Whether welfare is a loan
      b.     Whether welfare should be used to play the lottery
      c.     Whether welfare recipients should repay the state before they collect winnings from the
             lottery
      d.     Whether the fact that welfare is a loan means that welfare recipients should repay the
             state before they collect winnings from the lottery

Determine which of these claims are best classified as semantically ambiguous (and which of those
      contain grouping ambiguities), which are syntactically ambiguous, and which are free from
      ambiguity.

12.   People who go shopping often go broke.
      a. grouping ambiguity
      b. syntactic ambiguity
      c. semantic ambiguity
13.    All snakes are not poisonous.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

14.    The wizard made a pig of himself.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

15.    He went to the store but was held up in the process.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

16.    The team was upset.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

17.    She watched him dance with intensity.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

18.    Carlton harassed the man on the motorcycle.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

19.    When the head waiter asked whether she had reservations, she said, “Yes, but I‟m going to
       eat here anyway.”
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

20.    He dislikes her smoking.
       a. grouping ambiguity
       b. syntactic ambiguity
       c. semantic ambiguity

State whether the following are a. True or b. false.

21.    Any analytical definition of the word “dog” would also be an analytical definition of the word
       “animal.”
       A. True
       B. false

22.    Any definition by synonym of the word “dog” would also be a definition by synonym of the word
       “animal.”
       A. True
       B. false
23.    Definitions are used only to clarify the meaning of expressions that are not understood.
       A. True
       B. false

24.    Definitions by synonym or definitions by example might serve to reduce the vagueness of an
       expression.
       A. True
       B. false

Classify each of the following as definition by example, definition by synonym, or analytical definition.

25.    That stuff up there, see? That‟s plaque.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

26.    If you want to know what a successful philosophy major looks like, look at Steve Martin.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

27.    When I saw my old crowd at my high school reunion, I suddenly realized what the phrase
       “motley crew” really meant.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

28.    You can use “recreant” nearly anywhere you can use “cowardly,” but nobody does anymore.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

29.    To fledge an arrow is to fletch or feather it.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

30.    “Loquacious” means talkative.
       a. definition by example
       b. definition by synonym
       c. analytical definition

31 Which of the following statements concerning the nature of critical thinking is most accurate?
A) Critical thinking is about helping others and ourselves.
  B) Critical thinking is about helping others.
  C) Critical thinking is about attacking others.
  D) Critical thinking is about self debasement.

32 Which of the following most accurately completes this sentence? "A claim is a statement that is..."
A) true.
  B) false.
 C) either true or false, but not both.
 D) true and false, depending on the context.

33 Which of the following offers the best identification of "abortion"?
A) It is a topic of conversation.
  B) It is a claim.
  C) It is an issue.
  D) It is an argument

34 An argument comprises which of the following?
A) At least a premise.
  B) At least a conclusion.
  C) At least two premises and a conclusion.
  D) At least one premise and one conclusion.

35 When you encounter the word "since" in a sentence you should generally conclude that it is acting
as which of the following?
A) A conclusion indicator
  B) An argument indicator
  C) A premise indicator
  D) A propositional indicator

36 Which of the following is true of non-subjective issues?
A) When two people disagree about a matter of fact, both can be correct.
  B) When two people disagree about a matter of fact, at least one is wrong.
  C) When two people disagree about a matter of fact, neither is ever correct and a third opinion is
needed.
  D) When two people disagree about a matter of fact, there's always something correct in each of
their arguments.

Identify the ambiguity in these examples.

37 "A claim whose ambiguity is due to the ambiguity of a particular word or phrase."
A) Grouping ambiguity
  B) Semantic ambiguity.
  C) Syntactic ambiguity.
  D) No ambiguity

38 "A claim whose ambiguity is due to a problem with its structure."
A) Semantic ambiguity.
  B) Syntactic ambiguity.
  C) Grouping ambiguity.
  D) No ambiguity

39 "A claim whose ambiguity rests on a confusion between a collection of entities or individual
entities."
A) Grouping ambiguity.
  B) Semantic ambiguity.
  C) Syntactic ambiguity.
  D) No ambiguity
40 This morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.
A) Semantic Ambiguity
  B) Syntactic Ambiguity
  C) Grouping Ambiguity
  D) No ambiguity

41 Newspaper headline: Unskilled Workers Get Shot at Jobs.
A) Semantic Ambiguity
  B) Syntactic Ambiguity
  C) Grouping Ambiguity
  D) No ambiguity

42 Sign in front of a vacant lot: "Fine for Littering".
A) Semantic Ambiguity
  B) Syntactic Ambiguity
  C) Grouping Ambiguity
  D) No ambiguity

43"To introduce an unusual or unfamiliar word, to coin new words, or to introduce a new meaning to a
familiar word."
A) Stipulative definition
  B) Precising definition
  C) Explanatory definition
  D) Persuasive definition
  E) Definition by example
  F) Analytical definition
  G) Definition by synonym

44 "To reduce vagueness and eliminate ambiguity."
A) Definition by synonym
  B) Explanatory definition
  C) Persuasive definition
  D) Definition by example
  E) Analytical definition
  F) Stipulative definition
  G) Precising definition

45 "A definition that points to, names, or describes one or more examples of something to which the
defined term applies."
A) Explanatory definition
  B) Definition by synonym
  C) Definition by example
  D) Analytical definition
  E) Persuasive definition
  F) Precising definition
  G) Stipulative definition

46 The new mandatory sentencing laws have increased the country's prison population.
A) Non-subjective
  B) Subjective
47 This 1200 is a motorcycle that will make you happy.
A) Non-subjective
  B) Subjective

48 This 1200 is the most fun motorcycle to ride.
A) Non-subjective
  B) Subjective

49 "A definition that gives another word or phrase that means the same thing as the term being
defined."
A) Explanatory definition
  B) Precising definition
  C) Definition by example
  D) Stipulative definition
  E) Persuasive definition
  F) Definition by synonym
  G) Analytical definition

Assess the area of expertise for the following

50 Elaine Rivera inherited her family's gun store, which she has operated on her own for nine years.
A) the difficulty of enforcing gun-control laws
  B) which guns are most often bought for criminal purposes
  C) which guns are most often bought by amateurs
  D) which guns are easiest for an amateur to use

1 Who was that young woman with the Senator last night: his niece?
 A) Stereotype
 B) Euphemism
 C) Rhetorical definition
 D) Rhetorical explanation
 E) Innuendo

2.    "I know I'm a good photographer, but the pictures we got back from our first roll of that new
Kodak film were simply superb. The response of the film was fantastic. I'll bet the next roll we use will
be good stuff, too." Is there a fallacy here?
A.    Fallacy of hasty generalization
B.    Fallacy of biased generalization
C.    No fallacy

3.     "Did you hear what Senator Dreul is arguing for? He wants an increase in the social security
tax! What he really means is that he wants hardworking taxpayers to send in their entire paychecks
so the government can decide how to spend the money. But taking away all our money violates the
Constitution, and that means Senator Dreul's argument is no good!" What kind of pseudoreasoning is
being used here?
A.     Ad hominem
B.     Begging the question
C.     Straw man
D.     False dilemma

4.     "Ms. Soleil, this report says you are a poor typist. It looks as if the company will have to let you
go."
 "But don't you realize I have seven children to feed and an ex-husband who won't pay child
support?"
 "Hmmm. Well, on second thought, though you are still a poor typist, perhaps the company can find
another position for you. Let me check with the training supervisor."
 Was the personnel official buying into pseudoreasoning by offering another job to Ms. Soleil?
A.     Yes, the personnel director was buying into "appeal-to-pity" pseudoreasoning.
B.     No, the personnel director was not buying into "appeal-to-pity" pseudoreasoning.

5.     "If we vote in gun control, first thing you know some goon squad will begin confiscating all our
guns!"
A.     Slippery slope
B.     False dilemma
C.     Burden of proof
D.     Ad hominem

6.     "Mr. Barnett, I'm here to discuss my grade, but before I do I'd like to compliment you on your
choice of suspenders. I think they really give you a distinguished look! Gosh, I'm so proud just to be in
your class!" What kind of pseudoreasoning is being used here?
A.     Apple polishing
B.     Appeal to pity
C.     Peer pressure
D.     Two wrongs make a right

7. Letter to the editor: Your magazine expresses sympathy for Annie Larson, a putative "fashion
victim" because "animal rights terrorists" splashed paint on her mink coat. But when I think of those
dozens of animals maimed and anally electrocuted to satisfy someone's vanity, I know who the real
victims are, and who's the terrorist.
 A) No fallacy
 B) subjectivism
 C) two wrongs make a right
 D) wishful thinking

8. I don't want to vote for this sleazebag, but my father would turn over in his grave if I ever voted
Republican.
 A) No fallacy
 B) argument from pity
 C) argument from popularity
 D) guilt trip

9. Pynchon is where it's at. All the Alpha Kappas read him.
 A) No fallacy
 B) subjectivism
 C) group think fallacy
 D) apple polishing

10. She'll be glad I spent the night out drinking. I'm giving her some personal space.
 A) No fallacy
 B) rationalizing
 C) argument from popularity
 D) two wrongs make a right
11. There must be an afterlife. Wherever you find human beings you find their minds naturally
returning to this thought.
 A) No fallacy
 B) common practice
 C) argument from popularity
 D) group think fallacy

12.    "There must be intelligent life on other planets; otherwise, human beings would be all alone in
the vast reaches of space, and I just couldn't stand the loneliness!" What kind of pseudoreasoning is
being used here?
A.     Appeal to pity
B.     Appeal to common practice
C.     Two wrongs make a right
D.     Wishful thinking
E.     Scare tactics

13.   Hey! It can‟t be time to for the bars to close. I‟m having too much fun.
A. False Dilemma
B. Misplacing the Burden of Proof
C. Wishful Thinking
D. Argument from Popularity
E. No Fallacy

14 An argument's persuasive force can be effectively enhanced by the use of rhetoric.
 A) True
 B) False

15 It is fair to say that euphemisms can sometimes be helpful and constructive.
 A) True
 B) False

16 From the list below, select the name of the rhetorical device that attacks the arguer instead of the
argument.
 A) Slippery slope
 B) Begging the question
 C) False dilemma
 D) Ad hominem
 E) Burden of proof
 F) Straw man

17 From the list below, select the name of the rhetorical device that unfairly places the onus of
providing evidence for a position on the wrong side of an issue.
 A) Slippery slope
 B) Begging the question
 C) False dilemma
 D) Ad hominem
 E) Burden of proof
 F) Straw man

18    "Hey, get a load of this: Jason thinks the Marlins will come back and win another pennant in
the next few years. I think they will too, right after they win the Superbowl and the Masters Golf
tournament!" What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
A.     Innuendo
B.     Dysphemism
C.     Sarcasm
D.     Hyperbole

19. "I simply won't go into health clubs; they're full of people who are nothing but a bunch of braggarts
in fashionable gym clothes." What slanter is being used here?
A.      Loaded question
B.      Stereotype
C.      Weaseler
D.      Proof surrogate
E.      None of the above

20.    "That painting by Picasso is overpriced." What slanter is being used here?
A.     Loaded question
B.     Proof surrogate
C.     Stereotype
D.     Downplayer
E.     No slanting devices

21. Letter to the editor: Now the Dallas Police have dismissed the rape charges against Michael Irvin
and Erik Williams. Excuse me if I'm suspicious of the Dallas Police Department. I'm old enough to
remember Lee Harvey Oswald being shot to death with the Dallas Police escorting him.
 A) Poisoning the well
 B) Genetic fallacy
 C) Burden of proof
 D) Perfectionist fallacy
 E) Line-drawing fallacy

22. Before you go getting all excited about the ancient Greek ideal of leisure and learning, remember
that it was built on the backs of slaves. How do you think they liked the sight of all those
philosophers? Not much.
  A) Poisoning the well
  B) Genetic fallacy
  C) Slippery slope
  D) Begging the question
  E) Straw man

23. Once your kids are watching cartoons, they're also watching those toy commercials. If they see
the commercials they'll want the toys; before you know it, they're obsessed with the toys and you've
lost all control over them. So don't let children watch cartoons.
  A) Genetic fallacy
  B) Slippery slope
  C) Burden of proof
  D) Begging the question
  E) Straw man

24. Ms. Turnier gave me extra homework for running in class. She has a rule against it. But I told her,
"I wasn't running, I was walking. One foot was in front of the other." Maybe I went fast, but where is it
in her book of rules that suddenly that's running?
  A) Line-drawing fallacy
  B) Poisoning the well
 C) Slippery slope
 D) Begging the question
 E) Perfectionist fallacy

25 How do you like those developers trying to raise the sales tax to pay for the new stadium? They
say it's going to be profitable for the city. If it's so profitable, why don't they build it out of their own
money and really get rich?
 A) Appeal to ignorance
 B) False dilemma
 C) Slippery slope
 D) Burden of proof
 E) Line-drawing fallacy

26 Do I want the police department to take charge of writing parking tickets? You mean, do I want to
get shot if I pull up next to a fire hydrant? What do you think?
 A) False dilemma
 B) Appeal to ignorance
 C) Begging the question
 D) Perfectionist fallacy
 E) Straw man

27 Madam President, I don't see how we can go ahead with this curricular revision. The committee is
worried about students not getting a good liberal arts education; but when you look closely at the
details of the proposal, you see that a shrewd student can still worm through with the right course
selections and wind up uneducated.
 A) Circumstantial ad hominem
 B) Burden of proof
 C) Begging the question
 D) Line-drawing fallacy
 E) Perfectionist fallacy

28 What do you mean, I broke my curfew? All I did was walk to the curb. You wouldn't cite me if I
stood on the porch, would you? And if I'd just stepped off the porch, that wouldn't be any different. So
what's so magical about the curb?
 A) False dilemma
 B) Genetic fallacy
 C) Line-drawing fallacy
 D) Burden of proof
 E) Perfectionist fallacy

29 Ladies and gentlemen of the jury: My client's civil rights are at stake. It's true that he pointed at the
victim and told the other men with him, "That's the one who cost you your jobs. Get him!" But that was
only his expression of his opinion. You have to either let a man speak his mind, or admit that we're
living in a police state.
  A) Slippery slope
  B) Burden of proof
  C) False dilemma
  D) Perfectionist fallacy
  E) Straw man
30. "The Macintosh computer display was located in the campus free speech area; many who
watched the product demonstrations seemed interested in computers." What slanter is being used
here?
A.     Downplayer
B.     Proof surrogate
C.     Hyperbole
D.     Euphemism
E.     No slanter

31.    "Mr. Barnett, I'm here to discuss my grade, but before I do I'd like to compliment you on your
choice of suspenders. I think they really give you a distinguished look! Gosh, I'm so proud just to be in
your class!" What kind of pseudoreasoning is being used here?
A.     Apple polishing
B.     Appeal to pity
C.     Peer pressure
D.     Two wrongs make a right

32. Taxation is the oppressive practice of taking other people's hard-earned money.
 A) Loaded question
 B) Euphemism
 C) Rhetorical explanation
 D) Innuendo
 E) Weaseler

33. Officer: Excuse me, sir. Do you know how fast you were going? Driver: I never get over the sight
of you mounted policemen. How do you leap down off the horse's back so fast? And you must have
them well trained, not to run away when you dismount.
  A) No fallacy
  B) argument by force
  C) two wrongs make a right
  D) apple polishing

34     "Since what is these days called 'performance art' began as a joke, it follows that any requests
for government grants for 'performance art' projects should be rejected as without value." What kind
of pseudoreasoning is being used here?
A.     Genetic fallacy
B.     Begging the question
C.     Slippery slope
D.     Straw man

35 From the list below, select the name of the rhetorical device that ignores an opponent's actual
position and instead presents and attacks a distorted, oversimplified, or misrepresented version of
that position.
  A) Slippery slope
  B) Begging the question
  C) False dilemma
  D) Ad hominem
  E) Burden of proof
  F) Straw man

36 Poisoning the well and argument from inconsistency are versions of which of the following types of
rhetorical devices?
 A) Slippery slope
 B) Begging the question
 C) False dilemma
 D) Ad hominem
 E) Burden of proof
 F) Straw man

37 Don't stay in the Army. You were ROTC instead of going to one of the academies, and that means
they might promote you for a while, but you'll never get above lieutenant colonel. Why bother?
  A) False dilemma
  B) Circumstantial ad hominem
  C) Slippery slope
  D) Line-drawing fallacy
  E) Perfectionist fallacy

38 Ms. Ng said to tell you I'm not reading enough. But I don't think you should worry. She's a teacher,
so she has reading on her mind.
 A) False dilemma
 B) Appeal to ignorance
 C) Circumstantial ad hominem
 D) Burden of proof
 E) Begging the question

39. You should bathe three times a day in a tub of whole milk to keep your skin looking young. No
one has ever proved that it doesn't work.
 A) Genetic fallacy
 B) Slippery slope
 C) Appeal to ignorance
 D) Line-drawing fallacy
 E) Perfectionist fallacy

40. Defense lawyer Robert Baker at O. J. Simpson's civil trial: This isn't a fight for justice, it's a fight
for money.
  A) False dilemma
  B) Slippery slope
  C) Begging the question
  D) Line-drawing fallacy
  E) Perfectionist fallacy

41. "A lawsuit is a machine which you go into as a pig and come out as a sausage" (adapted from
Ambrose Bierce). What slanter is being used here?
A.     Weaseler
B.     Persuasive comparison
C.     Downplayer
D.     Euphemism
E.     Proof surrogate

42 This rhetorical device is phrased as a question that rests upon one or more unwarranted or
unjustified assumptions.
 A) Loaded question
 B) Downplayer
 C) Hyperbole
 D) Horse laugh
 E) Proof Surrogate
 F) Euphemism
 G) Weaseler
 H) Stereotype
 I) Innuendo
 J) Dysphemism

43 This rhetorical device works by protecting a claim from criticism by watering it down so to give the
speaker a way out in the case that the claim is challenged.
 A) Loaded question
 B) Downplayer
 C) Hyperbole
 D) Horse laugh
 E) Proof Surrogate
 F) Euphemism
 G) Weaseler
 H) Stereotype
 I) Innuendo
 J) Dysphemism

44 This rhetorical device works by suggesting that there is evidence or authority for a claim without
actually citing this evidence.
 A) Loaded question
 B) Downplayer
 C) Hyperbole
 D) Horse laugh
 E) Proof Surrogate
 F) Euphemism
 G) Weaseler
 H) Stereotype
 I) Innuendo
 J) Dysphemism

45 Your teacher might have called this paper on capitalism "independent thinking".
 A) Euphemism
 B) Innuendo
 C) Rhetorical explanation
 D) Proof surrogate
 E) Rhetorical definition

46 Is this going to be another bright suggestion like your proposal that we take scuba lessons?
 A) Stereotype
 B) Loaded question
 C) Proof surrogate
 D) Rhetorical definition
 E) Innuendo

47 Who was that young woman with the Senator last night: his niece?
 A) Stereotype
 B) Euphemism
 C) Rhetorical definition
 D) Rhetorical explanation
 E) Innuendo

48 You can't sleep with the covers over your head. All the medical journals will tell you that's harmful.
 A) Stereotype
 B) Euphemism
 C) Weaseler
 D) Proof surrogate
 E) Downplayer

49 Taxation is the oppressive practice of taking other people's hard-earned money.
 A) Loaded question
 B) Euphemism
 C) Rhetorical explanation
 D) Innuendo
 E) Weaseler

50 We will fund this new program through revenue enhancements from the sale of beer and
cigarettes.
 A) Downplayer
 B) Euphemism
 C) Proof surrogate
 D) Weaseler
 E) Innuendo

1) "A __________ argument with true premises provides absolute proof of the truth of the
conclusion."
 A) Weak
 B) Good
 C) Invalid
 D) Strong
 E) Valid

2) "A deductive argument whose true premises do not necessarily prove its conclusion is considered
to be __________."
 A) Weak
 B) Good
 C) Invalid
 D) Strong
 E) Bad

3) "An argument is __________ if it is valid and all of its premises are true."
 A) Weak
 B) Sound
 C) Invalid
 D) Strong
 E) Bad

4) "When arguments are not intended to be valid, they may be evaluated as __________ or
__________."
 A) Good or Bad
 B) Valid or Invalid
C) Strong or Weak

5) "An argument is __________ if, whenever all its premises are true, the conclusion is unlikely to be
false."
 A) Weak
 B) Good
 C) Invalid
 D) Strong
 E) Bad

6) "__________ and __________ are absolute terms - they either hold for an argument or they don't."
 A) Good or Bad
 B) Valid or Invalid
 C) Strong or Weak

7.    The market for Jackson Pollock paintings has collapsed virtually overnight. Reason: A lot of
them were bought during the 1980s, and 1990s investors figure that 1980s prices were too high.
A. No argument
B. Argument

8.    Imagine yourself naked, without weapons, and running after a deer. If you were to catch this
deer how would you eat it? Humans are not equipped with the canine teeth in order to eat meat
without tools. A carnivore‟s teeth are long and sharp, and its jaws move up and down. Humans, by
contrast, use their molars to crush and grind their food. Have you ever noticed that so many
Americans are overweight and unhealthy? That‟s because they eat meat.
—From a student paper
A. No argument
B. Argument

9.      Is Bill Clinton‟s behavior prior to his becoming President relevant to how he should be judged
in office? Yes: 22% No: 71%
—From a telephone poll of 800 adult Americans taken for Time/CNN by Yankelovich Partners, Inc.
A. No argument
B. Argument

10. Which of the following best identifies the term "because."
 A It is a premise indicator.
 B It is a conclusion indicator.

11. Which of the following best identifies the term "so."
A It is a premise indicator.
B It is a conclusion indicator.

12. Which of the following best identifies the term "hence."
 A It is a premise indicator.
B It is a conclusion indicator.

13.    “Hey, see that bald dude over there? You know how old that guy is? He‟s my teacher.”
“I dunno, fifty, maybe.”
“He‟s not fifty, he‟s almost seventy!”
“Must eat a lot of Grow Pup.”
“I guess! He‟s a good teacher, too. He really communicates. Makes you remember stuff. I forget now
what the course was. . . .”
A. No argument
B. Argument

14.    The claim "Secondary smoke causes cancer in people," if true, implies that the majority of
individuals exposed to secondary smoke will contract cancer.
A.     True
B.     False

15. Consider the following argument: "Thinking of buying a house outside your present location? You
should avoid asking an agent where you live to make a referral in the new area. This is because an
agent who receives a referral from someone else in the business is often expected to compensate the
referrer with 20% of his commission and that makes some salespeople overanxious to make referrals
to agents they may not know well" Adapted from Ralph Warner, Ira Serkes, and George Devine, How
to Buy a House in California: Strategies for Beating the Affordability Gap). The underlined sentence is
A.     A premise
B.     The conclusion

16.    According to the text, in order to be sound, an argument must be
A valid and strong
B deductive and strong
C valid and have true premises.

17.   Consider: “The death penalty costs the state more money than life prison terms cost, and it
doesn‟t deter others from committing crimes either. Therefore we should eliminate the death penalty.”
              The premises of this argument are
A dependent;
B independent
C equivalent.

18.    Consider: “I know Harvey wore his black shoes this morning, and he never wears black shoes
with a blue suit. So Harvey could not have been the guy wearing the blue suit this morning.”
              The premises of this argument are
A dependent
 B independent
 C equivalent.

19.   “The ensemble played an encore at last year‟s concert, and I‟m pretty sure they played one the
year before as well. So they will most likely play an encore at this year‟s concert.”
             This argument is best taken as
A inductive
B deductive.

20.   “Sheila‟s clarinet is French. It‟s a Leblanc, and all Leblanc instruments are made in France.”
             This argument is best taken as
A inductive
B deductive.

21. An argument comprises at least which of the following?
 A At least two premises and a conclusion.
 B At least one premise and one conclusion.
C At least a conclusion.
D At least a premise.

22) Which of the following is most accurate?
 A) An argument may have either an implied premise or an implied conclusion.
 B) An argument may have an implied premise, but it can't have an implied conclusion.
 C) An argument may have an implied conclusion, but it can't have an implied premise.

23) When evaluating an argument with unstated premises, which of the following is the most
appropriate tactic?
 A) Find a claim that would make the argument invalid or weak and evaluate the argument as if this
claim had been included.
 B) Don't add anything. If the arguer had wanted a claim to be included, they would have included it.
Evaluate the argument as it stands.
 C) Find a claim that would make the argument valid or strong and evaluate the argument as if this
claim had been included.

24) Which of the following types of arguments are evaluated with the terms valid and invalid?
 A) Inductive
 B) Deductive

25) Which of the following types of arguments are evaluated with the terms strong and weak?
 A) Deductive
 B) Inductive

26) Which of the following types of arguments are evaluated with the terms sound and unsound?
 A) Inductive
 B) Deductive

27) When evaluating an argument, one should always take into consideration the existence and merit
of any unstated premises.
 A) True
 B) False

28) Which of the following best identifies the term "therefore"?
 A) It is a premise indicator.
 B) It is a conclusion indicator.

29.       “If you don‟t mow your lawn at least once a week, what happens is that when you do mow it,
it‟ll turn brown later.”
A. No argument
B. Argument

30.    A valid argument cannot have any false premises.
A. True
B. False

31.    If a strong argument has a false conclusion, then not all its premises can be true.
A. True
B. False

32.    If a valid argument has a false conclusion, then not all its premises can be true.
A. True
B. False

33. "The school cafeteria is closed because somebody set off a stink bomb inside." This passage is
best interpreted as
A. An argument
B. An explanation
C. Neither an argument nor an explanation

34. If you have trouble identifying the conclusion in a passage, the reason could be that the
passage is not an argument.
A. True
B. False

35. "Jo has a grade point average of 4.0-trust me on this, because I sneaked a peek at the school's
computer, and that's what it said." This passage is best interpreted as
A. An argument
B. An explanation
C. Neither an argument nor an explanation

36) Which of the following best identifies the term "since."
 A) It is a premise indicator.
 B) It is a conclusion indicator.

37) Which of the following best identifies the term "for."
 A) It is a premise indicator.
 B) It is a conclusion indicator.

38) When diagramming an argument, one should include claims that contradict the conclusion.
 A) True
 B) False

39) "_______ premises need one another all to be true to make the argument work."
 A) Dependent
 B) Independent
 C) Implied

40) ["_______ premises need do not one another all to be true to make the argument work."] change
to: ["_________ premises do not need one another all to be true to make the argument work."
 A) Dependent
 B) Independent
 C) Implied

41) "In most general terms, we call an argument _______ if it gives grounds for accepting the
conclusion."
A) Weak
 B) Good
 C) Invalid
 D) Strong
 E) Bad
42.    Bamboo can grow up to four feet a day, but only after it is well established. This can take from
three to five years, depending on the type of bamboo.
A. No argument
B. Argument

43.   The Burnhams have invited the performers home for a reception following the recital. But it
would be wise to let them know if you plan to attend, because space is limited.
A. No argument
B. Argument

44    Feldspar works at a restaurant at night and teaches during the day. I‟d have to bet he‟s tired
most of the time, and that‟s a good reason for thinking he won‟t do well in school this term.
A. No argument
B. Argument

45.     It is a very nice clock, but as you can see, it doesn‟t really go very well on that wall. For one
thing, it‟s too large for the space. For another, it‟s red, and the wall is green. The best thing you could
do with it, I‟m afraid, is take it back. Walmart is good about giving refunds.
A. No argument
B. Argument

46.     “Hey, what IS that stuff you‟re cooking, anyway? It smells like fish.”
                      “Fish! What do you mean, „fish‟? That‟s a pot roast I‟m cooking.”
                      “Oh . . . say, you don‟t mind if I open a window, do you? No, it‟s not the fish—uh,
roast; it just seems sorta warm in here.”
A. No argument
B. Argument

Are there assumed premises that make these arguments valid, if possible, or strong if they can't be
valid? Or do you conclude that they can't be made either valid or strong? Choose the best answer.

47) It's no use going on about whether this law is just. It was passed democratically.
 A) Valid
 B) Strong
 C) Can't be made either valid or strong

48) How can you be so critical of Pride and Prejudice? You never read it.
 A) Valid
 B) Strong
 C) Can't be made either valid or strong

49) I wouldn't call her reliable. She was late with her last rent check.
 A) Valid
 B) Strong
 C) Can't be made either valid or strong

50) It's not safe to let Dave drive you home. He just had a furious argument with his boss.
 A) Valid
 B) Strong
 C) Can't be made either valid or strong
1.     Have you noticed how yellow the Doerrs‟s lawn has gotten? They started fertilizing it, too, I
understand. Must be cheapo fertilizer, to make it turn yellow like that.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

2.     An experimental study is
a.     Inherently weaker than a nonexperimental study
b.     Inherently stronger than a nonexperimental study
c.     Neither inherently weaker nor inherently stronger than a nonexperimental study

3.     Studies indicate that close to 85 percent of university professors are liberal Democrats. It only
stands to reason, therefore, that if you want to get a job as a college instructor, register as a
Democrat.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

4.     Every time I play tennis my wrist hurts for several days afterward. If my doctor can‟t help me
figure what to do about it, I may have to give up the game.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

5.     A lottery winner, asked why he thought he had won a major prize, pulled a small rhinestone
four-leaf clover out of his pocket and said, “I think this had a lot to do with it.”
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

6.     I had a lot of noise on my car stereo when the engine was running, until I read in an old
Champion Spark Plug publication that the way to fix the problem is to install a 4MH choke coil in the
hot wire from the battery to the stereo. I did it, and it cured the problem.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

7.     I‟d wash the car but for the fact that we don‟t need any more rain.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

8.      As Harold is driving down the road from Glenn County to Montclair, he crosses into Salem
County and notices that the pavement deteriorates. “I guess they don‟t keep up their roads very well
in this county,” he says. Which best fits?
a.      Biased generalization
b.      Neither biased nor hasty
c.      Hasty generalization
9.     The sample in this passage is
a.     Roads in Glenn County
b.     The road he‟s driving on now
c.     Roads in Salem County

10.    “They say Japanese carmakers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered. But
that can‟t be right—the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!”
a.     Biased generalization
b.     Neither biased nor hasty
c.     Hasty generalization

11.    The sample in the preceding passage is
a.     My Toyota
b.     The best cars in the world
c.     Japanese cars

12.    The target in the passage is
a.     My Toyota
b.     The best cars in the world
c.     Japanese cars

13.    There are 36 ways that a pair of dice can come up. Only one of them produces a total of two (1
and 1, or “snake eyes”). The law of large numbers says that
a.     The more times the dice are rolled, the more times “snake eyes” will occur.
b.     The more times the dice are rolled, the smaller the percentage of “snake eyes” that will occur.
c.     “Snake eyes” has as good a chance as any other number of coming up on a given roll.
d.     The more times the dice are rolled, the closer to 1-in-36 will be the occurrence of “snake eyes.”
e.     In 36 rolls of the dice, “snake eyes” may not come up at all.

14.    From a letter to the editor: “The news media can never be trusted. Shortly before the Geneva
summit, the Washington Post decided that a news scoop concerning a confidential letter from the
secretary of defense to the president was more important news than a coordinated posture by our
negotiating team.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

15.    I watched Nova on public television the other night, and it was great! I‟m going to be in front of
the tube every week for it from now on.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

16.    I‟ve seen brochures depicting the scenery in the Ozark Mountains, and it‟s beautiful. I‟m even
thinking of retiring to Arkansas, since it‟s clearly such a beautiful state.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

17.    Bill bought one of those Burn-Rite wood stoves last year, and it smoked up his house all
winter. Those stoves are not worth the high prices they get for them.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

18.    According to one of the leading consumer magazines, the best-built cars these days are
Japanese. Cars built by foreign manufacturers have just outclassed those built in the United States, it
appears.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

19.    “A Prairie Home Companion” must be a pretty popular radio program around here. About half
my friends have copies of the book the program‟s host recently published.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

20.    “Hello Mom? Yeah, it‟s me. . . . Fine. Great, in fact. Massachusetts is super—I‟ve never had so
much fun. . . . No. . . . Yes! And listen, I‟ve just met the most wonderful guy. And I‟m sure he‟s rich.
You should just see the expensive car he drives. . . .”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

21.    Stratton takes one look at his new teacher and concludes he is going to like the course. “You
can just tell,” he says to his girlfriend later, “it‟s gonna be a great course. The teacher brought up all
these interesting subjects—and it was only the first day.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

22.    The cocktail Beatrice orders before dinner is watery, so she decides not to eat there after all.
“Don‟t think they can fix decent dinners if they can‟t even make a decent martini,” she mutters.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

23.    Fong notes that the pavement deteriorates as he crosses into the next county. “Guess they
don‟t keep up their roads very well,” he thinks.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

24.    Stortz has heard from his friends that the folks in North Carolina are pretty friendly, so he looks
forward to going through it on his bike trip to Florida.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

25.   Agnes has read that blonde, blue-eyed, fair-skinned people are more likely to develop
problems from overexposure to sun, but she discounts these reports. “After all,” she reasons, “my
uncle Schleef works on a boat and I never heard of him having any problems, even though he‟s
blonde, blue-eyed, and fair.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

26.     Noting that recent scientific research suggests that a daily glass of wine or two might be good
for the heart, Mr. Laub decides to tank up. “Why in hell not,” he says. “If one glass of wine is good for
you, most likely five or six is really good for you.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

27.    “How come the people in these big motor homes always have a couple of midget dogs with
them,” Jasper wonders.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

    28. Parker‟s mimosa tree is getting yellow and dropping leaves. He figures it must be the tiny little
        caterpillars he sees on it, since before he saw them the tree seemed fine.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

29.    Sharon has observed that her teacher sometimes seems to be in a bad mood and speculates
why. “Well,” she thinks, “it seems to happen only when people haven‟t done their assignments. That
must be it.”
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

30.    Studies indicate that older women who attempt weight training seem to be in better shape
physically than those who don‟t. This is a good reason for older women to lift weights.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

31.     Cheryl and her new acquaintance, Ted, have just walked into Target when in comes her
steady boyfriend, Lemmy. “Oh, for crying out loud,” Cheryl thinks. “Why would he come into Target, of
all places? I must be being punished for something I did, and I know what.”
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation

32.    When we make an analogical argument or a generalization, we draw a conclusion
a.     About a sample based on a target
b.     About a target based on a sample
c.     About a property in question based on a target

33.    With the same confidence level, a generalization from a larger sample will have
a.     Less strength
b.     A larger error margin
c.     A smaller error margin
d.    A larger target population

34.   In an inductive generalization, in order to achieve an error margin of plus or minus 3
percentage points at a confidence level of about 95 percent, what‟s the smallest random sample we
can get away with, regardless of the size of the target population?
a.    10 percent of the target population
b.    1,000
c.    100
d.    5,000
e.    500

35.   A sample is random if
a.    It is chosen by a method the investigator does not know anything about.
b.    It is representative.
c.    every member of the target population has an equal chance at being selected for the sample.

36.   The goal of randomness is to
a.    Allow a smaller-than-usual sample
b.    Achieve objectivity
c.    Achieve representativeness
d.    Assign grades in this course

37.   If we want a narrower error margin in a generalization, which of the following will produce it?
a.    Finding a different random selection technique
b.    Decreasing the sample size
c.    Decreasing the confidence level
d.    None of these

38.     The car usually makes it over the hills between here and the lake without any trouble. The only
time it makes any trouble is when we have to pull the boat and trailer; they must make too heavy a
load for the car‟s small engine.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

39.    The only packages that suffered damage during the trip were the ones we packed with
newspaper instead of that Styrofoam packing stuff. I learned a lesson: Make sure you have enough of
the proper packing material.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

40.    Raphael is troubled by the fact that when he purchases new guitar strings, they seem always
to go dead after just a few weeks of use. A friend suggests that he boil the strings in vinegar when
they lose their resonance. Raphael tries it, and the strings sound almost like new again. After a few
weeks, the strings go dead again, and Raphael boils them in vinegar and gets the same results. He
resigns himself to a session with boiling vinegar every few weeks.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

41.    When Halley‟s Comet hovered over Jerusalem in A.D. 66, the historian Josephus warned it
meant the destruction of the city. Jerusalem fell four years later, thus confirming the power of the
comet.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

42.    A terrible squeaking noise from my tape recorder got so bad I couldn‟t stand to listen to my
tapes anymore. I was sure the machine had developed a problem—and just a month after the
warranty expired, too. So I cleaned the heads, the capstan, and all the moving parts, hoping I could
make the noise go away. It remained. Then, just as I had decided I was going to have to take it in for
repairs, I played some tapes belonging to a friend of mine, and the squeak wasn‟t there. So the
problem is with my tapes, not my machine. I‟m not sure I like that any better, since I‟ve got dozens of
them.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

43.    “Being happy and having a positive outlook may help people with heart disease avoid heart
attacks and other health problems. Approximately one in five coronary heart disease patients is
seriously depressed, so be on guard against depression in yourself and your loved ones.”
—Sharon Faelten, Vitality
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

44.    Overheard: “You don‟t think this country is in a slump? Get real. George here was laid off
before Memorial Day, and Howie‟s wife and a whole bunch of other people lost their jobs when the
Safeway over on Jeffrey closed down. These are tough times.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

45.    We‟re gonna have trouble with that new paper boy, Honey. He‟s been late twice already.
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

46.    Remark made while driving on the Pennsylvania Turnpike: “We‟ve seen nine cars with license
plates from west of the Mississippi today, and six of them have been from Texas. Texans must travel
more than other people.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

47.  A reliable statewide study found that one western town (which we won‟t name) had an
unusually high rate of death from cancer. The study, done during the 1970s, showed the cancer
death rate for white females to be 175.4 per 100,000, compared to 154.9 for the state. One resident
dismissed the finding as follows: “Statistics! You can prove anything you want with statistics! There‟s
no more cancer here than anywhere.”
a. Hasty generalization
b. Biased generalization
c. Analogical argument

48.     “After four years as an associate and brokerage manager with the New York life insurance
consulting firm Kramer-Helgans, Sharon Brick noticed that she was being taken more seriously. It
wasn‟t just because she‟d done a great job, says Brick. She had changed her hair color from a dull
brown to a lighter, more flattering sandy blond. Several months later, Brick was offered a partnership
in the firm.”
—Working Woman
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

49.    Since the taxes [on cigarettes] have been going up in Canada, cigarette smoking has been
going down, particularly among the young. The lesson here is plain: The best way to reduce smoking
is simply to raise the price of cigarettes.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

50.     The price of a pack of cigarettes in Norway is $6.95, with taxes making up at least 70 percent
of the total cost. Contrast that to the United States, where a pack sells for about $3.70. That‟s why per
capita consumption here is 2,200, whereas in Norway it is 700.
a. Relevant Difference
b. Common Thread
c. Reverse Causation
d. Post hoc

At the supermarket, Vickie just ran her cart into a display of jars with jams and preserves, and now
the aisle is full of broken glass and jam. She feels like leaving the store as quickly as possible. Is that
an acceptable course of action?

1.       No, it isn‟t, because Vickie couldn‟t imagine such a behavior becoming a universal law,
allowing everybody to run away from his or her responsibility.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

2.       No, it isn‟t, because a person of integrity and moral responsibility wouldn‟t act like that.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

3.       No, it isn‟t, because someone may have seen her knock the display over. If she is caught
leaving, she, as well as the store management, will be embarrassed.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

4.       No, it isn‟t, because she has caused product loss that necessitates more work for the
employee. So the least she can do is report what she has done and pay for damages.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

5.       No, it isn‟t; that would be treating the store employees like stepping-stones, as though they
were put on this earth just to clean up after Vickie.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

Taffy is a university lab chimpanzee; the university has lost its animal research grant and has to
decide what to do with Taffy.

6.       Since Taffy is capable of suffering, it is important that her future be taken into consideration.
She should be placed with people who will care for her.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

7.       Taffy is not a rational being, and the university has no duty to treat her as anything but a mere
means to an end. They can sell her or put her to sleep. If anybody cares enough for her to take care
of her, that will be that person‟s choice.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

8.       If the researchers have the proper compassion for Taffy, they should make certain that she is
placed with people who will care for her.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

9.       It depends on Taffy‟s condition; if she is healthy and can expect a long life, she should be
taken to a place where she can live a full life; if the experiments have impaired her health to the point
where she is suffering and won‟t recover, she should be put to sleep.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

10.      Only human greed and insensitivity have put Taffy in her present situation. We can hope that
by learning about Taffy, people will become more sensitive toward other creatures.
a. Utilitarianism
b. Duty Theory
c. Virtue Theory

11.    Legal reasoning and moral reasoning both lead to prescriptions about whether or not certain
actions should be done.
a. True
b. False

12.     Defenders of the harm principle usually believe that it is only one among several acceptable
justifications for laws forbidding conduct.
a. True
b. False

13.    A law justifiable by legal moralism always prohibits activities that do not harm others.
a. True
b. False

								
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