Quotation for completion of DATUM research project by taoyni

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									                  SESA3002 Aerospace Design Module.
1 Outline
The objective of this module is to provide students with experience of designing a large
aerospace product or system.
This document outlines the assignment for this module.
A specific case study has been allocated to each group of students as shown in appendix A and
detailed below. All assessed parts of the assignment are associated with this case study which
forms a common theme throughout the module.
The case study is deliberately open-ended and requires students to make a certain number of
sensible assumptions.

2 Module Team
This module has been developed and will be delivered by three academics, Simon Newman,
Kenji Takeda and Jim Scanlan, in conjunction with the research fellows listed in the consultant
section below.
Simon Newman will be giving the initial design lectures, providing a design handbook and
assisting in the assessment of the case study presentations.
Kenji Takeda will be giving advice and help on creating flight simulation models and
conducting flight tests. He will also assist in assessing the presentations.
Jim Scanlan is the module leader and he will be running the individual assignment, assessing
the presentations and he provides overall coordination of the module.

3 Consultants
A number of Research Fellows will assist and provide advice on the group design work. They
will be available at each of the two tutorial slots per week. It is important that you make use of
these people as they have a considerable amount of expertise in each of the design disciplines.
Each Research Fellow has experience in disciplines as follows;

Powerplant and systems                Wenbin Song
Aerodynamics                          Alex Forrester
Integration/ Optimisation             Hakki Eres
Whole aircraft design                 Andras Sobester

The consultants will monitor attendance at each of the two meeting slots per week..
You will be required to explain any absence from the tutorials both to the consultants and your
fellow team members.

4 Industrial Input
The assignment has been put together by Airbus specifically for this module.


 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment           Page 1                                  JP Scanlan
We plan to organise a number of lectures to be given by design experts from Industry. More
details on these will be given nearer the time. Industrialists will also be involved in the
assessment of the module.

5 Structure of assignment
The assignment will be made up of a number of parts as shown below. These are explained in
more detail in the subsequent sections of this document.

   1)   Individual assignment (15%)
   2)   Flight testing (20%)
   3)   Final group design review (25%)
   4)   Written group design report (40%)

The mark allocation for each part is indicated in parentheses.

6 Teams
Apart from the individual part of the assignment you will be operating in teams to undertake
the case study.
The composition of teams has been carried out randomly.
It is expected that all team members will contribute equally to this case study.
There are some excellent resources on teams to be found at

http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/teams/student/index.html

http://www.enme.umd.edu/labs/BESTEAMS/btmodule.html

These sites cover such issues such as how to;
    allocate roles
    organise meetings
    conduct meetings
    deal with conflict
    deal with unproductive behaviour


7 Peer Review
Because it is important that all team members contribute equally to group-work we will be
employing a system of peer-review towards the end of the module. You will have an
opportunity to reflect upon and document the contribution of each of the other members of
your team. The peer reviews will be analysed by the module team. If there is strong evidence
that a team member has not made an adequate contribution then the mark allocation will be
amended accordingly.

8 Organisation and expected effort
For the teamwork part of the assignment it is important that you get organised, meet regularly
and document meetings/decisions/issues.
As this is a 20 credit module you are required to put in approximately 200 hours of effort. The
module is timetabled over 15 weeks and therefore you should expect to devote over 13 hours



 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment            Page 2                               JP Scanlan
per week to this work. Subtracting the time scheduled for tutorials/lectures this means you
should be spending something over 10 hours of your own time on this module per week.

9 Management
How you manage yourselves within the team is up to you (but see section 6). The appointment
of a leader by the module team has been deliberately avoided. You may wish to appoint a team
leader either by voting /discussion/consensus at your first team meeting. This role could be
rotated to balance the load.
Alternatively you may choose to allocate fixed management roles amongst the team including
perhaps;
     Chairing of meetings (rotating responsibility)
     Generating and updating Gantt chart of activities/ responsibilities
     Documenting/recording meetings and actions
     Data handling/ setting up sussed and shared data
     Setting up and managing web-site
     Compiling and organising presentation
     Compiling and organising final written report
     Change management
A shared network drive will be made available for each team for the purpose or sharing and
exchanging data. Alternatively students can use the new ISS SUSSED facility to set up student
groups for exchanging and managing data.

10 Technical Roles
Each of the sub-groups will have responsibility for certain aspects of the design task.
Although these are outlined below there will be a need for flexibility and cooperation within
the team in order to balance workload and cater for tasks that might be missing from the list.
This list is intended as a general guide only and is not intended to be too strictly adhered to.
Examples of technical tasks include;

      Kinematic simulation (high lift device/ undercarriage?)
      Total Drag Estimation
      Lift estimation (+ high lift device design)
      Structural design (in depth study of key structure; winglet?)
      Cabin fuselage layout and dimensions
      Overall aircraft weight estimate
      Systems, selection, location and mass (powerplant, fuel, control, avionics etc)
      Optimisation (identification of design variables and experimentation/ sensitivity
       analysis)
      Cost estimation (acquisition and DOC)
      Performance/payload-range/certification calculations
      Flight simulation
      Whole aircraft geometry parameterisation creation/ data management
      Control/ handling/ stability calculations




 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment           Page 3                                  JP Scanlan
11 Reference material
11.1 Website
A substantial set of reference documents can be found through the Southampton University
website at http://www.soton.ac.uk/~jps7/Aircraft%20Design%20Resources/
Additionally Simon Newman has produced a web-site for the module at
http://www.aero.ses.soton.ac.uk/courses/AA301/restricted/index.htm

12 Certification
All the case studies are concerned with the design of passenger aircraft and therefore have to
conform to the certification regulations outlined in JAR part 25. A copy of this is available on
the design resources web-site (but be warned this is a very large file!). Additionally an
industrial speaker from EASA (what was the CAA) will cover certification issues.

13 Individual assignment deliverables (Deadline Friday 3rd
   November 2006).
The objective of this assignment is to;
    Provide the ground-work for the planning the teams need to undertake.
    Provide a good overview of the whole case-study design task and to ensure all team
       members have an understanding of dependencies.

The key deliverable is a workflow diagram showing dependencies between activities.
A dependency network is a diagram showing logical interactions between activities.
A detailed briefing on this will be given in the lecture.

14 Interim group design review
This will take place during early December. Although this will not be a formal presentation
you will nevertheless be required to clearly communicate the current status of your design
project. You will not be assessed on this. This review will cover;
     How you are organised
     Progress
     Plans/activities/milestones for next period
     Design rationale
     Initial estimates
     Major issues/uncertainties/difficulties

15 Flight Testing
Use will be made of the Flight Simulator lab in Tizard to “test-fly” your designs. The flight test
will take place in February and will be conducted by a nominated test pilot who will generally
assess the flight envelope and evaluate take-off, landing and handling performance. More
details on this will be given nearer the time.

15.1 Simulation
Use will be made of Microsoft FS 2004. A number of free downloads are available to allow
users to develop accurate and realistic aircraft models. Some assistance and advice will be
given to each team in the development of flight simulation models. One copy of FS2004 will
be made available to each team and scheduled slots will be booked for each group on the flight


 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment           Page 4                                  JP Scanlan
simulator facilities in Tizard. This will allow teams to test fly their aircraft prior to the assessed
flight test.

15.1.1          FSEdit
The most important FS2004 aircraft definition tool is FSEdit. This allows the aircraft
characteristics to be altered through the Flight Dynamics Editor. This provides a graphical GUI
to the data-file that drives FS2004. The key aircraft variables are given in Appendix A.
Defining this list for your aircraft is a key deliverable for your project.

15.1.2          GMAX
The geometry and appearance of your aircraft can be manipulated by using the GMAX graphic
editor. Again this is a free download.
SolidWorks files can be imported using into GMAX using 3Dstudio max software that will be
made available.
The generation of a complete aircraft from scratch is a complex and time-consuming task. It is
better to download the GMAX source files for a similar existing design and edit the appearance
of this base aircraft.
GMAX allows a series of texture files to be generated which are applied to the various surfaces
of the aircraft to provide the desired appearance. These texture files can be generated from
simple 2D graphics editors as bitmap (.BMP) files.

15.1.3          MakeMDL
MakeMDL (MakeMDL.exe) is a program that converts the 3-D models you create with
modeling tools, such as GMAX, into aircraft objects that can be used by Microsoft Flight
Simulator 2004. The screenshot below illustrates the key inputs to the tool.
This is another free download that has extensive help facilities and user documentation.




16 Final Group Design Review
This will take place towards the end of February. This will be a formal presentation of your
design. All members of the team will need to contribute to this. Further details on this
presentation will be given nearer to the time. You will also be required to hand in a report
detailing your work which will be assessed separately as detailed in section 5.




 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment             Page 5                                   JP Scanlan
16.1 Death by powerpoint
It is important that your final presentation is concise and informative (see excellent article
PowerPoint: Killer App? By Ruth Marcus, Washington post
(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-yn/content/article/2005/08/29/AR2005082901444.html
)).
Please avoid the following typical student mistakes
      Having too many slides
      Stating the obvious and repeating the case study back to the audience who are well
        aware of the details of this
      Wasting time with introductions
      Putting too much effort into graphics and superficial aspects of the presentation
      Over-running on time and failing to rehearse
      Failing to present important detail (assumptions, basis for calculations/results)
      Font/detail that is impossible to read (too small, bad choice of backgrounds etc).
      Using /reading text from crib cards. Although this is often taught as good presentation
        practice PowerPoint and slide animation should make this unnecessary.
      Simply reading text from the screen. The text should be a succinct reminder for each
        point that the presenter wants to make.
      Failing to anticipate questions from audience
      Failing to set-up properly, fumbling for the mouse, Ctrl F7 etc.
      Putting in slides with no content or message but that look “pretty”
      Failing to have a conclusion

17 Schedule
The outline schedule is given below. More details concerning timing, venue and format for the
presentations will follow.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         week10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            week11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              week12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 week13

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   week14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     week15

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        week16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           week17

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              week18

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 week19
                                  week1

                                                    week2

                                                                      week3

                                                                                        week4

                                                                                                          week5

                                                                                                                             week6

                                                                                                                                                week7

                                                                                                                                                                   week8

                                                                                                                                                                                      week9
                                                                                                          06 November 2005

                                                                                                                             13 November 2005

                                                                                                                                                20 November 2005

                                                                                                                                                                   27 November 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                      04 December 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                         11 December 2005




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     06 February 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 February 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           20 February 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              27 February 2006
                                  09 October 2005

                                                    16 October 2005

                                                                      23 October 2005

                                                                                        30 October 2005




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            09 January 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 January 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 23 January 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   30 January 2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 06 March 2006

        Week commencing
  Introduction and objectives
  Background lectures
  Individual case study
  Group case study
  Interim Group Design reviews
  CAA guest lecture
  Airbus future projects guest lecture
  Rolls Royce Guest lecture
  Test pilot guest lecture
  Airbus Airline economics guest lecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exams
  Continuation of group case study
  Simulator testing by teams
  Assessed flight trials by "Test pilot"
  Group presentations
  Feedback and review




 SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                                                                                                            Page 6                                                                                                                                                                                     JP Scanlan
                                                                                                        Appendix A
Flight Dynamic Editor (FDE)
In order to edit a Microsoft aircraft, you must first make a copy of the aircraft by selecting the Microsoft original aircraft
and selecting Save Copy As… from the File menu. The application will then open the copied aircraft automatically. By
clicking on the title of the aircraft, you go to the aircraft information screen. This allows you to edit the various information
fields for the aircraft.

You may also create your own airplane from scratch, using templates supplied as starting points for your new airplane.
Choose New from the drop down file list, and then select your template. From there, you’re ready to get started!

Fields on this dialog are:

Title:
This field allows you to set a specific name for the copied aircraft, this is the field used by Flight Simulator to set the
aircraft in flight files, and should be different for each aircraft in your Flight Simulator aircraft directory.

Manufacture: Type: and Variation:
Flight simulator sorts aircraft by these fields. (For example, Boeing/737-300/American Pacific Airways.)

Description
Performance Specs:

These are text fields that appear on the select aircraft dialog.

The Flight Dynamic Editor
After opening and copying an aircraft, select Flight Dynamics in the left panel to open the editor.

This will open a dialog with several tabs. These tabs are propagated according to the type of aircraft selected.
The following Tabs are the same across all aircraft types (with the exception of the helicopter which is a special case):
Configuration:
Controls:
Flaps:
Weight and Balance:
Gear:
Tuning:
Note: Aircraft other than gliders will also have a Fuel tab and tabs based on engine type.

Turbo-prop engine:
Piston Engine:
Jet Engine:
Note: Only the tab appropriate for the type of aircraft will be used, i.e., a piston engine aircraft will not have a jet engine
tab.

For Piston engine and turbo-prop aircraft, the Propeller tab will also be used.
Because of this design, if you wish to create a custom aircraft, you should start with an aircraft of the same engine type.
For instance, if you wish to create a piston aircraft, start with a piston. Don't worry, you can modify the aircraft parameters
to your heart’s content to create exactly the piston aircraft you desire.

Tab descriptions

Configuration
This tab defines the geometry of the aircraft. This is where you set the fields that will define the basic aerodynamics of the
aircraft. There are three sections to this tab.


Reference Datum
The offset, measured of feet, of the flight dynamics reference datum from the center of the visual model. The Flight
Simulator center point is typically on the center line of the visual model, ¼ chord aft of the leading edge of the wing root.




           SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                     Page 7                                           JP Scanlan
By setting the Reference Datum Position equal to that given in a reference, aircraft loading data can be input directly from
that reference without any need for conversion. If not specified, the default is origin of the visual model.

Longitudinal Position from Visual Model Origin: Longitudinal offset, measured in feet.
Lateral Position from Visual Model Origin: Lateral offset, measured in feet.
Vertical Position from Visual Model Origin: Vertical offset, measured in feet.

Wing Geometry
Wing Area: The surface area of the top of the wings in square feet.
Wing Span: The wing-tip to wing-tip measurement of the aircraft in feet.
Root Chord: The width of the wing in feet, measured from the leading edge to the trailing edge, where the wing meets the
fuselage.
LE Sweep: (Leading Edge Sweep.) The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the wing sweeps from the lateral axis of
the aircraft measured along the longitudinal axis. A positive angle indicates an aft sweep.
Dihedral: The angle at which the wings tilt up when viewed from the front of the airplane. More specifically, the angle in
degrees that the wing angles up from the lateral axis of the aircraft measured along the vertical axis, placing the tip of the
wing higher or lower than the root of the wing. Positive dihedral angles the wing up, a negative dihedral (called anhedral)
angles the wing down. Dihedral is added to the aircraft to increase the lateral-directional (Roll and Yaw) stability.
Incidence: The angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage as viewed from the side of the airplane. More
specifically, the angle in degrees that the leading edge of the wings angles away from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft,
measured along the vertical axis. A positive number indicates an upward angle.
Twist: The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the wing twists along the lateral axis of the aircraft, measured along
the vertical axis, placing the tip of the leading edge at a higher or lower angle than the root of the leading edge. A negative
number indicates the incidence angle at the tip of the wing is lower than the incidence angle at the root. Wings are twisted
in this fashion to ensure that the wing stalls first near the fuselage.
Oswald Efficiency Factor: The overall efficiency of the wing. A higher number indicates a more efficient wing. This
number should always be between 0.0 and 1.0 (Theoretical maximum efficiency).
Wing Apex Longitudinal Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the wings along the
longitudinal axis, measured from the reference datum, positive forward.
Wing Apex Vertical Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the wing along the
vertical axis, measured from the reference datum, positive forward.
Winglets checkbox: Winglets are used to increase the wings efficiency.

Tail Geometry
Horizontal Tail/Canard
Area: The surface area of the H-Tail/Canard in square feet.
Span: The tip to tip measurement of the H-Tail/Canard in feet.
Sweep: The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the H-Tail/Canard sweeps from the lateral axis of the aircraft
measured along the longitudinal axis. A positive angle indicates an aft sweep.
Incidence: The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the H-Tail/Canard angles away from the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft, measured along the vertical axis. A positive number indicates an upward angle.

HTail/Canard Apex Longitudinal Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the H-
Tail/Canard along the longitudinal axis, measured from the reference datum, positive forward.
HTail/Canard Apex Vertical Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the H-
Tail/Canard along the vertical axis, measured from the reference datum, positive up.


Vertical Tail
Area: The surface area of the Vertical Tail in square feet.
Span: The length of the Vertical Tail in feet, measured from the top of the tail to the bottom of the fuselage.
Sweep: The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the Vertical Tail sweeps from the vertical axis of the aircraft
measured along the longitudinal axis. A positive angle indicates an aft sweep.
Incidence: The angle in degrees that the leading edge of the Vertical Tail angles away from the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft, measured along the vertical axis. A positive number indicates an upward angle

HTail/Canard Apex Longitudinal Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the Vertical
Tail along the longitudinal axis, measured from the reference datum, positive forward.
HTail/Canard Apex Vertical Position, from Reference Datum: The position, in feet, of the leading edge of the Vertical Tail
along the vertical axis, measured from the reference datum, positive up.



           SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                    Page 8                                          JP Scanlan
Controls Tab
This tab defines the control surfaces of the aircraft; there are four sections to this tab:
Elevator:
Area: This defines the surface area of the top of the elevator in square feet.
Up Deflection limit: The maximum angle the elevator will deflect upward with full control movement.
Down Deflection Limit: The maximum angle the elevator will deflect downward with full control movement.
Trim Deflection Limit: The maximum angle the elevator trim will deflect up and down with full trim movement.

Aileron:
Area: This defines the surface area of the top of all ailerons in square feet.
Up deflection limit: The maximum angle the aileron will deflect upward with full control movement.
Down Deflection Limit: The maximum angle the aileron will deflect downward with full control movement.

Rudder:
Area: This defines the surface area of one side of the rudder in square feet.
Deflection Limit: The maximum angle in degrees that the rudder will deflect left and right with full control movement.

Spoiler:
Deflection Limit: The maximum angle in degrees that the spoilers will deflect with full control movement.
Spoilerons Available: Check this box to indicate that the spoilers are used asymmetrically with the ailerons for roll control.

Flaps Tab

This Tab defines the number and type of flaps on the aircraft.
Add Flaps button: Use the button to add an additional flap set.
Delete Flaps Button: Use this Button to delete an existing flap set.
Flap Set Selector: Click in this box to select the flap set you want to edit.

Flap Set Editor

Flap Type: Use this to choose between leading edge flaps or trailing edge flaps.
Flap System Type: This is used to define the system that drives the flaps. Choices are Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic or
Manual.
Span, Percent: The percentage of the wing span taken up by the flaps.
Extension Time, Seconds: The time, in seconds, that it takes the flaps to go from full up to full down.
Damaging Speed, KIAS: The indicated airspeed at which the flaps begin to receive damage. With this value set to 0 flaps
can not be damaged

Blowout Speed, KIAS: The indicated airspeed at which the flaps become totally broken. With this value set to 0 flaps can
not be damaged
Lift Scalar: This value is used to increase or decrease the amount of lift generated by flap deployment. This value is a
multiplier on lift parameter of the flaps. For example, setting this to 1.1 will increase the total lift of the flaps by 10% and
decreasing this value to .90 will decrease the total lift of the flaps to 90%. Default value is 1.

Drag Scalar: This value is used to increase or decrease the amount of drag generated by flap deployment. This value is a
multiplier on drag parameter of the flaps. For example, setting this to 1.1 will increase the total drag of the flaps by 10%
and decreasing this value to .90 will decrease the total drag of the flaps by 10%. Default value is 1.
Pitch Scalar: This value will adjust the tendency of the aircraft to pitch with flap deployment. Increasing this number will
cause a greater pitching moment. For example, setting this to 1.1 will increase the pitching moment by 10% and decreasing
this value to .90 will decrease the pitching moment by 10%.

Flap Handle Index to Deflection Mapping: This will set the flap angle in degrees according to the position of the flap
handle. I.E. The Cessna 172 has four handle positions, up (0), 10deg (1), 20deg (2), and 30deg (3).

Design Cruse Speed: This is the cruise speed at normal power setting. These settings are usually found in the aircraft
handbook.

Flaps Up Stall Speed: The speed, in knots, at which the aircraft will stall in level flight with the flaps in the full UP
position.



            SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                     Page 9                                          JP Scanlan
Flaps Down Stall Speed: The speed, in knots, at which the aircraft will stall in level flight with the flaps in the full DOWN
position.

Weight and Balance

This tab defines the weight of the aircraft when empty, and the weights and position of the various load outs available for
the aircraft. There are four sections to this tab:

Maximum Design Gross Weight: The maximum take off weight, in pounds, for the aircraft.
Empty Weight: This defines the weight of the aircraft without fuel, payload or pilot.
Empty Weight Longitudinal Position from Reference Datum: The longitudinal offset of the center of gravity from the
reference datum in feet, positive forward.

Empty Weight Lateral Position from Reference Datum: The lateral offset of the center of gravity from the reference datum
in feet, positive starboard.
Empty Weight Vertical Position from Reference Datum: The vertical offset of the center of gravity from the reference
datum in feet, positive up
Payload Weight:
Add Station Load Button: Use this button to add a payload station
Delete Station Load Button: Use this button to delete an existing payload station.

Station Selector: Click in this box to select the payload station you want to edit.

Position, Feet from Reference Datum

Weight: The amount of weight in pounds located at this station.
Longitudinal: The longitudinal offset of the station from the reference datum in feet, positive forward.
Lateral: The lateral offset of the station from the reference datum in feet, positive starboard.
Vertical: The vertical offset of the station from the reference datum in feet, positive up.

Moments of Inertia: A moment of Inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution about the axis of an aircraft. A Moment of
Inertia for a particular axis is increased as mass is increased and/or as the given mass is distributed farther from the axis.
This is largely what determines the inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

The following parameters define the MOIs of the empty aircraft. The units are slug - ft^2.
Empty Weight Pitch MOI: The moment of inertia about the lateral Axis
Empty Weight Roll MOI: The moment of inertia about the longitudinal Axis
Empty Weight Yaw MOI: The moment of inertia about the vertical Axis
Empty Weight coupled MOI: The cross product of the Pitch and Roll MOI. Used mainly for asymmetrical aircraft.
Note: The suggested MOI values are given for your reference, but may be significantly different than those suggested for
your aircraft. It is up to you to decide what the MOIs should be.

Gear
This tab defines the gear and scrape point type and positions for the aircraft.
Add Point: Use this button to add a contact point
Delete Point: Use this button to delete an existing contact point.
Point Selector: Click in this box to select the contact you want to edit.

Gear/Scrape Point Editor
Point Class: This defines the type of contact point; Wheel, Scrape, Skid, Float or Water Rudder.
Brake Map: Assign left or right breaks to the contact point if it is of type Wheel.
Sound Type: Assign the type of contact sound associated with this contact point.

Position, Feet from Reference Datum
Longitudinal: The longitudinal offset of the contact point from the reference datum in feet, positive forward.
Lateral: The lateral offset of the contact point from the reference datum in feet, positive starboard.
Vertical: The vertical offset of the contact point from the reference datum in feet, positive up.
Damage Threshold, FPM: The rate, in feet per minute, at which the contact point can sustain an impact without damage.




          SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                    Page 10                                           JP Scanlan
Wheel Radius, Feet: The radius of the wheel, in feet, at this contact point. If the point is defined as anything other than a
wheel, this data is ignored.

Steer Angle, Degrees: The maximum angle, in degrees, that the wheel can be pivoted. If the point is defined as anything
other than a wheel, this data is ignored.
Static Compression, Feet: The amount the gears strut is compressed when at rest, in feet. This term defines the strength of
the strut. A smaller number will increase the stiffness of the strut.
Max/static Compression Ratio: Used primarily for landing gear strut animation to determine the relative amount that the
strut compresses.

Damping Ratio: Used to determine how strut forces are damped. A value of 1 would be critically damped, while a value of
0 would be completely undamped.
Extension Time, Seconds: The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully extend under normal conditions. Use 0
(zero) for non-retractable gear.
Retraction Time, Seconds: The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully retract under normal conditions. Use 0
(zero) for non-retractable gear.

Static Pitch Angle
Static CG Height Above Ground, Feet:
The height and pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the surface. The program uses these values when placing the aircraft on
the ground at startup, when slewing, and any other time the simulation is not determining aircraft position.

Tuning
(See the Flight Simulator 2004 SDK.)

Fuel
This tab defines the number, position and capacity of the fuel tanks for the aircraft. A total of eleven fuel tanks can be
edited via the FDE. Fuel tank positions that are all zeros are ignored.
Fuel system: (all positions are relative to the reference datum)
Longitudinal Position, Positive Forward: The longitudinal offset of the fuel tank from the reference datum in feet, positive
forward.
Lateral Position, Positive Starboard: The lateral offset of the fuel tank from the reference datum in feet, positive starboard.

Vertical Position, Positive Up: The vertical offset of the fuel tank from the reference datum in feet, positive up.
Total Capacity, Gallons: The total fuel capacity for this tank
Unused Capacity, Gallons: The amount of fuel that remains in the tank after all usable is expended.

Jet Engine
This tab defines the characteristics and placement of the jet engines. Up to four engines can be added to the aircraft. There
are two areas within this tab:

Jet/Turbine Engine Properties:
Static Thrust: The amount of thrust generated at full power.
Inlet Area: Area at the front of the engine that gathers air, measured in square footage.
Rated N2 RPM: The maximum rotation speed of the high pressure turbine at full power.
Fuel Flow Scalar: This value is used to increase or decrease the fuel efficiency for the engine. This value is a multiplier on
the fuel flow efficiency calculated by Flight Simulator. For example, setting this to 1.1 will decrease the fuel efficiency by
10% and decreasing this value to .90 will increase fuel efficiency by 10%.

After Available check box: Check this box to add Afterburners (reheat) to the engines.
Thrust Reversers: Check this box to add Thrust Reversers to the engines.

Engine Position:
Position relative to Reference Datum:
Longitudinal Position, Positive Forward: The longitudinal offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive
forward.
Lateral Position, Positive Starboard: The lateral offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive starboard.
Vertical Position, Positive Up: The vertical offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive up.
Turbo-Prop Engine




          SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                    Page 11                                           JP Scanlan
This tab defines the characteristics and placement of the Turbo-Prop engines. Up to four engines can be added to the
aircraft. There are three areas within this tab:
Turbo-Prop Properties:
Maximum Torque: The maximum amount of torque (a twisting force) available from the engine that can be applied to the
propeller, in Foot pounds.

Turbine Properties:
Static Thrust: The amount of thrust generated from the turbine exhaust at full power.
Inlet Area: Area at the front of the engine that gathers air, measured in square footage.

Rated N2 RPM: The maximum rotation speed of the high pressure turbine at full power.
Fuel Flow Scalar: This value is used to increase or decrease the fuel efficiency for the engine. This value is a multiplier on
the fuel efficiency calculated by Flight Simulator. For example, setting this to 1.1 will decrease the fuel efficiency by 10%
and decreasing this value to .90 will increase fuel efficiency by 10%.

Engine Position:
Position relative to Reference Datum:
Longitudinal Position, Positive Forward: The longitudinal offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive
forward.
Lateral Position, Positive Starboard: The lateral offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive starboard.
Vertical Position, Positive Up: The vertical offset of the engine from the reference datum in feet, positive up.

Propeller
This tab defines the characteristics of the propellers for the aircraft. There are three areas within this tab:
Propeller Properties:
Propeller diameter: The tip to tip measurement of the propeller, in feet.
Number of Blades: The number of blades on the propeller.
Propeller MOI: A moment of Inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution of the propeller as it rotates around the propeller
shaft. This effects the time it takes the propeller to start and stop spinning, as well as the power required to spin it.

Max Pitch Angle: The maximum pitch angle the propellers blades can be set at. More specifically, the angle at which the
propellers leading edge differs from the lateral axis measured along the longitudinal axis. This value can only be set with a
constant-speed prop.
Min Pitch Angle: The minimum pitch angle the propellers blades can be set at. More specifically, the angle at which the
propellers leading edge differs from the lateral axis measured along the longitudinal axis. This value can only be set with a
constant-speed prop.

Fixed Pitch Angle: the ground set angle of the propeller blades, used for fixed pitch propellers. More specifically, the angle
at which the propellers leading edge differs from the lateral axis measured along the longitudinal axis. This value can only
be set with a fixed-pitch prop.
Propeller type: Chose between fixed pitch, and constant speed propeller. Min Governed RPM: The RPM of the propeller
when the engine is at idle.
Max Governed RPM: The Maximum RPM of the propeller when the engine is at full power.

Gear Reduction Ratio: mechanical linkage that reduces the engine RPM to the Propeller.
Prop Sync Available check box: Check this box to select propeller synchronization for multiple engine aircraft.
Prop De-Ice Available check box: Check this box to select propeller de-icing system.

Feathering Properties:
Prop Feathering Available check box: Check this box to enable propeller feathering. Feathering a propeller is used to
decrease the drag from a non-functional engine. When the propeller is feathered the angle of the blades is increased so as to
present a smaller cross-section to the relative wind.

Prop Auto-feathering Available check box: Check this box to enable Automatic feathering of the propellers when an
engine is non-functional.
Feathered Pitch Angle: The angle of the propellers when set to feather.
Min RPM for Feathering: The minimum propeller RPM necessary for propeller feathering. If RPM is below this number,
propeller feathering will be non-functional.
Reversing Properties:
Prop Reverse Available check box: Check this box to enable Propeller reverse.



          SESA3002 Aircraft Design Assignment                   Page 12                                           JP Scanlan

								
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