Eve Online

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					                                                                             Chris Cascioli
                                                                             Edward Huyer

                                       EVE Online


        After World of Warcraft was released in November of 2004, it almost
immediately became a gaming juggernaut. It has drawn literally millions of new players
to massively multiplayer online games, as well as drawing players away from other,
established MMORPGs. As of June 2006, World of Warcraft not only has more
subscribers than any other massively multiplayer game, it has more subscribers than all
other massively multiplayer games combined.
        This paper is not about World of Warcraft. This paper is about one of the smaller
major MMOGs: EVE Online, by Crowd Control Productions (CCP).. EVE is somewhat
unusual in that it has managed to consistently grow its subscriber base since the release of
World of Warcraft, while many other games in the same market have been losing
subscribers steadily. We will be looking at what sets EVE Online apart from other
MMORPGs, both in terms of EVE's game mechanics and in terms of the EVE

Game Description
         EVE Online is not your typical “swords and sorcery” MMORPG. Unlike most
such games in which the player's avatar is human-like with armor and some kind of hand-
held weapon, in EVE the player's avatar, for all intents and purposes, is a space ship.
Granted, there is some background information about how the player's character is
actually a human in a life-support pod buried in the center of the space ship, but you
never really see that. The player is an abstracted consciousness that transfers from one
ship to another, directing the currently occupied ship to do his or her bidding.
         The universe of EVE consists of a network of star systems linked by special gates
allowing ships to travel between systems. These star systems are populated by asteroid
fields, space stations, planets, and NPC ships (mostly pirates and the police force,
         Players can travel with relative freedom through these star systems mining
asteroids, fighting pirates, performing missions for NPCs in the space stations, attacking
other players, trading between space stations, researching and crafting equipment, similar
activities. All systems have a security rating from 0.0 to 1.0, measuring how active and
effective CONCORD, the NPC police force, is at responding to players being attacked by
other players. In 1.0 space, which is space controlled entirely by one of the major
“races”, CONCORD is very active and effective. In 0.0 space, CONCORD simply
doesn't exist. That's not to say that 0.0 space is entirely a free-for-all no-man's-land.
Corporations (discussed in detail later) often control sections of 0.0 space, and while they
don't have automatic protection systems, they will take issue with their members being
destroyed by other players.
         In terms of character development, EVE's system is very different from most
other games. In EVE, there are no experience points that are gained by killing enemies or
completing quests. Instead, players can have their characters learn skills simply by
buying an appropriate book and using that book to train the first level of the skill. Once a
player has at least level 1 in a skill, they can simply select it for training, though only one
skill can be training at a time. Training takes time depending on the level and difficulty
of the skill, and progresses regardless of what the player is doing at the time. Training
the skill “Mining” from level 4 to level 5 (the maximum) requires exactly the same
amount of time regardless of whether the player is mining asteroids, fighting pirates, or
sitting logged-out in a space station. Training times can range from minutes for the first
level of a simple skill, to weeks of real-world time for the upper levels of a high-end skill.
         The other half of “advancement”in EVE is, as in many games, economic. Many
skills are simply worthless without the right ship and equipment. A large portion of the
reward for the activities mentioned above are economic; either the player earns money by
selling the proceeds of their particular specialty, or they use it to build their own
equipment, or they contribute it to their corporation who in turn helps the player get what
equipment they need.
         Actually using skills and equipment, including attacking enemies, follows a
somewhat similar pattern to most massively multiplayer games. Skills are entirely
passive, but they allow the player to use particular pieces of equipment, or enhances the
effectiveness of that equipment. Equipment is used by selecting and locking on to a
target, if applicable, and then clicking the equipment or weapon to activate it. The
equipment will then do its thing, be it extracting minerals from an asteroid, regenerating
the player's shields, or launching white-hot death at an enemy.
         Of course, whenever there is combat, there is the possibility of death, and unlike
many other MMORPGs, death in EVE is painful. If a player's ship is destroyed, some of
the equipment is left behind to be collected by the victor or whomever runs across it, but
the ship itself is gone. The player himself is ejected in a small, unarmed escape pod
which he can use to limp back to a space station. If the victor is feeling particularly
vicious, he can even destroy the loser's pod, killing him.
         Neither of these results in quite permanent. Ships can be insured so that if they
are destroyed, a portion of the value of the ship itself is deposited in the player's account.
That insurance does not cover the value of the equipment on the ship, or the value of any
cargo the ship was carrying. It's not uncommon for the value of the equipment on a ship
to be greater than the value of the ship itself. As a result, a common bit of wisdom in
EVE is to not fly anything that you can't afford to have destroyed.
         In the case of a player having their pod destroyed (getting “podded”), they stand
to lose the time they've put into learning skills. In some space stations players can buy
clones. Clones are rated for a certain number of skill points depending on their quality.
If a player has a clone and dies, they only lose a number of skill points (and thus a
corresponding amount of time) equal to the difference between their current number of
skill points and the number of skill points the clone is rated for. If the clone is rated for
more skill points than the player has, none are lost.
         Given the time and in-game expense involved in gaining skills and equipping a
ship, death is to be avoided at all costs. An unexpected loss in battle can result in the loss
of weeks or months of game productivity.

          The economy in EVE is primarily player-driven. Players mine asteroids to
acquire mineral ores, which can then be processed into usable materials. Players can also
buy or research blueprints for objects ranging from ammunition for weapons to
equipment to entire spaceships. The materials combined with the blueprints can then be
used to create the items which can then be sold to still other players. In the case of more
advanced and complex items, there may be a number of intermediate constructions
required to build the final product. The time required to perform the construction is fairly
nontrivial, taking anywhere from minutes for a small amount of ammunition, to days for
more or more complex items such as spaceships.
          It should be noted that virtually anything can be sold, including blueprints. In
fact, it's possible to make money by buying a blueprint that allows unlimited production,
and then making copies of it that only allow a limited number of production runs before
the copy expires. Likewise, since anything is potentially salable, and there is no in-game
mail system for items, money can be made simply by moving goods from one location to
another and getting paid for it. Sometimes people make money this way by trading.
Others do it for their corporation, which often needs goods in one location to be moved to
another location so they can be used in construction. Still others do it on a freelance
contract basis as couriers.
          All this adds up to there being a wide variety of ways to make money, even
without resorting to piracy. However, the expense, difficulty of acquiring resources, and
time required to participate in the higher (and more profitable) levels of these activities
makes it difficult for the independent operator to go very far. To get the most out of
EVE, it's all-but required that a player be a member of a corporation. This is even more
true when players want to take advantage of player-built space stations and planetary
outposts, which are immensely expensive and can only be built in 0.0 space.

How Corporations Work

        Most massively multiplayer online games have a system for players to form
groups. Many games call these groups guilds or clans, but some games refer to them in
terms that relate to that game’s world. City of Heroes calls them “super groups”, which
goes along with the super hero motif. EVE Online calls them corporations, which relate
to the futuristic, economy-centric feel of the game.
        Corporations are an integral part of EVE, so much so that from the moment a
player creates a character, that character is in a corporation. New characters start in one
of the many computer controlled corporations in the game; it can’t be avoided. If the
player joins a player-run corporation and later leaves it, they will revert back to their
previous NPC corporation. However, NPC corporations don’t provide an opportunity to
advance, so if a player wishes to take on some of the responsibilities of a corporation,
they must join a player-created one. Players can also create their own corporation if they
have the correct skills and enough money.
        If a player does decide to create their own corporation, they become the CEO.
Once the corporation is up and running, the CEO can invite new members, who by
default always have very limited powers. A member can then be granted one of several
higher positions by the CEO (or by other members who themselves hold specific higher
positions). There are many positions available in corporations, including Director,
Personnel Manager, Station Manager, Factory Manager, Accountant and Pilot.
         The Director position has many of the same abilities as a CEO. Directors can
invite new members, remove current members and do much of the day-to-day
maintenance and management tasks that go along with corporations. Personnel Managers
are able to invite new members into the corporation. If the corporation owns a space
station, a player in the Station Manager position can perform many of the station-related
tasks in the game: they can alter the station’s defenses, docking criteria and even adjust
station-related permissions. Factory Managers, like Station Managers, are in charge of
factories and research slots, and can use corporation-owned materials and blueprints to
create items. Accountants, as the name suggests, deal with the corporation’s monetary
issues. There are always bills to pay, and EVE corporations are no different. An
Accountant can deal with the corporations financial holdings, pay bills and keep track of
who owes the corporation money. A player with the Pilot role is able to utilize ships that
are in a corporate hangar, be it for travel or combat.
         These various levels of responsibility built into the corporation system can be a
double-edged sword. One on hand, the distribution of responsibility allows a corporation
(especially larger ones) to run more smoothly. Members in higher level positions can
take care of their day-to-day tasks fairly independently, allowing business to continue
even if many of the members are not logged in at the same time. The Director position,
for instance, has almost the same powers as the CEO himself. This is where the problem
lies. A player in a very high level position has access to many of the corporation’s
holdings, locations and communications. If a dubious player decides to take the time to
rise in the ranks of a corporation, they could gain access to the corporation’s hanger,
where many high level ships may be docked, and even the corporation’s bank account.
This is why corporate positions such as Director should not be given to just anyone, but
those who are trusted. Even then, there’s always a change someone could get stabbed in
the back by an unscrupulous player.
         In a case like this, the offending player can be removed from the corporation by
some of the positions of other members. This is not always as simple as clicking a
button. If the player in question has more than the average number of shares per
shareholder of the corporation, the CEO must start a vote to remove the player. More
than likely however, the crooked player would leave on his or her own. When a player
resigns from a corporation, they revert back to the NPC corporation they started the game
with. If the CEO resigns, either another member becomes the new CEO of the
corporation, or the corporation is disbanded if no other members exist.

The Community of Corporations

         Corporations in EVE exist for many reasons. Like a guild or clan in other games,
it is a way for players to play the game together and coordinate their efforts more easily.
However, corporations reach far beyond being a glorified friends list. Corporations allow
groups of players to achieve things far greater than a solo player ever could. They also
allow for the pooling of both money (ISK) and resources such as raw materials and
blueprints. Corporations have their own channels of communication, so members can
easily get in contact with one another and organize parties to travel out into the universe.
         Because of the varying levels of responsibility in corporations, players can get the
feeling they are involved with a real organization. If a player does well in the
corporation, they may get promoted and rise through the ranks, although this won’t be the
case for every member of a corporation. Even as a basic member of a corporation, a
player can contribute to its overall well-being. They can be a resource collector, and
mine for raw materials or salvage the wreckage of ships destroyed in combat.
Conversely, they could be the ones doing the destroying.
         Combat plays a large part in EVE, as well as with the community feel of the
game. A solo player might do fairly well for themselves in the high security areas of the
universe, but will become an easy target once they venture into the more lucrative and
much more dangerous low security zones. Players willing to risk heading into these
zones are much better off if they have a group with them. This is where the corporation
comes in. A group of players wanting to head out into a low security zone would be
much safer if they enlist the help of fellow corporation members, the benefit of this being
two-fold. Taking more resource gathering players could help speed up the process of
finding and retrieving materials, and taking a group of combat-skilled members will
ensure the group is safer during their travels. Corporations seeking even more profitable
ventures can attempt to control entire territories or markets (something a solo player
could never even dream of achieving).
         Since the universe can be such a dangerous place, being a member of a
corporation can provide much more than a business endeavor. It can provide protection.
Corporations vying for control of regions can declare war on one another. When this
happens, the security force in the universe, Concord, will not step in and intervene when
skirmishes or all out warfare takes place. Corporations can take part in large scale,
tactical warfare with coordinated efforts among large groups of combat-ready ships. At
times like this, having a large corporation with many dedicated players can help level the
playing field and ensure victory. Multiple corporations can even come together and form
Alliances, allowing them to work together to overcome enemy corporations and triumph
in their endeavors.
         Another important aspect of corporations is the ability to recruit players based on
skills, and coordinate which skills the corporation could use to round out their overall
skill base. Since skills take time to learn, and the higher levels of a skill take much
longer than the lower levels, it is important for a corporation to get a good balance of
skills. If the corporation is lacking in industry-related skills, they may scour the universe
looking for players who are focused on these skills. They could also ask that within the
corporation some players focus on certain skills, so that the whole corporation can
benefit. Having a wide range of skills provides more opportunities, both financial and
         While solo players are not alienated from the game, there is a large portion of
EVE they may never get to experience on their own. The fact that the player is always in
a corporation of some type highlights the importance of corporations. Gaining high level
items usually requires the resources of a corporation, or the money to purchase the items
from a corporation that can manufacture them. Being a jack-of-all-trades in EVE would
prove fairly difficult and time consuming. It would take any one player an immensely
long time to train in every skill, but focusing on a small subset of skills would allow
greater specialization, which in turn could be a selling point for corporate recruitment.
Once recruited, the other skills fellow members bring to the table would be at the player’s
disposal. Although anyone can play the game solo and enjoy it, much of the game is
built around corporations. Without being in one, a player would be limiting him or her
self to a small section of the overall game and many of the community opportunities that
corporations provide.

The External Community

         Much of EVE Online's out-of-game community is centered on the official EVE
forums. In these forums, as with many MMOs, players can discuss strategies, optimal
character (or ship, in this case) builds, game balance, etc. The “Crime and Punishment”
forum is a bit unusual. Since EVE is quite open to player vs. player combat as well as
many economic scams, it's only natural that mercenaries and other guns for hire will
arise, and the “Crime and Punishment” forum is in part for such bounty hunters. Indeed,
one of the stickied threads is a list of known mercenary corporations. People openly
discuss piratical tactics, particularly juicy or interesting plunders and escapes, and even
requests for assassinations.
         When visiting the EVE forums and comparing them to the forums of other
massively multiplayer games such as those of World of Warcraft, there is an impression
that the individuals posting are more mature on the EVE forums. Profanity is rare, as are
direct insults, and people tend to be relatively helpful. Whether this is due to more
restrictive moderation policies weeding out the immature posters or the pace and style of
the game attracting more mature players is unclear. It seems reasonable to expect that
both play a role.
         In addition to the official forums and the websites of the in-game corporations,
there are other unique community endeavors. EVE Radio is an in-game radio station, run
by players, that broadcasts music and talk over the Internet for other players to listen to.
The radio station even sponsors contests and conducts interviews with notable in-game
individuals. To aid such activities, CCP's community building volunteers can provide in-
game sponsorship in the form of funds and prizes. That allows individuals in the
community to more easily create the events, since they don't have to work as hard to
provide the prizes and other in-game support. As a result, the community as a whole is

EVE Online vs. Other MMOs

        EVE takes a fairly different approach to many of the staples of massively
multiplayer online games. One of the first things a new player will do in EVE is create
their character. There is a detailed avatar customization section of the character
customization, which allows for a wide range of facial feature tweaks. The resulting
portrait of the player’s avatar is the only representation of the avatar others will see. This
is because in EVE, a player is represented in the game world as whatever ship they
happen to be piloting at the time. When interacting with other players, their portrait can
be seen, but there is no way to get out of a ship and walk around on land or in space
         This is a big departure from other games in the genre, especially City of Heroes.
In City of Heroes, the amount of character customization is astounding. This is
especially important because for the most part, a character’s costume doesn’t really
change. Although there are mechanisms for altering one’s costume for a price, through
the natural progression of the game a character’s costume won’t really change. In a game
like World of Warcraft, a character’s gear (armor and weapons) is everything. Not only
does it provide stat upgrades and make a character more effective, it is a status symbol
within the game. There are even whole sets of armor that aesthetically match, and
acquiring one of these sets in its entirety is considered a rite of passage for many.
         This type of thing does exist in EVE, but it affects a character’s ships instead of
their 2D character portrait. Their avatar in the game world is the ship they are flying,
which in and of itself is indicative of their wealth, connections and accomplishments.
There are also different types of ships for different tasks, such as frigates, battleships and
shuttles. These ships can be customized with different types of equipment, ranging from
combat-oriented guns and shields, to hauling or mining hardware.
         Character advancement in EVE is also different from most MMOs. City of
Heroes and World of Warcraft use experience point systems and character levels. When
a character has earned enough experience points, through defeating enemies or running
quests/missions, they reach the next level. At certain level increments, a character may
train new abilities to use against their foes. These abilities are determined by the
character’s class and sometimes specializations. City of Heroes doesn’t go much further
in depth than that, but World of Warcraft also has skills that can be raised through
repeated action. If a character swings a two-handed sword enough, for example, their
two-handed sword skill will increase. These skills, while important, are not usually a
large focus in World of Warcraft, since they rise by themselves through normal use.
         EVE’s character advancement is more like the advancement in Ultima Online,
although there are still distinct differences. In Ultima Online, there are no character
levels or character class. Instead, there are approximately 50 skills that players can
utilize to fight enemies, craft items or be mischievous. The skills a player decides to train
determine what the character can do, but there are no official classes. A player can take
fishing, mining, musicianship, blacksmithing and fencing if they so choose. However,
players have a maximum number of skill points to spread across these 50 skills, which
equates to having 7 skills maxed out at any one time. If a character reaches the skill cap
and wants to work a new skill up, which happens through repeated use of that skill
similar to World of Warcraft, they must give up points in another skill.
         EVE works in much the same way. There are no character levels or class.
Characters train their skills up, and their “class” is essentially determined by what the
character can do and what skills they have. Unlike Ultima Online, characters in EVE do
not have a limit to the number of skills or skill points they can have at any one time. A
character could theoretically posses every skill in the game, although they would take a
long time to attain. This highlights the method of skill gain in EVE: time. Skills do not
increase with use. Instead, the player chooses one skill at a time to train, and that skill
will gradually increase over time, even if the player is logged out. One very nice thing
about this system is that it discourages “power leveling”, because it’s essentially

Corporations vs. Guilds

        Another area where EVE differs from traditional MMOs is corporations and
guilds. The complex structure, multiple roles and shared resource capabilities of
corporations are things very rarely seen in MMO guilds. Most MMOs require some sort
of purchase or money sink to start a guild, and EVE is no different in that respect.
However, EVE has an entire skill that must be learned before a player is able to start their
own corporation. While most games simply have a hard cap for the number of players
allowed in a guild, EVE’s approach is that a corporation’s CEO’s Basic Corporation
Management skill determines the maximum number of members. This is a very
interesting component to corporations, and one that limits corporation creation and
management to those who are more dedicated to it.
        World of Warcraft has some similarities in its guild management, but nothing to
the level of EVE. In World of Warcraft, a player may purchase a guild charter, which
requires 10 signatures before being turned in. This means a character cannot simply start
a guild at the drop of a hat; they must actually have people interested in joining the guild
(who are not currently in a guild). This is often a moot point however, since once the
guild is formed the members are free to leave without destroying the guild and people are
often swayed to sign a charter by donations of gold. Once formed, the guild leader can
customize character ranks, allowing for officers who can invite new members, higher
level officers who can promote normal members to officer status, and even lower than
normal ranks for people who are not allowed to speak in the guild chat channel. The only
real power any of these people have within the guild however is the ability to invite new
members and kick, promote or demote current members.
        In City of Heroes, super groups are formed and maintained in a similar fashion to
the World of Warcraft guilds. Ultima Online uses actual in-world items called guild
stones for guild management. The guild stone must be placed inside a player owned
house, and all guild management functions require clicking on the stone for access. The
one place where UO is more similar to EVE is that in UO guilds, if enough people vote
for a new guild leader, the old leader is demoted to a regular member and the new leader
is appointed. UO however doesn’t have much structure to the guilds other than
customized guild titles. Many times guilds in various games will set up specific roles for
individuals, such as recruitment or item management, but these are purely social roles
and are not part of the game itself.
        Resource sharing is another aspect where EVE differs from the norm. City of
Heroes has something similar, whereby a super group’s base can hold a cache of power
ups, but since these are the only tradable loot in the game, there’s not much point to
resource sharing. Ultima Online does have a way for multiple people to access items in
player housing, but that is part of the housing security system and is not related at all to
guilds. World of Warcraft also has no way to share items directly among guild mates.
Sometimes players (usually the guild leader or an officer) will create a “guild bank”
character whose sole purpose is to hold money and items that can be distributed to the
guild, but this is not an actual game mechanic.
        In addition to guild management, guilds and corporations in MMOs allow players
to access content that may have otherwise been unavailable to them. EVE is the most
extreme case of this, since many of the items in the universe are simply too expensive to
purchase or create for solo or very small groups of players. Also, the dangers inherent to
the lower security level zones prohibit most solo players from entering for fear of
destruction. Games like World of Warcraft and Everquest have large scale raid dungeons
that require upwards of 40 players to successfully complete. However, unlike EVE, these
dungeons don’t require actual guilds to use them, any 40 players can join up and attempt
them. Usually you don’t find many pick-up groups attempt them because of the amount
of coordination required to be victorious.

The Year Long Plot

         In April of 2005, an event occurred in EVE that was remarkable even within its
anarchistic universe, and virtually impossible in any other MMO. Mirial, the head of the
powerful Ubiqua Seraph corporation, was assassinated by her second in command and a
group of his allies, while the coffers and storage hangars of the corporation were
simultaneously emptied of their contents. Within an hour on the morning of April 18th,
Ubiqua Seraph functionally ceased to exist.
         This coordinated act of destruction was not the result of dissatisfied or power
hungry subordinates. Instead, it was the result of a plot by the assassin corporation
Guiding Hand Social Club. The head of the Guiding Hand, Istvaan Shogaatsu, Mirial's
“second in command”, Arenis Xemdal (actually a Guiding Hand agent from the
beginning), and many other Guiding Hand agents managed to organize the complete
infiltration of the Ubiqua Seraph corporation. This monumental task took a year to
complete, and the spoils from raiding the coffers and hangars far outstripped the actual
payment for the job.
         All of this is completely within the rules of EVE, and illustrates a fundamental
difference between the outlook of the game's developers and players as compared to
those who develop and play other MMOs. In most MMOs, it's difficult to really lose
very much of your progress, and it's even harder to lose it as the result of another player.
The opposite is true in EVE: If you're losing part of your progress in the game, it's
probably due to another player, and you are almost certainly losing a substantial amount
of invested time.
         This can – and does – result in some potential players being scared off and
established players being driven off. On the other hand, many people find the risk and
freedom of EVE exciting and attractive.

The Year-Long Plot in Other MMOs?

        The year-long plot that resulted in the death of a corporation CEO and the looting
of much of that corporation’s holdings was a very rare occurrence in MMOs. It probably
couldn’t happen in many other games simply because of the guild structure or lack
thereof. Likewise, guilds in many other games are not vying for control of game-world
resources and are not at war with each other. In World of Warcraft for instance, even if a
player from another guild did infiltrate a guild, there’s not much they could do save kick
everyone with a lower rank than them out. A situation like that would be more of a
nuisance than anything, and would be easily corrected.
         Since most MMOs don’t have the ability to share resources easily within a guild,
theft isn’t an issue. If a guild “bank” (a character used only for their bank slots) was set
up by a guild member, that guild member is the only one with access to it. Allowing
anyone else access to it would require users to share their login names and passwords,
which is a separate issue. If passwords are swapped, guilds could be disbanded, item
could be sold or destroyed and characters could be permanently deleted. This level of
trust probably isn’t even reached in EVE, unless the parties involved know each other in
real life or truly trust that no misdeeds could occur.


        EVE Online's unusual player-driven economy and politics coupled with the
game's anarchistic approach to player vs. player combat have attracted a community that
values the game's excitement, risk, and freedom. Where most MMORPGs give players a
reliable stream of rewards with relatively little danger of losing them, EVE gives players
an unreliable supply of rewards that could be destroyed at almost any moment.
        That risk can – and does – scare away some new players, while the loss that
comes from being defeated in combat may cause players players to leave in frustration.
Some might argue that reducing the risk might bring more players or help retain existing
players. That might be true, but it would also reduce the very things that allow EVE to
cater to players that find World of Warcraft, Everquest 2, and other games unappealing.
World of Warcraft wins in the low-risk MMO market. EVE is growing by tapping into a
completely different market.
        Bringing certain features of EVE over to other MMOs might be possible, but
would also tend to bring related problems. For instance, the shared corporate resources
could make distribution easier for guilds in other games. However, it would also allow
disgruntled players to steal or destroy the contents. In many ways, such actions would be
worse in another MMO than they are in EVE. In EVE, there are valid in-game
mechanisms to retaliate against such a criminally-minded individual. That's not the case
in other games, leaving the victims with little to do but complain and make their
grievance public.
        In the end, EVE is a game very well suited to its community, but rather poorly
suited to many other MMORPG communities. The philosophies and mechanics are very
different, and almost diametrically opposed. EVE players are liable to view World of
Warcraft and restrictive, dull, and pointless, since nothing they do actually affects
anything in the game. World of Warcraft players are likely to find EVE to be overly
complex, too time consuming, and far too risky. The difference benefits both, since both
communities mainly end up with players that share the same goals and desires, while the
parent companies aren't constantly fighting over players.

Works Cited
EVE Online. CCP, Inc. 18 Feb. 2007 <>

EVE Online. Wikipedia. 18 Feb. 2007 <>

The History of MMOGs: EVE Online: The Second Genesis. Ten Ton Hammer. 18 Feb.

MMOG Active Subscriptions 21.0 120,000+. MMOGCHART.COM. 21 Feb. 2007.

MMOG Subscriptions Market Share – June 2006. MMOGCHART.COM. 21 Feb. 2007.

Murder Incorporated. PC Gamer. September 2005. pp126-129.

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