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					                     M INERALS
• Substances that occur naturally in nonliving things such as rocks and
   metal ores

• Have names reflecting the place where they’re found or characteristics
   such as their color

• ELEMENTS, substances composed of only one kind of atom

• INORGANICS, do not contain the C, H and O atoms

• By the end of the 19th century, scientists knew the names and chemical
   properties of 82 elements → Today, 109 elements have been identified.

• 16 MINERALS are ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS for human beings
How much human have in their body
How much human need to take in to maintain a steady supply

    -Major Minerals              :  100 mg/hr
    -Trace Elements              : < 100 mg/hr
-½   : Calcium
-¼   : Phosphorus
-¼   : Other Major Minerals : Magnesium, Sulfur, Sodium,
                             Potassium, Chloride
             Trace Element : Iron, Zinc, Iodide, Selenium, Copper,
                             Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium,
                             Molybdenum, Cobalt, Tin, Nickel ,
                             Vanadium and Silicon
Work together
If you get too much of Your body may not be able to absorb
     this mineral                or use this one
        Ca                 Mg, Fe, Zn
        Cu                 Zn
        Fe                 P, Zn
        Mg                 Fe
        Mo                 Zn, Cu
        P                  Ca
        S                  Mo
        Zn                 Cu
 An alkaline earth metal with valence 2
 Packed into BONES AND TEETH
 Present in EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (the liquid
   around body cells) and WITHIN THE CELLS OF
 Regulating fluid balance by controlling the flow
 of water in and out of cells
 Making it possible for cells to send massages
 back and forth from one to another
 Keeping muscles moving smoothly and
 preventing cramping
Ca is needed for :

• Intracellular and hormone-like signaling
• Neurotransmitter
• Muscle contraction
• For the regulation of cell growth and
• Blood clotting
Absorption depend on :
   •   Vitamin D status
   •   Phosphate
   •   Sodium
   •   Animal protein intake
   •   Vitamin C
• Slows bone growth and mineralization in
  childhood and adolescence
• Bone mineral loss in adults → increases the
  risk of fractures
• Elevated blood pressure
• Essential for strong bones and teeth

• Need PHOSPHORUS to transmit the
  genetic code (genes and chromosomes that carry
                                      one cell
  information about human characteristic) from
  to another when cells divide and reproduce
In addition :
• Helps maintain the pH balance

• Vital for metabolizing carbohydrates,
  synthesizing proteins, and carrying fats and
  fatty acids among tissue and organs

• Part of myelin, the fatty sheath that
  surrounds and protects each nerve cell
Participates in energy metabolism and storage (as ATP,
  GTP, creatine phosphate, arginine phosphate, etc)
• Phosphate inadequacy ~ low food consumption
 or starvation → OLD PEOPLE

• Accelerated bone mineral loss → osteoporosis
 and increase fracture risk
Excessive Intake
• Phosphate intake ~ exceed Ca intake induce :
   – parathyroid gland hyperplasia and parathyroid hormone
     (PTH) secretion,
   – impair vitamin D activation,
   – accelerate bone mineral loss and fracture risk

• Extremely high intake → calcification of
  extraosseous (non-bone) tissues, including arteries,
  kidneys, muscles and tendons
• An alkaline earth metal with valence 2
• An essential cofactor for a large number reactions ~ ATP, GTP
• Part of > 300 different enzyme that trigger chemichal reactions throughout

 human body
• Participates in muscle and nerve depolarization
• Stabilizes DNA and RNA
• A component of the mineral in bone
 because enables to convert food to
     energy using less oxygen
   – Confusion, disorientation, personality changes, loss of
     appetite, depression, muscle contractions and cramps,
     tingling, numbness, hypertension, abnormal heart
     rhythms, coronary spasm and seizure

• Induced by :
   – diarrhea, malabsorption, vomiting, overuse of laxative
     or diuretics medications, alcohol abuse, diabetes or
           Excessive Intake
• > 350 mg from supplements and other
  nonfood sources → diarrhea, nausea,
  appetite loss, muscle weakness, mental
  impairment, difficulty breathing, extremely
  low blood pressure and irregular heartbeat

• Risk of toxicity is greater with impaired
  kidney function
• The main cationic osmolyte in blood and extracellular fluid

• Mediates active transport of numerous nutrients and
  metabolites in intestines, kidney and many other tissues

• Enzyme cofactor

• Co-transport

• Signaling

• Intakes have to macth sodium losses
    sweating and diuresis >>> → sodium needs ↑↑

• Low intake → dizziness and weakness due to
• Excessive intake :
  – Increase blood pressure, especially in
    genetically susceptible individuals
    and when other hypertensive factors
    (obesity) are present
- Electrolyte balance
- Transport
- Acid production
   hydrochloric acid in stomach contributes to protein digestion and
   inactivation of ingested microorganism

- Enzyme activation
- Immune defense
   Immune cells use directed release hypochlorous acid to combat
   pathogens in blood and tissues

• Intakes have to macth sodium losses
    sweating and diuresis >>> → sodium needs ↑↑

• Low intake → dizziness and weakness due to
• Excessive intake :
  – Increase blood pressure, especially in
    genetically susceptible individuals
    and when other hypertensive factors
    (obesity) are present
A constituents of 3 amino acids : CYSTINE, CYSTEINE,
Most prevalent in insulin and in the keratin of skin, hair and nails
The tertiary structure of proteins is due in part to covalent
bonding between cysteine residues where the –SH groups are
oxidized to form disulfide bridges → important in the activity of
some enzyme
Occurs in carbohydrate ~ a component of heparin (an
  anticoagulant found in liver and some other tissues) , and of
  chondroitin sulfate (found in bone and cartilage)

An essential component of 3 vitamins : thiamin, biotin and
  pantothenic acid

Food Sources :
  meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans, broccoli and
- Kalium, an alkali metal with valence 1
- The main cationic osmolyte within cells
- The element plays a major role in body electricity
   maintenance of cellular polarity, neuronal signaling, heart
   impulse transmission and muscle contraction

- Nutrient and metabolite transport
- Enzyme activation
       Increased losses often due to use of certain
                           diuretics and laxatives
Inadequate intake (hypokalemia) → increased
risk of heart arrhytmia, muscle weakness,
paralysis, alkalosis (increased blood pH) and
eventually death
  Higher than minimal intake → lowering the risk
                                 of hypertension
            Excessive Intake

• Rising plasma concentration (hyperkalemia)
  → muscle weakness, arrhytmia and
  eventually death due to cardiac arrest

• The risk of hyperkalemia ~ high in patients
  with renal failure