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WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES Dav by fjzhangweiqun

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									       WALKING AND WORKING
                  SURFACES
                                     Subpart D – 1910.22




David W. Bogart Associates, Inc.
Eugene, OR 97404
dwbogart@dwbogart.com

                                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Walking and Working
Surfaces

          • Examples of working surfaces
                 –   Floors
                 –   Ladders
                 –   Scaffolds
                 –   Platforms
                 –   Scissor Lifts

          • Which actions lead to injuries

 David W. Bogart Associates                                               2
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Facts on Injuries From
Walking & Working Surfaces

     • 235 people die every week in the U.S. due to slips,
       trips or falls in construction sites, homes or in the
       workplace
     • 12,220 deaths per year
     • 10.6% of all worker fatalities in 1991
     • All slips and falls are:
                     P-R-E-V-E-N-T-A-B-L-E


  David W. Bogart Associates                                               3
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Elevated Working Surfaces

      • What is an elevated working surface?
      • 6900 falls from elevated working
        surfaces
             – 35% of all falls from elevated working
               surfaces - Average medical cost is
               $7,161




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               4
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
                             Stairs….



              3,800 falls linked to stairs




David W. Bogart Associates                                               5
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Falls From The Same Level

   • How and where do falls occur?
   • 65% of all falls are from the same level -
     Average medical cost is $4,160
   • 2% of these cases cost over $75,000




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               6
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
What Age Groups are Most Often
 Injured From Slips and Falls?




David W. Bogart Associates                                               7
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Types of Injuries


            Over 1 million sprains and contusions to
            lower body




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               8
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Control Measures

 • Control
        – Housekeeping, clean and safe
 • Audit Janitorial Process
        – Floor Finishing
        – Wet/Dry
 • Project Safety Review
 • Visual recognition change in co-efficient of
   friction

 David W. Bogart Associates                                               9
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Management Tips

Prevention/Source Reductions:

• Put on your doggie cam and see the world from 12
  inches above the floor
• Pay special attention to transition areas
• Up to down steps
• Inside to out (wet)
• Surface changes - Smooth to rough?


David W. Bogart Associates                                               10
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
More Tips....

• Avoid “Jerry-Rigging”
     – Homemade stairs, railings, dockboards, etc.
     – Deterioration over time

• Buy, use, and maintain the right equipment
     – Ladders with specified working loads
     – Working around electricity
     – Mobile scaffolding with rails/stairs instead of 2
       stepladders with a board


 David W. Bogart Associates                                               11
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Finally...

• Delegate responsibility for floor
  watch/maintenance
    – Wet surfaces, debris, spills, cleaning, repairs
    – Make it EVERYONE’S responsibility!




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               12
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
What the Codes Say...

 • Railings and Guards (1910.23)
      – Toeboards - bottom portion of railings must be no more
        than 1/4” clearance from floor

 • Wall openings (1910.23)
      – Compromises fire wall

 • Stairs (1910.24)
      – 4 or more risers must have railings
  David W. Bogart Associates                                               13
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Ladders


     There are three types of ladders:

                        •     Step
                        •     Extension
                        •     Fixed




 David W. Bogart Associates                                                 14
 Eugene, OR                     Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               15
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Codes...

         • Ladders (1910.25 - 27)
               – Metal - Electrocution hazard...
                 use fiberglass or wood
               – Smooth surface...tie down even
                 if ladder has “feet”
               – Always determine materials integrity to the
                  environment/climatic conditions it may be exposed
                  to


  David W. Bogart Associates                                               16
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Codes...

 • Aisles (1910.22)
      – Not required in offices
      – Required for forklift and loading areas
      – Other areas

 • Covers and Guardrails (1910.23)
      – 50% of fatal falls from heights of less than 10 feet
      – Gravity flips you on your head - WHY?



 David W. Bogart Associates                                               17
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               18
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Codes...


  • Floor Loading Protection (1910.22)
         – Visual box on ceiling - floor overload
         – Don’t turn stand-alone roofs into storage areas
           (bathrooms)




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               19
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Codes...

  • Dockboard / Bridgeplates (1910.30)
         – Strong enough to carry load
         – Portable dockboards secured in position
           anchored/equipped with anti-slip devices
         – Handholds/other means for portables
         – Positive protection/prevent trailer movement while
           dockboards / bridgeplates are in position




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               20
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               21
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               22
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Most Cited Violations
 • Open Sided floors 23(c)(1)
        – 4 ft above ground requires railings

 • Housekeeping/Wet floors 22(a)(1) & 22 (a) (2)
        – Easily Seen
        – Wet process requires floor drains
        – Indication to OSHA that there may be other violations

 • Stair Rails 24 (h)
        – Open sides of stairways and platforms

 David W. Bogart Associates                                               23
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffolding Types


       • Rolling
       • Pipe
       • Wood Pole




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               24
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               25
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
General Requirements for
Scaffolds

  •    General Requirements in 1910.28
  •    Requires a good knowledge of the regulations
  •    Guard rails are required for all scaffolds
  •    Construction will determine the strength of the
       scaffold




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               26
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
David W. Bogart Associates                                               27
Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Stairways and Ladders




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               28
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Hazards

• Stairways and ladders cause
  many injuries and fatalities
  among construction workers
• About half the injuries caused by
  slips, trips and falls from ladders
  and stairways require time off the
  job
                                                                   Improper use of the top
                                                                   rung of a step ladder
 David W. Bogart Associates                                                             29
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Slips, Trips and Falls
On Stairways and Ladders
  At the end of this training, you should be able to list or
  describe:

  • Safety guidelines and requirements for stairways
     used at a construction site

  • Safe practices and requirements for ladders
     used at a construction site


  David W. Bogart Associates                                               30
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Stairway or Ladder

Must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where
there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more.

At least one point of access must be kept clear.
                                                               Break in elevation



                                                            19 inches




  David W. Bogart Associates                                                        31
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Handrail vs. Stairrail

                              Stairrail              Handrail
                              System




 David W. Bogart Associates                                                  32
 Eugene, OR                      Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Handrail and Top Rail
Strength

                                        Rails must be able to
                                        withstand a force of 200
                                        pounds




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               33
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Handrails

Stairways with four or
more risers, or higher
than 30 inches, must
be equipped with at
least one handrail.


                               The stairway to this platform has more than 4 risers
                               and is not guarded. The platform requires guarding.
  David W. Bogart Associates                                                          34
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Stair Rails


Stairways with four or
more risers or more
than 30 inches high
must have a stairrail
along each unprotected
side or edge.



  David W. Bogart Associates                                               35
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
 Stairs


Install between 30
and 50 degrees.

Must have uniform
riser height and tread
depth, with less than
                                                       No more than 1/4 inch
a 1/4-inch variation.                             variation in any stairway system


   David W. Bogart Associates                                                        36
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Platforms and Swing Doors


Where doors or gates open
directly on a stairway,
provide a platform that
extends at least 20 inches
beyond the swing of the
door.



  David W. Bogart Associates                                               37
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
General Ladder
Requirements
  Ladders must be kept in a safe
  condition
             -- DO –
  •Keep the area around the top and bottom
  of a ladder clear
  •Ensure rungs, cleats, and steps are level
  and uniformly spaced
  •Ensure rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches
  apart
  •Keep ladders free from slipping hazards
 David W. Bogart Associates                                               38
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
General Ladder
Requirements
 Use ladders only for their designed
 purpose
              -- DON’T –
 •Tie ladders together to make longer
 sections, unless designed for such use
 •Use single rail ladders
 •Load ladders beyond the maximum load
 for which they were built, nor beyond the
 manufacturer’s rated capacity

  David W. Bogart Associates                                               39
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Securing Ladders

• Secure ladders to prevent
                                                               This ladder is not on a
  accidental movement due to                                   stable surface
  workplace activity

• Only use ladders on stable and
  level surfaces, unless secured

• Do not use ladders on slippery
  surfaces unless secured or
  provided with slip-resistant feet

  David W. Bogart Associates                                                             40
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Portable Ladders

• Inspect before use for cracks,
  dents, and missing rungs
• Design or treat rungs to
  minimize slipping
• Side rails -- at least 11 1/2
  inches apart
• Must support 4 times the
  maximum load
 David W. Bogart Associates                                               41
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Ladder Angle

Non-self-supporting ladders:
(which lean against a wall or
 other support)

   Position at an angle where
   the horizontal distance
   from the top support to the
   foot of the ladder is 1/4 the
   working length of the
   ladder
  David W. Bogart Associates                                               42
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Tall Fixed Ladder
Requirements
   Equip a fixed ladder 24 feet
   or longer with either a:

• Ladder safety device
• Self-retracting lifelines with rest
  platforms every 150 feet or less
• Cage or well, and multiple ladder
  sections, each section not
  exceeding 50 feet

  David W. Bogart Associates                                               43
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Top Step

Do not use the top or top
step of a stepladder as a
step




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               44
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Crossbracing
                               On this ladder the back rungs
                               are designed for use


 Don’t use crossbracing
 on the rear of a
 stepladder for climbing -
 unless the ladder is
 designed for that



 David W. Bogart Associates                                               45
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Damaged or Defective
Ladders
A competent person must
inspect ladders for visible
defects, like broken or missing
rungs
                                                                            Missing rung
If a defective ladder is found,
immediately mark it defective
or tag it "Do Not Use”

Withdraw defective ladders
from service until repaired
   David W. Bogart Associates                                                         46
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Summary

 • A competent person must inspect
 • Use the correct ladder for the job
 • Use the correct angle, supports, treads,
   cross braces and rails
 • Don’t overload
 • Your employer must train you in proper
   use of a ladder

 David W. Bogart Associates                                               47
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffolds




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               48
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
What Is A Scaffold?




                         An elevated, temporary work platform

  David W. Bogart Associates                                               49
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Three Basic Types

    • Supported scaffolds -- platforms supported by
      rigid, load bearing members, such as poles, legs,
      frames, & outriggers
    • Suspended scaffolds -- platforms suspended by
      ropes or other non-rigid, overhead support
    • Aerial Lifts -- such as “cherry pickers” or
      “boom trucks”


 David W. Bogart Associates                                               50
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Hazards Associated with
Scaffolds
• Falls from elevation – caused
  by slipping, unsafe access, and
  the lack of fall protection
• Struck by falling tools / debris
• Electrocution – from overhead
  power lines
• Scaffold collapse - caused by
  instability or overloading
• Bad planking giving way
   David W. Bogart Associates                                               51
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Fall Hazards

• While climbing on or off the
  scaffold
• Working on unguarded
  scaffold platforms
• When scaffold platforms or
  planks fail



  David W. Bogart Associates                                               52
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Protecting Workers from
Falls

If a worker on a scaffold
can fall more than 10 feet,
protect them by:
   • Guardrails, and/or
   • Personal Fall Arrest Systems
     (PFAS)




   David W. Bogart Associates                                               53
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
 Guardrails

• Install along open sides & ends
• Front edge of platforms not more than
  14 inches from the work, unless using
  guardrails and/or PFAS
• Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tall
• Midrails halfway between top rail
  and platform
• Toe boards at least 3-1/2 inches high

    David W. Bogart Associates                                               54
    Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Falling Object Protection

 • Wear hardhats
 • Barricade area below scaffold to
   forbid entry into that area
 • Use panels or screens if material is
   stacked higher than the toeboard
 • Build a canopy or erect a net below
   the scaffold that will contain or
   deflect falling objects


   David W. Bogart Associates                                               55
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Support Examples



Base plate




Mud sills
                                                       Inadequate support –
               Good support                            in danger of collapse?
    David W. Bogart Associates                                                  56
    Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Essential Elements of Safe
Scaffold Construction


                                     • Use appropriate scaffold
                                       construction methods
                                     • Proper scaffold access
                                     • Properly use a competent
                                       person


  David W. Bogart Associates                                               57
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Platform
Construction

 • Be fully planked or
   decked with no more
   than 1 inch gaps
 • Be able to support its
   weight & 4 times
   maximum load
 • Be at least 18 inches
   wide                                                                     This is not a properly
                                                                            constructed scaffold
   David W. Bogart Associates                                                                   58
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Platform
Construction

• No large gaps in front edge
  of platforms
• Each abutted end of plank
  must rest on a separate
  support surface
• Overlap platforms at least
  12 inches over supports,
  unless restrained to                                                      Planks not properly
  prevent movement                                                          overlapped


   David W. Bogart Associates                                                                59
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Platform
Construction
                                         • No paint on wood platforms
                                         • Use scaffold grade wood
                                         • Fully planked between front
                                           upright and guardrail support
                                         • Component pieces used must
                                           match and be of the same type
                                         • Erect on stable and level
                                           ground
                                         • Lock wheels and braces
  David W. Bogart Associates                                               60
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Height

        20’
                                                The height of the
                                                scaffold should not be
                                                more than four times
                                                its minimum base
                                                dimension unless
                                                guys, ties, or braces
                                                are used
        5’

  David W. Bogart Associates                                               61
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Platform Ends


Each end of a platform,
unless cleated or
otherwise restrained by
hooks, must extend over
its support by at least 6
inches

                              No Cleats

 David W. Bogart Associates                                                 62
 Eugene, OR                     Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Supported Scaffolds
• Platforms supported by legs,
  outrigger beams, brackets,
  poles, uprights, posts, &
  frames
• Restrain from tipping by
  guys, ties, or braces
• Scaffold poles, legs, posts,
  frames, and uprights must be
  on base plates and mud sills                            This support is not adequate!

  or other firm foundation
  David W. Bogart Associates                                                              63
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Proper Scaffold Access

• Provide access when scaffold
  platforms are more than 2 feet
  above or below a point of
  access
• May use building stairs and
  come out window



  David W. Bogart Associates                                               64
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Other Permitted Access
Points

 • Ladders, such as portable, hook-on, attachable,
   stairway type, and built-ins
 • Stair towers
 • Ramps and walkways




  David W. Bogart Associates                                               65
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Suspension Scaffolds

• Train employees to recognize
  hazards
• Secure/tie to prevent swaying
• Support devices must rest on
  surfaces that can support four
  times the load

 Platforms suspended by ropes
  or wires. Rope must be capable
  of supporting 6 times the load

   David W. Bogart Associates                                               66
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Competent Person

  • Evaluate connections to ensure the supporting
    surfaces can support load
  • Inspect ropes for defects before shift

  • PFAS must have anchors independent of the
    scaffold support system




 David W. Bogart Associates                                               67
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Moving Scaffolds

 Employees can’t be on a moving scaffold
 unless:
  – Surface is level
  – Height to base ratio is 2 to 1
  – Outriggers are installed on both sides of
    scaffolds

 Employees can’t be on scaffold part beyond the
 wheels

 Competent person must be on site to supervise
  David W. Bogart Associates                                               68
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Fatal Fact – Moving a Lift

Employee was operating an aerial lift,
with an extendable boom rotating
work platform

The boom was fully extended and the
machine apparently ran over some
bricks, causing the boom to flex or
spring, throwing the employee from
the basket

The employee fell 37 feet to a concrete
surface
  David W. Bogart Associates                                               69
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Competent Person

• Person capable of identifying
  and promptly correcting
  hazards
• Determines if it’s safe to work
  on a scaffold during storms or
  high winds
• Trains workers to recognize
  hazards
• Selects qualified workers to
  conduct work
   David W. Bogart Associates                                               70
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Inspection


• Competent person
  inspects scaffold for
  visible defects before
  each shift and after any
  alterations
• Defective parts must be
  immediately repaired
                                                           Deformed bearer

   David W. Bogart Associates                                                71
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Scaffold Erection

Scaffolds can only be erected,
moved, dismantled or altered
under the supervision of a
competent person


Competent person selects &
directs these workers and
determines the feasibility of fall
protection

  David W. Bogart Associates                                               72
  Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Avoid the Main Hazards of
Scaffolds
• Falls from elevation                                  • Getting struck by
• Bad planking                                            falling tools or debris
• Scaffold collapse                                     • Electrocution




   David W. Bogart Associates                                                       73
   Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Most Common OSHA
Citations
                              Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999
                                  Industry Total
     # Citations                   $ Penalty                       Avg. $ Penalty
           1,365                   $843,645.00                              $618.05
                                # Inspections = 1,162

                    Avg. # Citations per Inspection = 1.17
                  Avg. $ Penalty per Inspection = $726.03
 David W. Bogart Associates                                                           74
 Eugene, OR                     Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006
Summary
 Remember to:
 • Use appropriate scaffold construction methods
   – Erect, move, or alter scaffold properly
     – Protect from falling objects or tools

 • Ensure stable access

 • Use a competent person
     – Train on scaffold construction and the hazards involved
       with scaffolds
     – Inspect scaffold before each shift and after alterations
     – Determine fall protection requirements

 David W. Bogart Associates                                               75
 Eugene, OR                   Copyright David W. Bogart Associates 2006

								
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