Autumn Garden Calendar - PDF by xms44578

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									                                                                                General Horticulture • HO-93-W




                              Department of Horticulture


                              Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette, IN



                                   Autumn Garden Calendar
                                                 by B. Rosie Lerner



Timing horticultural events and practices can vary          • Reflower last year’s poinsettias for this year’s
from year to year, depending on weather condi-                holiday by providing complete darkness for 15
tions. The following information is intended as a             hours daily beginning about October 1 until
general guide. Regional differences are noted                 about December 10.
when practical. Adjust activities according to local
weather and site conditions. Be sure to read label       October
directions thoroughly on all products.                      • Pot-up spring-flowering bulbs with tips ex-
                                                              posed, to force into bloom indoors. Moisten
                                                              soil and refrigerate 10 to 13 weeks. Transfer
Indoor Plants and Activities                                  to a cool, sunny location, and allow an addi-
                                                              tional three to four weeks for blooming.
September
                                                             • Water indoor plants less frequently, and
   • Prepare storage areas for overwintering
                                                               discontinue fertilizer as plants slow down or
     tender flower bulbs and garden produce.
                                                               stop growing for the winter season.
    • Thanksgiving (or Christmas) cactus can be
                                                         November
      forced into bloom in time for the holidays.
                                                            • Move plants closer to windows or to sunnier
      Provide 15 hours of complete darkness each
                                                              exposures, such as west and south facing
      day, such as from 5 p.m. to 8 a.m., for
                                                              windows, if plants are dropping many leaves.
      approximately eight weeks. Keep tempera-
                                                              Artificial lights may be needed to supplement
      ture at about 60˚ to 65˚F. Temperatures of
                                                              particularly dark rooms.
      55˚F will cause flower buds to set without the
      dark treatment.
                                                             • Continue dark treatment for poinsettias by
                                                               keeping them in complete darkness from
   • Dig and repot herbs or take cuttings for
                                                               5 p.m. to 8 a.m. until early December, or until
     growing indoors over the winter.
                                                               red bracts begin to show.
   • Store leftover garden seed in a cool, dry
     place. A sealable jar with a layer of silica gel    Woody Ornamental Landscape Plants
     or powdered milk in the bottom works well.            and Tree Fruits
   • Bring houseplants that were moved outside           September
     for the summer back indoors before night                • Fall is a good time to plant many container-
     temperatures drop below 55˚F. Gradually                   grown or balled-and-burlapped nursery stock.
     decrease the amount of light to acclimate the             Prepare a good-sized hole, plant at the same
     plants andhelp reduce leaf drop. Be sure to               depth it grew in the nursery, and water
     control insects and diseases before putting               thoroughly. Mulching will help protect against
     the plants near other houseplants.                        large fluctuations in soil temperature and
                                                               moisture. Be sure to stake or guy-wire tall
                                                               plants to protect them from strong winds.

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General Horticulture • HO-93-W


    • Do not be alarmed if your evergreens, particu-             •    If you are planning to order a “live” Christ-
      larly white pine and arborvitae, drop some of                   mas tree, prepare its planting hole before the
      their older needles. All evergreens shed                        soil freezes. Mulch the area heavily to
      needles at some time, but not all at once as                    prevent freezing, or dig the hole and put the
      deciduous plants do.                                            fill in a protected, nonfreezing area, such as
                                                                      a garage or basement.
    • Harvest apples when flavor is sweet but
      before fruits soften.                                Lawns
    • Harvest pears when the dots on the skin begin
      to turn brown. Pears are best ripened to             September
      yellow off the tree.                                   • To promote the lawn’s recovery from summer
                                                                stress, apply high-nitrogen fertilizer at the rate
    • Clean up fallen fruits, twigs, and leaves around          of 1 pound actual nitrogen per 1,000 square
      apple (including crabapple) and other fruit               feet.
      trees to reduce disease and insect carry-over.
                                                             •       Mow lawn to maintain a 2 to 2 1/2-inch
October                                                              height, removing no more than 1/3 of the
    • Keep plants, especially newly planted stock,                   height of the grass at any one time.
      well-watered until the ground freezes.
                                                             •       Leave clippings on the lawn or add them to
    • Have soil ready for mounding roses for winter                  the compost pile.
      protection. Do not mound or cover the roses
      until after leaves drop and soil is near freezing,     •       Vertical thinning or power raking of the lawn
      usually in late November or early December.                    will help control thatch build-up, if needed.

November                                                     •       Reseed bare spots or new lawns with a good
   • Prevent rabbit and rodent feeding damage                        quality seed mixture.
     by erecting physical barriers, such as metal
     mesh (1/4") hardware cloth. Pull mulch                  •       Early fall is a good time to apply broadleaf
     away from the trunk a few inches because                        weed killers. Be sure to follow all label direc-
     the mulch provides a warm winter home for                       tions, and choose a calm day to prevent spray
     rodents. Chemical repellents are also                           drift.
     available, but their effectiveness is tempo-
     rary and not fool proof.                              October
                                                            • Rake the fallen leaves from lawn, particularly
    • Prevent frost cracking (or sunscald) by                   larger-sized leaves, such as maple and
      wrapping trunks with commercial tree wrap                 sycamore leaves; they can smother the lawn
      or painting the south and southwest facing                as they become wet and mat down. Raking of
      sides of the trunk with white latex outdoor               smaller leaves, such as honeylocust, is
      paint. Young, thin-barked trees such as                   optional.
      maples and many fruit trees are especially
      susceptible.                                         November
                                                            • Late fall fertilizing can help keep the lawn
    • Remove dead, diseased, or damaged                        green longer and boost early spring recovery.
      branches.                                                Although top growth stops when air temper-
                                                               ature drops to 45 to 50˚F, roots remain active
    • Protect the graft union on rose bushes by                as long as soil temperatures remain above
      mounding soil up 12 inches around the                    35-40˚F. Apply 1 pound actual nitrogen per
      plants and adding mulch on top. Wait until               1,000 square feet of lawn.
      after several killing frosts have occurred so
      that plants will be dormant when covered.
      Plants covered too early may be smothered.


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                                                                                      General Horticulture • HO-93-W


Flowers, Vegetables, and Small fruits                          • Cut flowers, such as strawflower, statice, baby’s
                                                                 breath, and celosia for drying; hang upside down
September                                                        in a dry, well-ventilated area.
  • Dig onions and garlic after tops falls
     over naturally and necks begin to dry.                    • Dig and store tender garden flowers for winter
                                                                 storage. Gladiolus corms should be dug when
  • Dig potatoes with a fork or shovel and allow to              leaves begin turning yellow. Caladiums, gerani-
    air dry for a week or two and then store in a                ums, and tuberous begonias should be lifted
    cool (40-45˚F), dark location.                               before killing frost. Dig canna and dahlia roots
                                                                 after a heavy frost. Allow to air dry, then pack in
  • Plant radishes, sets for green onions, lettuce,
                                                                 dry peat moss or vermiculite, and store in a cool
    and spinach for fall harvest.
                                                                 location.
  • Thin fall crops, such as lettuce and carrots, that
                                                               • Harvest grapes, everbearing strawberries, and
    were planted earlier.
                                                                 fall raspberries. For most fruits, flavor is the best
                                                                 indicator of ripeness, although color change can
  • Harvest crops such as tomatoes, peppers,
                                                                 also be a good indicator. However, grapes
    eggplant, melons, and sweet potatoes before
                                                                 change color long before they are fully flavored,
    frost, or cover plants with blankets, newspaper,
                                                                 so sample the fruit to be sure.
    etc. (but not plastic) to protect them from light
    frost.
                                                               •     Remove raspberry canes after they bear fruit.
  • Harvest mature, green tomatoes before frost              October
    and ripen indoors. Individually wrap fruits in              • Harvest root crops and store in a cold (32˚F),
    newspaper, or leave them on the vine, pulling                 humid location. Storing produce in perforated
    the entire plant out of the garden. Store in a                plastic bags is a convenient and easy way to
    cool location, about 55 to 60˚F.                              increase humidity.
  • Harvest winter squash before hard frost. Skin of               • Harvest brussels sprouts as they develop in the
    the squash should be tough with deep, solid                      axils of the leaves from the bottom of the stem.
    color. Some cultivars will show an orange blush                  Brussels sprouts will continue to develop up the
    when mature.                                                     stem.
  • Plant, transplant, or divide peonies, daylilies, iris,         • Harvest pumpkins and winter squash when rind
    and phlox.                                                       is hard and fully colored but before frost. Store
                                                                     in a cool location until ready to use.
  • Save plants such as coleus, wax begonias,
    impatiens, or fuchsia for indoor growing over                  • Harvest gourds when stems begin to brown
    winter. Dig plants, and cut them back about                      and dry. Cure at 70 to 80˚F for two to four
    halfway, or take cuttings of shoot tips, and root                weeks.
    them in moist vermiculite, soil mix, or perlite.
                                                                   • Asparagus top growth should not be removed
  • Watch for garden chrysanthemums to bloom as                      until foliage yellows. Let foliage stand over the
    days grow shorter. Some may already have                         winter to collect snow for insulation and mois-
    bloomed earlier in summer, which will decrease                   ture.
    the number of fall blooms.
                                                                   • Remove plant debris from the garden to protect
  • Plant spring-flowering bulbs beginning in late                   next year’s planting from insect and disease
    September. Planting too early can cause bulbs                    build-up. Compost plant refuse by alternating
    to sprout top growth before winter. However,                     layers of soil, plant material, and manure or
    allow at least four to six weeks before the                      commercial fertilizer.
    ground freezes for good root formation.



Reviewed 4/01                   Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service                             Page 3 of 4
General Horticulture • HO-93-W


   • Carve a Halloween jack-o’-lantern.

   • Complete planting of spring-flowering bulbs.

   • Strawberry plants need protection from winter’s
     extremes, but applying winter mulch too early
     may cause crowns to rot. Wait until later in
     November.

November
   • Have garden soil tested for fertilizer needs
     every three to five years.

   •       Fall tilling, except in erosion-prone areas, helps
           improve soil structure and usually leads to soils
           warming up and drying faster in the spring,
           thus allowing crops to be planted earlier.

   •       Apply winter mulch to strawberries when plants
           are dormant but before temperatures drop
           below 20˚F, usually in late November or early
           December.




                                                                                                          For more information on the subject discussed in this
                                                                                                          publication, consult your local office of the Purdue University
                                                                                                          Cooperative Extension Service.



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