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Dome Specification by fjzhangweiqun

VIEWS: 99 PAGES: 66

									               Telescope Dome Specification
                    SOAR Telescope Project
                           August 25, 1999




Thomas A. Sebring                        Gerald N. Cecil
 Project Manager                         Project Scientist




    David Porter                         Victor L. Krabbendam
Opto-Mechanical Engineer                   Project Engineer
                                                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification




                                                                   INDEX


1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 8
   1.1. Objective .............................................................................................................................. 8
   1.2. System Description .............................................................................................................. 8
   1.3. Scope .................................................................................................................................... 9
2. DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................ 9
   2.1. Steel Structure ...................................................................................................................... 9
      2.1.1. Ring Beam .................................................................................................................. 10
      2.1.2. Arch Girders................................................................................................................ 10
   2.2. Panel System ...................................................................................................................... 10
   2.3. Shutter and Windscreen System ........................................................................................ 11
      2.3.1. Shutter Door Description ............................................................................................ 11
      2.3.2. Shutter Drive System .................................................................................................. 11
        2.3.2.1. Shutter Drive Requirements ................................................................................. 12
           2.3.2.1.1. Shutter Drive Performance ........................................................................... 12
      2.3.3. Shutter Travel Limits .................................................................................................. 13
        2.3.3.1. Shutter Software Limits ....................................................................................... 13
        2.3.3.2. Hardware Limits .................................................................................................. 13
        2.3.3.3. Hard Stops ............................................................................................................ 14
      2.3.4. Settling Time............................................................................................................... 14
      2.3.5. Shutter Manual Operation ........................................................................................... 14
      2.3.6. Shutter Encoder ........................................................................................................... 14
   2.4. Dome Rotation Drive System ............................................................................................ 15
      2.4.1. Dome Drive Assembly................................................................................................ 15
      2.4.2. Dome Encoder ............................................................................................................ 15
      2.4.3. Dome Drive Requirements ......................................................................................... 15
        2.4.3.1. Performance Requirements .................................................................................. 15
      2.4.4. Settling Time............................................................................................................... 16
   2.5. Bogies ................................................................................................................................ 16
   2.6. Dome Vents ....................................................................................................................... 16
   2.7. Dome Crane ....................................................................................................................... 16
      2.7.1. Crane Stowed Position and Interlocks ........................................................................ 17
   2.8. Seals ................................................................................................................................... 17
3. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 17
   3.1. Crane Loads ....................................................................................................................... 17
      3.1.1. Dome Stationary ......................................................................................................... 17
      3.1.2. Dome Moving ............................................................................................................. 17
   3.2. Mass Properties .................................................................................................................. 17
      3.2.1. Dome Weight .............................................................................................................. 17
   3.3. Deflections ......................................................................................................................... 18
      3.3.1. Ring Beam .................................................................................................................. 18
        3.3.1.1. Horizontal Plane................................................................................................... 18
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        3.3.1.2. Vertical Plane ....................................................................................................... 18
      3.3.2. Arch Girder ................................................................................................................. 18
        3.3.2.1. Vertical Plane ....................................................................................................... 18
        3.3.2.2. Lateral Plane ........................................................................................................ 18
      3.3.3. Shutters ....................................................................................................................... 18
4. ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................... 19
   4.1. Electrical Power ................................................................................................................. 19
      4.1.1. Voltage, Frequency, Current and Ground ................................................................... 19
      4.1.2. Power Protection ......................................................................................................... 19
      4.1.3. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ....................................................................... 20
      4.1.4. Lightning Protection ................................................................................................... 20
   4.2. Electrical Interface Requirements ...................................................................................... 20
      4.2.1. Connectors .................................................................................................................. 20
      4.2.2. Cables.......................................................................................................................... 20
      4.2.3. Cable Lengths ............................................................................................................. 20
      4.2.4. Slip Rings .................................................................................................................... 21
   4.3. Electronic Enclosure Requirements ................................................................................... 21
   4.4. Dome Control Electronics in the Observing Area ............................................................. 21
   4.5. Electronic Equipment Mounting ........................................................................................ 21
5. CONTROL SYSTEM ............................................................................................................... 21
   5.1. General Scope .................................................................................................................... 21
   5.2. Operational States .............................................................................................................. 22
      5.2.1. Quiescent/Power-Off (QPO) State .............................................................................. 22
      5.2.2. Power-On Self Test (POST) State .............................................................................. 22
      5.2.3. Base Ready (BR) State................................................................................................ 22
      5.2.4. System Health Check (SHC) State ............................................................................. 23
      5.2.5. Operational Ready (OPR) State .................................................................................. 23
      5.2.6. Set Position (SP) State ............................................................................................... 23
      5.2.7. Error State ................................................................................................................... 23
      5.2.8. Abort State .................................................................................................................. 23
   5.3. Operational Modes ............................................................................................................. 24
      5.3.1. Remote Operation Mode (TCS Control)..................................................................... 24
      5.3.2. Maintenance and Diagnostic (MD) Mode (Dome Terminal) ..................................... 24
      5.3.3. Hand Paddle (Manual) Mode ...................................................................................... 25
   5.4. Platforms and Operating Systems ...................................................................................... 25
   5.5. Remote Communication Requirements ............................................................................. 25
   5.6. Software ............................................................................................................................. 25
      5.6.1. Software Architecture ................................................................................................. 26
      5.6.2. System Database ......................................................................................................... 26
      5.6.3. System Diagnostics ..................................................................................................... 26
   5.7. Soft Travel Limit................................................................................................................ 26
   5.8. Reduced Speed Operation .................................................................................................. 26
   5.9. Emergency Stop System .................................................................................................... 26
6. THERMAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................... 27
   6.1. Dissipated Power ............................................................................................................... 27
      6.1.1. Electronics within the Observing Environment .......................................................... 27

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      6.1.2. Electronics within Other Regions of the SOAR Facility ............................................ 27
   6.2. Thermal Sensing, Control, and Conditioning of Dome Assemblies .................................. 27
      6.2.1. General Thermal Conditioning Strategy ..................................................................... 27
      6.2.2. Actuators & Mountings............................................................................................... 28
7. SOAR FAcility.......................................................................................................................... 28
   7.1. Observing Area .................................................................................................................. 28
   7.2. Control Room..................................................................................................................... 28
   7.3. Computer Room ................................................................................................................. 28
   7.4. Mechanical Equipment Building ....................................................................................... 28
   7.5. Instrument Utility Room .................................................................................................... 29
   7.6. General Facility Space ....................................................................................................... 29
   7.7. Intra-Facility Distances ...................................................................................................... 29
   7.8. SOAR Supplied Utilities .................................................................................................... 29
8. INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................................... 29
   8.1. Site Installation .................................................................................................................. 30
      8.1.1. Dome Bogies and Drive .............................................................................................. 30
         8.1.1.1. Bogie Alignment .................................................................................................. 30
      8.1.2. General Sensors .......................................................................................................... 30
9. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ...................................................................................... 30
   9.1. Operating Conditions ......................................................................................................... 31
   9.2. Survival Conditions ........................................................................................................... 31
10. General Status and Sensing System ........................................................................................ 32
   10.1. Sensors ............................................................................................................................. 32
11. SAFETY ................................................................................................................................. 32
   11.1. Over Speed Protection ..................................................................................................... 32
   11.2. Over Current Protection ................................................................................................... 32
   11.3. Interlock Procedures ........................................................................................................ 32
      11.3.1. Dome and Shutter Drives .......................................................................................... 32
      11.3.2. Aerial Man-lift .......................................................................................................... 32
      11.3.3. Dome Crane .............................................................................................................. 33
   11.4. Captive Tools and Fasteners ............................................................................................ 33
   11.5. Mirror Cover .................................................................................................................... 33
12. COATINGS ............................................................................................................................ 33
   12.1. Internal Coatings .............................................................................................................. 33
   12.2. External Coatings ............................................................................................................. 33
13. RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS ......................................... 33
   13.1. Duty Cycle ....................................................................................................................... 34
   13.2. Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) ............................................................................. 34
   13.3. Design Life....................................................................................................................... 34
   13.4. Routine Servicing............................................................................................................. 34
   13.5. Access Panels ................................................................................................................... 34
   13.6. Critical Spares .................................................................................................................. 34
   13.7. Modularity........................................................................................................................ 34
   13.8. Special Tools and Equipment .......................................................................................... 34
   13.9. Lifting points .................................................................................................................... 35
   13.10. Lifting Fixtures .............................................................................................................. 35

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  13.11. Quick Release Attachments ........................................................................................... 35
  13.12. Dome Drive Lifting Points............................................................................................. 35
14. ACCEPTANCE TESTING ..................................................................................................... 35
  14.1. Required Tests ................................................................................................................. 35
  14.2. Test Standards .................................................................................................................. 36
  14.3. Test Masses ...................................................................................................................... 36
  14.4. Cabling and Hoses ........................................................................................................... 36
15. PACKAGING AND SHIPPING ............................................................................................ 36
16. DOCUMENTATION ............................................................................................................. 36
  16.1. Operation Manual ............................................................................................................ 36
  16.2. Servicing Procedures ....................................................................................................... 36
  16.3. Test Results / Benchmarks ............................................................................................... 37
  16.4. Operations Log................................................................................................................. 37
  16.5. Safety Plan / Procedures .................................................................................................. 37
  16.6. Documentation ................................................................................................................. 37
  16.7. Installation Procedures ..................................................................................................... 37


APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................. A-2
1. ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................ A-2
2. WORKMANSHIP .................................................................................................................. A-2
   2.1. Fabrication and Assembly................................................................................................ A-2
      2.1.1. Welding ..................................................................................................................... A-3
      2.1.2. Stress Relieving ........................................................................................................ A-3
      2.1.3. Edges ......................................................................................................................... A-3
3. MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................... A-3
   3.1. Material Certification ....................................................................................................... A-3
   3.2. Structural Steel ................................................................................................................. A-3
   3.3. Structural Steel Shapes, Plates, and Bars ......................................................................... A-3
   3.4. Round Steel Pipe .............................................................................................................. A-3
   3.5. Square and Rectangular Tubing ....................................................................................... A-3
   3.6. Structural Bolts and Threaded Fasteners ......................................................................... A-3
      3.6.1. ASTM A325 Type 1 ................................................................................................. A-4
      3.6.2. Threaded Round Stock .............................................................................................. A-4
      3.6.3. Bolts and Nuts, High Strength Bolts ......................................................................... A-4
      3.6.4. Washers ..................................................................................................................... A-4
      3.6.5. Stainless Steel Bolts and Nuts................................................................................... A-4
      3.6.6. Load Indicator Washers ............................................................................................ A-4
      3.6.7. Bolt Lubrication: ....................................................................................................... A-4
      3.6.8. New Bolts.................................................................................................................. A-4
   3.7. High Strength Bolting ...................................................................................................... A-4
      3.7.1. Applicable Specifications and Procedures ................................................................ A-5
4. WELDING .............................................................................................................................. A-5
   4.1. Electrodes ......................................................................................................................... A-5
   4.2. Welding Electrodes .......................................................................................................... A-5
   4.3. Electrodes for Welding .................................................................................................... A-5

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   4.4. Applicable Codes and Standards ..................................................................................... A-5
5. PAINTING AND CORROSION CONTROL ........................................................................ A-5
   5.1. Quality Assurance ............................................................................................................ A-6
   5.2. Safety and Health Requirements ...................................................................................... A-6
   5.3. Surface Preparation .......................................................................................................... A-6
   5.4. Painting Sequence ............................................................................................................ A-7
   5.5. Exceptions to Painting Requirements .............................................................................. A-7
   5.6. Contamination and Cleaning............................................................................................ A-7


APPENDIX B-COMPONENT SPECIFICATIONS

APPENDIX C-DESIGN DRAWINGS

APPENDIX D-REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

APPENDIX E-PANEL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
1. Purpose.....................................................................................................................................E-2
2. Scope ........................................................................................................................................E-2
3. Background ..............................................................................................................................E-2
4. Dome System Description .......................................................................................................E-2
   4.1. General ..............................................................................................................................E-2
   4.2. Fixed Dome.......................................................................................................................E-2
   4.3. Shutters .............................................................................................................................E-2
   4.4. Vents .................................................................................................................................E-2
   4.5. External Ladder Attachment .............................................................................................E-3
   4.6. Internal Lighting Attachment ............................................................................................E-3
   4.7. Lighting Protection ...........................................................................................................E-3
5. Requirements ...........................................................................................................................E-3
   5.1. General ..............................................................................................................................E-3
   5.2. Mechanical Requirements .................................................................................................E-3
      5.2.1. Panel Thickness .........................................................................................................E-4
      5.2.2. Core Thickness...........................................................................................................E-4
      5.2.3. Thermal Insulation .....................................................................................................E-4
      5.2.4. System Weight ...........................................................................................................E-4
      5.2.5. Face Sheet Properties .................................................................................................E-4
   5.3. Environmental Conditions ................................................................................................E-4
      5.3.1. Operating Conditions .................................................................................................E-4
      5.3.2. Survival Conditions ...................................................................................................E-5
   5.4. Deflections ........................................................................................................................E-5
      5.4.1. Dome Paneling System ..............................................................................................E-5
      5.4.2. Shutters Panels ...........................................................................................................E-5
   5.5. Interfaces ...........................................................................................................................E-5
      5.5.1. Structural Steel ...........................................................................................................E-5
6. Coatings ...................................................................................................................................E-6
   6.1. Interior Coatings ...............................................................................................................E-6

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   6.2. Exterior Coatings ..............................................................................................................E-6
7. Reliability And Maintainability Requirements ........................................................................E-6
   7.1. Design Life........................................................................................................................E-6
   7.2. Routine Servicing..............................................................................................................E-6
   7.3. Critical Spares ...................................................................................................................E-6
   7.4. Modularity.........................................................................................................................E-6
   7.5. Special Tools and Equipment ...........................................................................................E-6
   7.6. Lifting points .....................................................................................................................E-7
   7.7. Lifting Fixtures .................................................................................................................E-7
8. PAINTING AND CORROSION CONTROL .........................................................................E-7
   8.1. Quality Assurance .............................................................................................................E-7
   8.2. Safety and Health Requirements .......................................................................................E-8
   8.3. Surface Preparation ...........................................................................................................E-8
   8.4. Painting Sequence .............................................................................................................E-8
   8.5. Exceptions to Painting Requirements ...............................................................................E-8
   8.6. Contamination and Cleaning.............................................................................................E-8


APPENDIX F-CONTROLS SYSTEM DESIGN
1.0 DOME Rotational Drives and Position Sensors .................................................................. F-3
     Figure 3 - Dome / Shutter Drive Diagram. .......................................................................... F-4
2.0 Dome and shutter drive controllers ........................................................................................ F-4
3.0 Shutter Drive CONTROL .................................................................................................... F-5
    Figure 4 - Slave Shutter Controller Diagram. ....................................................................... F-5
4.0 Windscreen Coupling and Overload Switch ........................................................................ F-5
5.0 Crane Operation Unit and Interlock ..................................................................................... F-6
     Figure 4 - Slave Dome Controller Diagram. ........................................................................ F-6
6.0 Data Aquistion i/o and Vents ............................................................................................... F-6
7.0 Manual User Interface (MUI) .............................................................................................. F-7
7.1 Hand Paddle ......................................................................................................................... F-7
7.2 Dome MUI………………………………………………………………………………...F-7




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1. INTRODUCTION
The SOAR Telescope Project, hereinafter referred to as SOAR, is in an effort to design,
construct, and install a 4.2-meter clear aperture telescope and support facility. The telescope is to
be sited atop Cerro Pachón at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.
The Project is a joint undertaking of the country of Brazil, the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), Michigan State University, and the National Optical Astronomy
Observatories (NOAO). Project offices are sited at NOAO in Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.

        1.1. Objective
This document is to guide the detailed design, fabrication, integration, test, debug, packaging,
shipping, and successful installation of the SOAR Telescope facility Dome. The Dome will
provide environmental protection, adequate strength to support all loading conditions, a
telescope observing opening with shutters, and drive systems to have the opening follow the
Telescope during observing. The Dome is an important part in allowing the Telescope to gather
the finest quality images of any 4-meter class instrument.

This specification provides a detailed design of the Dome as well as the performance
requirements. The performance requirements provide the parameters to which the Dome must
operate and survive, and represents the objectives of the design work performed to date. The
detailed design is provided to sufficient detail to be the starting point for fabrication drawings
and controls design. The objective is to provide fully developed designs to remove the
engineering risk, allow detailed costing, and allow the contractor to start into fabrication details.
The contractor is expected to fully review the provided design, complete design details, perform
confirming and any other necessary analysis, and accept the desired Dome performance.
Attempts have been made during the design to choose parts available in both Brazil and Chile
but equivalent component substitutions are allowed with SOAR approval. Interfaces with other
components of the facility are also defined in this document. The Contractor shall provide the
exterior panel system to meet the overall Dome requirements and those included in the Panel
System Specification provided in Appendix E. Contractors will be instructed to bid hours for
interactive design with the SOAR Project personnel and its Contractors to insure facility
compatibility and to assist in on-site Dome installation and commissioning.

Additional objectives are that the Dome include minimum part count and obtain its functionality
through fundamental elegance of design, exhibiting high efficiency usage of materials and
components. To the extent possible, off-the-shelf components or subsystems previously
designed, built, and tested should be used to minimize cost and to optimize the ability to
maintain and procure spare parts. Design of components should be achieved using the most
efficient and effective manufacturing processes to simplify all components and ensure lowest
design and maintenance costs.

       1.2. System Description
The Dome is a lightweight spherical structure of approximately 20 meters (66ft) diameter. The
5/8 spherical Dome consists of a steel frame covered with a lightweight composite or aluminum
weather tight panel system, shutter system, rotational friction drive system, overhead crane,
windscreen and vents. The volume enclosed by the Dome is actively air conditioned during the

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                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

day to the expected nighttime observing temperature. The panel system and steel are insulated to
enhance thermal resistance and reduce cooling loads. The Dome is supported on an integral ring
beam that transfers the loads to sixteen stationary trucks or “bogies” attached to the top of the
facility silo. A labyrinth seal is used to provide a weather tight interface between the rotating
Dome and the stationary facility. The Dome structure is designed to the worst case combination
of the survival loads defined in this specification. Electrical power for overhead lights, crane,
vents, and shutter are conveyed onto the rotating Dome by a slip ring.

The shutter on the Dome is a double door, over the top design. The two sections nest together as
they move over the top. The shutter doors are driven through a chain and sprocket drive on one
panel and a differential drive on the second panel. Each shutter frame is covered with the same
panels as is used on the rest of the Dome.

The drive systems for both the Dome Azimuth motion and the Shutter operate by command from
operator interfaces or the Telescope Control System. During telescope tracking operations the
drives of the dome will be commanded to make approximately 2 degree moves every 5 minutes
to allow the dome opening to “track” the telescope.

The Dome is designed with bolted joints between major substructures to allow fast assembly at
the SOAR site. The bogies and Dome drives shall be installed on the facility silo while a
temporary roof is in place. The Dome is partially assembled next to the facility, the temporary
roof is removed, and the partially assembled Dome will be lifted and emplaced on the stationary
bogies. The panel system will be lifted in sections and attached to the steel structure.

        1.3. Scope
This specification and Appendices define the Dome steel structure, the paneling system, drives,
bogies, vents, crane, structural, thermal, electrical, controls, interfaces, assembly, documentation,
and performance requirements. Appendices of this specification include general workmanship
requirements, detailed assembly drawings for the Dome structure and subsystems, purchased
component specifications, procedure and analysis documentation for the provided design, the
Panel System Specification, and the control system concept design.


2. DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS
This section provides functional descriptions and specifications for the Dome and subsystems.

        2.1. Steel Structure
The steel structure is a self-supporting welded and bolted steel construction that provides support
to the shutter system, the panel system, and the crane. The structure is comprised of the ring
beam and two arch girders. The ring beam transfers the total Dome loads to the stationary
building through the rotational interface with the fixed bogies. The ring beam also provides the
drive surface for the Dome rotation drive system.




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            2.1.1. Ring Beam
The ring beam is a welded circular ring that has a box beam section. The panel system is bolted
to the beam. The ring beam structure is designed for vertical and lateral stiffness as defined in
Section 3.0. Drawing SD1, in Appendix B, shows the cross section. Vertical stiffness is required
to allow smooth Dome rotation. The lateral stiffness of the ring reacts the arch girder lateral load
transfer as well as the friction drive normal forces. The ring beam is bolted together at the site.
The assembled beam shall be flat on the bearing surface to + 2mm globally, as specified on
drawing SD6, to insure proper functioning of the Dome rotation.

A circular hardened plate is welded to the bottom of the ring beam to form a track for the Dome
to ride on the bogies. The inner diameter of the ring beam provides the rolling surface for the
four friction drives. The ring beam also carries the encoder system and supports the electrical slip
ring.

            2.1.2. Arch Girders
There are two arch girders. The arch girders are built up steel beam sections that provide the
track for the shutters and support for the panel system and crane rails. The girders are bolted to
the ring beam for on-site assembly. See Appendix B for the arch girder construction. The girders
require high lateral stiffness as defined in Section 3.0, to maintain the shutter track alignment and
to react wind loads from the panel system. Two crane support beams form a cord across each
arch girder to provide the crane track. The crane support beams are bolted to the arch girders at
site assembly. The required 5.0 meters diameter clear aperture for the telescope viewing
determines girder separation. Lateral cross beams tie the arch girders together where the
telescope viewing is not necessary. The viewing slit defined by the arch girders and cross
members is defined by the required telescope clear aperture and optical axis travel of 0.25º to 75º
from zenith

        2.2. Panel System
The system is a monocoque structure, completely self-supporting, requiring no internal or
external support in static conditions. The prefabricated spherical panels use oriented
reinforcements and a catalyzed resin system to achieve a high specific stiffness. The system
generates a true spherical dome.

The panel system envisioned is made up of insulated composite panels, such as fiberglass, or an
insulated aluminum geodesic system that bolts together and is sealed at the site. The interface to
the steel internal structure must accommodate the load transfer due to environmental loads, such
as caused by differential thermal expansion and wind loading. The panel system can rely on the
steel frame to react environmental loads and dead weight. All field assembly shall be
accomplished with bolted joints. All panel interfaces shall be defined by the Contractor. The
overall Dome must be watertight. The panel system provides the thermal barrier to maintain the
air-conditioned observing area at the expected nighttime temperature. A thermal insulation value
of 36 ºC/W (R-19) is required. Panels are required to cover the two shutter door frames. The
panel system is assembled in sections on site and lifted onto the steel internal frame.

A panel system specification is included in this document in Appendix E.


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        2.3. Shutter and Windscreen System
A slit is required in the Dome for observing by the telescope. The slit is approximately 122
long, on a 9.9 meters radius, by 5 meters wide. The opening is defined by the Telescope clear
aperture of 4.2 meters and elevation travel from zenith pointing to 75º. A retractable shutter
system travels over the top of the Dome to open and close the slit. The shutter is comprised of
two nesting doors, a lower and upper door. The lower door is driven with a gear motor and
sprocket drive attached to the doorframe through a fixed chain attached to each arch girder. The
upper door motion is slaved to the lower door through a differential chain and sprocket drive
mechanism for opening and closing. The lower door nests under the upper door when fully open.
The shutter rides on a bearing track on each side of the door. One bearing rail shall provide
lateral and vertical restraint for the door and the opposite side shall have lateral freedom to
accommodate misalignment and relative motions. This bearing arrangement provides a semi
kinematic design. The effect of differences in vertical alignment between the bearing system
sides shall be considered. The shutter shall have software limits, limit switches, and energy
absorbing stops at the ends of travel of each shutter door. A non-contacting labyrinth seal is used
to seal the shutter doors to the arch girders. Electrical power is transferred to the shutter control
assembly through a slip ring.

A separate wind screen system, located in the lower quadrant of the opening is used to reduce
wind effects on the Telescope. The fabric “shutter” attenuates the wind affect on the telescope
but has relief cut outs to reduce the direct load on the windscreen. The fabric is attached to
tubular cross members that provide stiffness and strength to the system. The cross members have
guide rollers at each end that are constrained to follow a track attached to each arch girder. One
roller is allowed to move axially in the cross member to prevent binding between tracks. In the
retracted position the windscreen is rolled up on a spool at the bottom of the opening. The
windscreen is pulled up and unrolled from the spool by the lower shutter through two cables that
run along each arch girder. The windscreen shall be removable from the shutter through an easily
accessible quick release coupling. Removal of the windscreen from the shutter shall not affect
the shutter performance.

The shutter and windscreen shall maintain an opening of 5 meters by 5 meters, large enough to
satisfy the telescope clear aperture.

           2.3.1. Shutter Door Description
Each shutter door assembly is composed of a steel frame with four bearings and a panel. The
lower shutter door provides a mount for the drive and control assembly. Structurally re-enforced
ice and snow scrapers are provided on the shutter doors.

            2.3.2. Shutter Drive System
The shutter drive system incorporates the drive motor, gearbox, brake, drive sprockets, drive
bearings, encoder read head, controller, and drive shaft. The shutter drive is attached to the lower
doorframe. A tensioned fixed chain on each arch girder engages a drive sprocket assembly on
each side of the moving door. The shutter drive pulls itself along the fixed chains. The drive
sprocket assemblies are driven through a drive shaft and gear motor. The drive sprockets engage
the chain on both sides of the shutter to provide smooth motion. The chain is tensioned with a


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spring to provide drive stiffness and following accuracy. The drive motor incorporates a fail safe
brake (activated when power is removed) on the back end of the motor shaft.

The inner door drives the outer door via a differential drive. On both sides of the upper end of the
inner shutter is a 2:1 differential drive assembly. A spring tensioned fixed chain is attached to
the top of both arc girders. The chain is routed through the inner shutter differential drive
sprocket assembly. Another chain is attached to both sides of the outer shutter. The other half of
the differential drive assembly picks up the chain on the outer shutter. As the inner shutter
moves the outer shutter moves with it. The differential drive is rotated in the opposite direction
by the chain attached to the arc girder. This drive rotation is transferred to the outer shutter
through the differential drive into the chain attached to the outer shutter. The 2:1 speed
reduction of the differential drive has the net effect of moving the outer shutter at half the speed
of the inner shutter.

The shutter control electronics are mounted to the inner shutter door near the drive motor.
Communication between the Dome control system and the shutter control is via spread-spectrum
radio frequency (RF) modem. An encoder read head is attached to the shutter door. Fixed bar
code labels are attached to the underside of one arch girder. Power is transferred to the shutter
via a slip ring as defined in Section 4.0.

The differential drive works on the same principle as the main shutter drive. There is no drive
motor for this drive. The motion of the inner shutter controls the outer shutter as described in the
following text. A tensioned fixed chain is attached to the top of both arc girders. The spring is
tensioned with a spring mechanism. On both sides of the upper end of the inner shutter is the 2:1
differential drive assembly. The chain is routed through the inner shutter differential drive
sprocket assembly. Another chain is attached to both sides of the outer shutter. The other half of
the differential drive assembly picks up the chain on the outer shutter. As the inner shutter
moves the outer shutter moves with it. The differential drive is rotated in the opposite direction
by the chain attached to the arc girder. This drive rotation is transferred to the outer shutter
through the differential drive into the chain attached to the outer shutter. The 2:1 speed
reduction of the differential drive has the net effect of moving the outer shutter at half the speed
of the inner shutter.

                      2.3.2.1. Shutter Drive Requirements
The following performance requirements shall be met in the design and development of the
shutter drive. The design shall target these requirements with factors of safety and margin as
appropriate to the particular designs. The shutter drive shall meet these requirements under the
load and environmental conditions stated in other sections of this specification as well as all
other loads incurred by subsystems of the shutter. Opening the Shutter in presence of nominal
snow and ice shall be required. The shutter drive system is designed to provide this capability.

                              2.3.2.1.1. Shutter Drive Performance
The shutter system shall have two speeds with associated acceleration profiles that can be
adjusted via software interface. One faster speed will be associated with large shutter motions
and the slower speed settings will be used for the small motions associated with the “tracking” of

                                                12                                      DSP99-013
                                                                       SOAR Dome Specification

the telescope. The shutter is not required to continuously move to track the telescope but will be
commanded to stop and start as required to maintain the opening within 1 of telescope position.
The motion must be smooth and controlled.

        Range of Motion:

        Inner Shutter Door:                             112.5 (-4.5 to 108 Elevation)

        Outer Shutter Door:                             56.25 (50 to 106.25 Elevation)

        Velocity Range: (Inner Door):                   0 to 2.5/s

        Acceleration Range (Inner Door):                0.1 to 0.25 /s2

        Position Accuracy (moves over 2):              1

        Position Accuracy (moves under 2):             0.25

             2.3.3. Shutter Travel Limits
The shutter door travel shall not limit a 5-meter diameter clear aperture centered on the
Telescope optical axis as the axis travels the range of 0.25º to 75º from zenith. Each shutter door
shall have three levels of stops to limit the travel. The first limit is a software limit that gracefully
stops the shutter door at the end of travel. The second stop is a hardware limit (limit switch) that
is activated if the door does not stop after reaching the software limit. This limit shall gracefully
stop the door and not allow further commanded motion in the direction of travel while generating
an alarm message. The final stop is an energy-absorbing hard stop that shall also remove the
drive power until the system is manually reset.

                        2.3.3.1. Shutter Software Limits
The Dome control system software shall contain provisions for recognizing pre-programmed
encoder readout limits at either end of travel of the inner shutter. When a software limit is
reached, the Dome control system shall gracefully stop the shutter motion within 1 second and
send a status line to the TCS identifying the limit and encoder reading. A software-interlock shall
be imposed to prohibiting further motion in the direction of the exceeded limit. Additional
motion in this direction shall only be possible by issuing a special override command. The
software shutdown shall occur in time to stop the shutter prior to activating the hardware limit.

                      2.3.3.2. Hardware Limits
Each end of travel of the shutter door track shall have a normally closed limit switch located
outside the software range. When a hardware limit is reached, the Dome control system shall
gracefully stop the shutter motion within 1 second and send a status line to the TCS identifying
the limit and encoder reading. The shutter door shall stop before reaching a hard stop.

A hardware-interlock shall be imposed to prohibit further motion in the direction of the exceeded
limit. Additional travel in the limit direction shall be prohibited. Motion shall only be allowed in
                                                  13                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

the opposite direction to the original motion, and only at less than or equal to one-tenth the
maximum slew speed.

                      2.3.3.3.         Hard Stops
Cushioned energy absorbing hard stops shall be located at the end of travel for each shutter door.
The location of the stops shall not limit the normal travel range of the doors. The hard stop shall
be outside of the hardware limit stopping range described above. The hard stop shall absorb the
energy from a free fall of the shutter doors into the stops without damage to the doors, structure,
drives, or the stop.

A software-interlock shall be imposed to prohibit further motion in either direction. Further servo
motion shall not be allowed until a manual reset is activated.

         2.3.4. Settling Time
The maximum settling time under normal operation conditions shall be 10 seconds from
maximum slew speed with maximum deceleration 0.25º/s2.

            2.3.5. Shutter Manual Operation
A method to manually close the shutter shall be provided in the event the drive system fails.
Currently, the design incorporates a shaft extension on the motor for attaching a drill motor. The
manual operation shall be such that there is not risk to personnel or equipment during the
operation. The Facility extension lift will be available to access the shutter manual drive.

            2.3.6. Shutter Encoder
The shutter encoder has a laser bar code read head attached to the inner shutter door with bar
code labels attached to the under side of the arc girder. The read head is attached to a stiff
bracket on the shutter. Adjustment for alignment of the read head shall be incorporated in the
mounting. All shutter drive control loop closure is performed on the shutter. Stray reflections
from the laser in the read head are unacceptable. The design incorporates a shield and brush seal
to contain the laser energy. The brushes also remove dirt from the bar code labels. The output of
the encoder is sent to the control electronics on the shutter. The encoder resolution shall be
minimum of 0.1º to achieve the defined position accuracy.

            2.3.7. Windscreen System
The windscreen is a tight weave canvas fabric (trade name Sunbrella) treated to resist ultraviolet
radiation. The fabric is attached to tubular cross members. Each cross member incorporates
wheels on each end that ride in a track attached to the arch girder. One wheel on each cross
member is allowed to float axially to prevent binding of the windscreen due to assembly
tolerances and environmental loads. The fabric has cut outs as indicated in the attached drawings
in each panel to reduce the wind loading on the screen and mechanical components. The cut outs
reduced the maximum applied pressure due to wind to 383 Pa (8.0 psf).

The windscreen is attached to a spool. A torsion spring attached to the spool provides constant
tension to the screen during opening and closing. The windscreen shall have a removable handle
for manual winding.

                                                14                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification


        2.4. Dome Rotation Drive System
The Dome shall have unlimited bi-direction travel. The drive system consists of four identical
friction drive assemblies located 90 apart in azimuth. The diametrically opposed drive locations
provide for balancing the normal forces applied to the ring beam by the drive wheel. The normal
force is applied by a spring that provides a constant force through out the expected motion due to
eccentricities in the ring beam diameter and lateral motion of the Dome. The Dome drive system
is sized to operate with the combined maximum operating environmental conditions provided in
this specification.

           2.4.1. Dome Drive Assembly
The drive assembly consists of an electric gear motor with drive wheel, and electric fail safe
brake. The components are attached to a plate on linear slides. The slides allow the assembly to
move radially in the plane of the ring beam. The assembly is spring loaded against the ring beam
through the drive wheel. The spring is adjustable to tune the drive wheel normal force at
assembly.

The brake mechanisms attached to the drive shall prevent Dome rotation due to the wind during
operating and survival conditions. The brakes also serve as an emergency stop system for the
Dome in the event the Dome poses a threat to personnel or equipment.

            2.4.2. Dome Encoder
The Dome encoder is the combination of an absolute and a bi-directional incremental encoder.
The absolute encoder consists of metallic barcode labels attached to the rotational ring beam and
a laser read head attached at one drive location. Stray reflections from the laser in the read head
into the observing area are unacceptable. A shield and brush seal to contain the laser energy shall
be included. The brushes shall also serve to remove dirt from the bar code labels. This encoder’s
function is to synchronize the bi-directional incremental encoder. The bi-directional incremental
encoder shall be coupled to the Dome ring beam through a rubber wheel with a spring
mechanism to insure continuous contact and avoid slippage. The overall resolution of the
encoder shall be minimum 0.1º to maintain the ±1º tracking accuracy required with the telescope.
The high resolution bi-directional incremental encoder allows precise speed control as required
for a high performance torque feedback control loop.

            2.4.3. Dome Drive Requirements
The following performance requirements shall be met in the design and development of the
Dome. The design shall meet these requirements with factors of safety and margin as appropriate
to the particular designs. The Dome shall meet these requirements under the load and
environmental conditions stated in other sections of this specification as well as all other loads
incurred by subsystems of the Dome.

                      2.4.3.1. Performance Requirements
The Dome system shall have two speeds with associated acceleration profiles that can be
adjusted via software interface. One faster speed will be associated with large Dome motions and
the slower speed settings will be used for the small motions associated with the “tracking” of the
telescope. The Dome is not required to continuously move to track the telescope but will be

                                                15                                     DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification


commanded to stop and start as required to maintain the opening within 1 of telescope position.
The motion must be smooth and controlled.

       Rotational Travel:                            Continuous

       Velocity Range:                               0 to 2.5/s

       Acceleration Range:                           0.1 to 0.25 /s2

       Position Accuracy (moves over 2):            1

       Position Accuracy (moves under 2):           0.25

         2.4.4. Settling Time
The maximum settling time under normal operation conditions shall be 10 seconds from
maximum slew speed with maximum deceleration of 0.25º/s2.

       2.5. Bogies
Sixteen (16) identical fixed bogies mounted to the top of the facility silo at each column location
shall be used to support the Dome. The bogies shall be sized to accommodate the combined
survival environmental loading, live loads, and dead loads. Each bogie assembly has a single
compliant vertical support roller that forms the rolling surface for the Dome, a lateral roller to
maintain alignment of the Dome during rotation, and two vertical restraint rollers to react lifting
loads on the Dome. The hardened steel track on the ring beam rides on the bogie assemblies. The
16 bogies are aligned coplanar on the facility silo at installation. The bogies shall be designed to
accommodate up to 25 mm of adjustment for initial installation. The Bogie assemblies shall
maintain clear sight from each axle to the Dome center of rotation and each axle shall include the
space and features shown in the design for alignment fixtures. After alignment the bogies shall
be grouted and bolted in place.

        2.6. Dome Vent
A minimum of 2.5m2 of ventilation area shall be provided at the top of the Dome but outside of
the shutter door track. Standard weatherproof “mushroom” type hoods shall be provided to
prevent the intrusion of precipitation, including rain, ice, and snow. The vents shall be mounted
on the panel system. A grill mesh (flush with outer surface) shall be incorporated to prevent large
insects and fowl access into the Dome interior. Four (4) Greenhech Model GRS-36 gravity vents,
or equivalent, shall be used. The vents shall include Greenhech VCD-23 powered back draft
louvered dampers or equivalent. Limit switches shall be installed to the dampers to sense opened
and closed positions. The Dome Contractor shall provide power and control of the dampers.
Control of the louvers shall be available through the Dome Computer or from manual switches
located on the Dome.

        2.7. Dome Crane
A Dome crane shall be provided with the Dome for lifting telescope instruments and servicing of
the primary mirror. A minimum lifting capacity of 10,000kg is required. The crane bridge moves
on the rails attached to the arch girders. The radial travel of the crane from the center of the
                                                16                                      DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

Dome is 5.8m along the centerline of the Dome defined by the observing slit. The crane is fixed
in the center of the bridge and has no lateral motion along the bridge. Lateral positioning of the
crane shall be achieved by rotating the Dome at reduced speed. The bridge shall be designed to
provide maximum hook height and access to the telescope without interfering with the travel of
the bridge. The full lifting capacity will only be used with the Dome stationary. The lifting
capacity of the crane is reduced to 3,000kg if the Dome is to be rotated during the lifting
operation. Telescope personnel are required to operate the crane from the lower level of the
facility during Telescope maintenance. Therefore the crane shall include a wireless remote
control unit. Electrical interlocks shall be incorporated in the crane drive in the stowed position.
The crane specification is provided in Appendix B.

            2.7.1. Crane Stowed Position and Interlocks
The stowed position for the Dome crane is the maximum radial distance from the viewing slit
and the hoist ring fully retracted. The interlocks in the Dome Control System shall provide an
output signal to the Telescope Control System (TCS) as to whether the crane is stowed or not.
The signal is used by the TCS to prevent motion of the Telescope Mount if the crane is not in the
stowed position.

       2.8. Seals
Weatherproof seals shall be provided to prevent ice, snow, and water from entering the Dome
through the shutter, and rotational drive. Low friction or non-contacting labyrinth seals shall be
used to reduce the friction load on the drive systems. Seals must not be damaged by operation
during freezing or ice-over conditions. The seals shall be as air tight as found practical to
maintain the low friction load, account for variations in manufacturing and assembly tolerances,
and motion tolerances. The complete Dome seal to the facility shall be provided by the
Contractor. A method of adjustment of the seals at assembly shall be designed into the
mountings.

3. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

      3.1. Crane Loads
The Dome shall support the crane loads for the following conditions.

          3.1.1. Dome Stationary
The Dome shall remain stationary when supporting the maximum crane load of 10,000kg. The
Dome design shall account for the moving load due to crane bridge through full motion

            3.1.2. Dome Moving
The Dome shall support the reduced crane load of 3,000kg when rotating at 10% of maximum
velocity. The crane bridge shall remain stationary during Dome rotation.

      3.2. Mass Properties
The mass properties of the Dome shall be consistent with the provided design.

           3.2.1. Dome Weight
The current total rotating Dome weight is estimated to not exceed 68,200kg.

                                                17                                      DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification



        3.3. Deflections
The stiffness of the steel support system shall be defined by the following values with the panel
system installed and the Dome installed on the compliant bogies. All deflections include
stiffening effects due to the panel system. The mechanical properties for the panel system can be
found in Appendix E.

             3.3.1.   Ring Beam
The ring beam shall be fabricated to be circular in the horizontal plane when the dead load is
applied. That is, a camber is designed into the beam such that the dead load forms the desired
final shape.
                    3.3.1.1. Horizontal Plane
       Load Case: Survival snow and ice

       Change of radius in the horizontal plane
       (ovalizing of the ring):                      ±5.1mm

                     3.3.1.2. Vertical Plane
       Load Case: Dead load and fully loaded crane at center of Dome.
       Bogie spring stiffness is 46,740kN/mm (265,000lb/in).

       Differential deflection between arch girder connection
       and a point located 90º away on the ring beam:              1.5mm

           3.3.2. Arch Girder
                     3.3.2.1. Vertical Plane
       Load Case: Dead load and fully loaded crane at center of Dome.
       Bogie spring stiffness is 46,740kN/mm (265,000lb/in).

       Maximum deflection:           8.1mm

                     3.3.2.2. Lateral Plane
       Load Case: Dead load and fully loaded crane at center of Dome.
       Bogie spring stiffness is 46,740kN/mm (265,000lb/in).

       Maximum deflection:           6.3mm

       Load Case:                    Maximum wind load

       Arch Girders:                 30.5mm

          3.3.3. Shutters
       Load Case:                    Dead and survival load 2,394 kPa

                                                18                                   DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

       Maximum deflection:            12.7 mm


4. ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

        4.1. Electrical Power
Power to the Dome will be provided by SOAR at each major subsystem location. Electrical
design and equipment sizing shall be consistent with the requirements provided in this section,
the site and environmental conditions, and unless otherwise specified, Chilean standards and
practices.

             4.1.1. Voltage, Frequency, Current and Ground
A 350kVA step-down power transformer is used to provide the 2.4kV medium-voltage facility
supply. The line frequency is 50Hz Chilean standard only. Frequency variation is expected to be
less than ±1Hz, as well as voltage variations less than ±10%. Primary available power for heavy
loads is 380/220V, 3Ø Wye connection, grounded neutral, limited distribution. For instruments,
120V as well as 220V, single-phase electric power will be available at the locations of different
subsystems. When necessary, instruments can be connected to an auxiliary 120V uninterruptible
power supply (UPS) also available, but not to be used for simple power filtering purposes.
SOAR power, even UPS power, shall not be considered filtered. Where required, the Contractor
shall provide a local filter/isolation transformer. Power may come from different sources (power
transformer, UPS, emergency generator, isolation transformer), therefore the Contractor shall
provide systems capable of tolerating random variations and uncontrolled power outages without
damage to equipment. The Contractor shall specify the required current for each subsystem
location. SOAR recommends the use of high efficiency and high power factor power supplies
where possible. Heat dissipation shall be minimized to control the cost and size of the heat
extraction system. To ensure that line voltage waveforms supplied to all the system are
acceptably clean and to achieve high power distribution efficiency and low conducted noise,
equipment must avoid contaminating the line by drawing high frequency or highly non-
sinusoidal load currents. Appropriate specifications and certification procedures shall be adopted.
Ground connection is also available at the different locations. Ground specifications and/or
power requirements different from previously stated must be made explicit by the Contractor in
their bid proposals.

            4.1.2. Power Protection
All electronic/electrical equipment must have over-current protections (thermal breakers, fuses,
lightning arrestors, surge protection, etc.). Fuses must be easily accessible for replacement. All
electronic/electrical equipment must have a main line circuit breaker or power switch, and a
controlled light indicator for power status. All electrical/electronic installation must comply with
National Electrical Code where applicable.

WARNING: All electrical and electronic equipment in the telescope facility must have safety
grounds!




                                                19                                      DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

            4.1.3. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The Dome and its components shall minimize electromagnetic interference with scientific
instruments and other telescope systems. Emissions and immunity to EMI must be considered in
every part of the Dome. Electronic equipment used in the observing area must be EMI certified
and comply with FCC regulation Part 15, Class B limit for emissions. For equipment used in the
control or computer room, Class A limit is acceptable. All electronic equipment shall be certified
IEC1000-4-2 or better for electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity and, IEC1000-4-3 and
IEC1000-4-6, or better, for RFI immunity. Immunity to power-line disturbances (IEC1000-4-9,
IEC1000-4-13), electrical fast transient (IEC1000-4-4), and surges (IEC1000-4-5).

            4.1.4. Lightning Protection
Lightning protection shall be provided by the Contractor as an integral part of the panel system.
The installation and design of the system shall meet the Lightning Protection Institute (LPI)
Code 175 and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 780. Installation shall be made by or
under the supervision of an LPI certified master installer. Complete installation to receive
system certification including submittal of forms LPI 175-A and 175-B. Contractor shall provide
an adequate conductive path from the main body of the Dome to the ring beam, which serves as
the bearing journal for the Dome rotator. In addition, the ring beam shall contain a conductive
surface suitable for contact by a system of brushes. The conductive surface shall exist opposite
the lateral support roller. The lightning protection system shall be defined during the
Contractor’s Detailed Design and approved by SOAR.

        4.2. Electrical Interface Requirements
             4.2.1. Connectors
The Contractor shall define and provide electrical connectors, cabling, and conduit consistent
with high reliability operation and EMC constraints. Connectors shall be capable of being rapidly
disconnected for service of all assemblies of the Dome. Connectors shall be keyed so that
incorrect connection is not possible. Proper strain relief shall be provided to ensure reliability
and to minimize effect of cabling loads on the Dome performance. Only high quality rough
service connectors may be used.

           4.2.2. Cables
Power and signal cables shall be shielded for low and high frequency interference. Whenever
possible, power and signal wires must be routed separately. The cabling design must avoid
ground loops. Cables designated for power must also meet the specifications for voltage and
amperage capacities as per the U.S.A. National Electric Code.

Cabling routed on the Dome shall be installed in conduit, flexible or rigid, and securely attached
to the Dome.

             4.2.3. Cable Lengths
The Contractor shall provide all cables and connections between the Dome and other elements of
the SOAR telescope and facility. Distances to specific rooms in the facility are defined in Section
7 of this specification. Additional distances for cables that need to travel through the facility may
be determined through building layout drawings.


                                                 20                                     DSP99-013
                                                                       SOAR Dome Specification

             4.2.4. Slip Rings
Power and emergency control signals to the Dome and Shutter will be passed through shielded
type slip rings. The Dome slip ring will rotate with the dome, while the trolleys will be
stationary. In particular, the Dome Contractor shall also incorporate mounting for the slip ring
trolleys to the fixed facility. For the Shutter, the slip ring will be stationary, while the trolley will
move with the Shutter. In all cases adequate short circuit protection shall be provided. There
shall be no power interruptions due to poor contact between slip rings and trolleys in order to
guarantee the continuous operation of all control equipment installed on the Dome and Shutter.
The maximum power required by the Dome across the slip ring shall be no greater than 50 kVA.

        4.3. Electronic Enclosure Requirements
The Contractor shall supply enclosures for Contractor supplied electronics. Enclosures shall be a
model with metal side covers, front or top, full-length doors, and leveling feet or equivalent. All
electronics shall be on slide out drawers or mounted on an easily removable way. All cable
connections shall be accessible from the doors of the enclosure. The enclosure shall use wiring
harnesses with enough service loop to open the drawers for maintenance. Low heat dissipation is
required for these enclosures. However, SOAR will be responsible for environment conditioning
and heat removal of electronics located outside of the observing area. The Contractor shall make
every effort to locate electronics outside the observing area.

        4.4. Dome Control Electronics in the Observing Area
Distributed electronic modules necessary for Dome operation and sensing shall be provided by
the Contractor. Modules shall be mounted in such a way as to be easily accessible and removed
for service or replacement. Modules that produce appreciable radiated or conducted heat shall be
Contractor insulated. If active cooling is required, the Contractor shall provide appropriate
liquid-to-air heat exchangers. SOAR will provide the glycol/water supply.

        4.5. Electronic Equipment Mounting
The Contractor shall design the final mounting for electronics located in the Dome. These
designs shall be for such equipment as the variable frequency drives, Dome and shutter
controllers, limit switches, sensors, etc. Additional equipment may be determined during the
Detailed Design of the Dome. Mounting for the slip ring and trolleys shall be design by the
Contractor.

5. CONTROL SYSTEM
The Dome equipment shall include a complete control system capable of proper operation of all
Dome functions. This system must function in the SOAR environment described in this
specification and shall support control from the Telescope Control System (TCS) and Dome
supplied interfaces.

       5.1. General Scope
The control system includes all hardware, software and interconnects necessary to operate the
Dome Systems. The system shall be capable of interfacing with the SOAR TCS for remote
operation and shall include a cabled hand paddle and terminal for autonomous control of the
Dome System. The control system shall support the safety features described in the specification


                                                   21                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

for both personnel and hardware protection. A detailed description of the control system concept
design can be found in Appendix F.

        5.2. Operational States
The Dome shall be capable of the following states of operation. The interaction of these states is
shown in Figure 5.1. Upon application of system power and successful arrival at the Power-On
Self Test State, the Dome system shall be available to the operational modes defined in Section
5.3.
             5.2.1. Quiescent/Power-Off (QPO) State
The Dome shall be capable of maintaining a power-off state which preserves all programming,
settings, variables, and other data, both default values and user defined parameters, required for
all other modes and states. During this state any or all power sources to the Dome systems may
be off including any high voltage feeds and UPS sources. Items operating off battery back-up
will have a service life of at least one year. Storage or inactivity in a power-off mode shall not
damage components or equipment. The quiescent/power-off state shall be compatible with the
transition to the Power-On Self Test State.

             5.2.2. Power-On Self Test (POST) State
The Dome shall attain the POST Status upon application of power to the system. The Contractor
shall define the process for applying power to the Dome System. Power up shall not require the
telescope operators to leave the control room. SOAR will provide necessary power outlets in
close proximity to the Dome subsystems. Upon power-up, the Dome shall perform self-
diagnostic checks of all computer systems and other electronics with internal self-diagnostic
capabilities. The result shall be a status message of Dome system readiness, including location
and type of errors identified. Provided no errors are identified, the Dome shall be defined to be in
the Base Ready State. If critical errors are encountered that compromise the integrity of the
control system the system shall stay inoperative in the Error State. Recovery from this condition
shall be through use of a back-up initialization and diagnostic start-up procedure. The Dome
shall be capable of initiating the POST state upon command from the TCS or local computer
within the control room by re-booting computers rather than cycling power to them. The system
shall allow power to be shut off while in the POST without loss of data or recovery by the
established standard power-up sequence.

            5.2.3. Base Ready (BR) State
Upon successfully completing the POST due to power-on or system re-boot, the Dome system
shall enter a Base Ready State. In this state the sub-systems are powered where appropriate but
all drive motors remain inactive with control loops not operating. In this state the Dome system
is ready for one of three control modes to take charge. Control of the Dome shall be available to
the hand paddle, the TCS, or the Dome Terminal within the SOAR control room. If the TCS or
Hand Paddle takes control of the system, the Dome shall automatically enter the System Health
Check State. If the Dome Terminal establishes control then the system shall enter the
Maintenance and Diagnostic (MD) Mode but shall not change states until commanded to do so.
In this state under MD control all the system parameters and features are available for
verification and manipulation.



                                                22                                      DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

             5.2.4. System Health Check (SHC) State
Upon command of the SHC the Dome shall initiate a series of self-tests and comprehensive
diagnostics which shall, to the extent possible, test all subsystems to verify their operation within
nominal specifications. Diagnostics requiring subsystem operations beyond a stand-by mode
shall be available to include in the automatic nature of this state or shall be offered as user
elected options. This shall include an option to do jogs for motion diagnostics and for encoder
set-up. A procedure shall be available to move the Dome to a fiducial mark and initialize the
Dome encoder to the zero position. All faults identified shall be reported to the TCS, clearly
identifying the nature and location. All faults shall be categorized as Terminal or Degradation
Faults. Terminal faults shall be identified to the unit in control and the system shall stay in the
Error State. Degradation Faults, those compatible with graceful degradation of the Dome
performance, shall be identified and the system shall enter the Operational Ready State as it shall
without any detected faults. The Dome shall be capable of entering the SHC state from any other
state. Tests and diagnostics performed in the SHC State shall not include basic level computer
diagnostics that are checked during the POST state given the successful attainment of the Base
Ready State.

             5.2.5. Operational Ready (OPR) State
The Dome shall be capable of entering the Operational Ready State upon successful completion
of the SHC State. The SHC is always the route to reaching the OPR State from any lower level
state. In the OPR State the system is responsive to the controlling unit, (hand paddle, TCS, Dome
Terminal) with full I/O support of encoder and sensor data. The system shall respond to and act
on all operational capabilities other than actual motion control.

            5.2.6. Set Position (SP) State
The Dome system shall enter a Set Position State (SP) when commanded from the TCS or the
Dome Terminal. In this state the Dome is in closed loop condition, moving to the commanded
position at the presently selected rate. Upon completion of the commanded moves, the system
indicates completion and returns to the previous state from where it was commanded. This state
is available to the TCS through the remote Operation Mode or the Dome Terminal through the
Maintenance and Diagnostic Mode.

           5.2.7. Error State
The Dome enters the Error State upon detection of an anomalous condition in its internal
functioning. In this state the Dome shall be inactive. The Dome leaves this state either by a
reboot operation or through interaction with the Maintenance and Diagnostics (MD) mode.

           5.2.8. Abort State
The Abort State is entered when an abort command is issued to stop the Dome motion. After the
Dome has reached a complete stop, it returns to the previous state from where the motion
command was originated.




                                                 23                                     DSP99-013
                                                                                                                                        SOAR Dome Specification




                                                                          ERROR



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                                                                                        Error condition
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                                                                                                                                                               Move command
           Power ON          OK                                TCS                                                       OK
     QPO              POST                     BR                           SHC                                                               OPR                  End of move          SP
                                                            Hand Paddle
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                                                                                                                             an
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                                                                              MD




                             Figure 5.1 Dome Control State Diagram




        5.3. Operational Modes
The Dome control system includes three types of user interface. They are control from a hand
paddle located at the observing level, a Dome terminal located in the control room, and the TCS
also located in the control room. The use of each device constitutes a different mode of operation
allowing for different avenues through the system. After the Base Ready State is achieved, one
of the following modes of operation is chosen to continue use of the system. Changing of modes
of operation shall be possible from either the Readiness State or the Operational Ready State.

            5.3.1. Remote Operation Mode (TCS Control)
The Dome system shall have a remote operation mode where the system is interactive with the
Telescope Control System. TCS operators shall be provided with data and control of critical
parameters and functions consistent with the hardware state. The system shall respond and act on
all operational capabilities and support all states and sensor information requests.

           5.3.2. Maintenance and Diagnostic (MD) Mode (Dome Terminal)
The Dome system shall have a Maintenance and Diagnostic mode that is used from the Dome
Terminal. This mode shall be password protected to maintain authorized access. The purpose of
                                             24                                   DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

this mode is to allow root access to the Dome control system parameters and the ability to
perform low level diagnostics for troubleshooting, maintenance, or system optimization. This
mode shall have access to simulation modules necessary to perform diagnostics on all aspects of
the system. MD shall be remotely accessible. An example of such a simulation is one for the
TCS to invoke the Set Position State. In this mode the system can enter any hardware state.

            5.3.3. Hand Paddle (Manual) Mode
The Dome system shall include a hand paddle that can be used in the observing area. In this
mode of operation a limited set of control features is available. As a minimum the Dome can be
rotated and the shutter open and closed. More definition of the hand paddle functions is
provided in Appendix F.

         5.4. Platforms and Operating Systems
The Main Dome Controller system shall be based on personal computers (PC) in a PCI or
CompactPCI chassis. The Control System shall utilize commercially available off-the-shelf
motion controllers and/or industrial process controllers. All hardware shall be consistent with the
3 modes of operation identified in section 1.4 and the operational states defined in Section 1.3.
The PC connected to the SOAR TCS network shall run Windows NT or Linux. These operating
systems provide the multitasking and multithreading capabilities to implement the control
strategies described in this document. The use of National Instruments LabVIEW/BridgeVIEW
as the software architecture and PCI/CompactPCI as the hardware architecture are requirements
in this specification.

         5.5. Remote Communication Requirements
The Dome system shall communicate to the SOAR Telescope Control System via fast Ethernet
connections. This line will handle all communication to support the interface between the TCS
and Dome for all applicable modes and States of operation. The TCS will exchange information
with the other parts of the SOAR system by the use of commands. A command consists of
identification, a name and an optional parameter list. The name specifies the action or operation
to be performed, using the optionally supplied parameters. The commands are handled by a
communications library, which allows clients to establish connections to command servers, to
issue commands to command servers, and to monitor the responses to commands. This
communications library will be provided by SOAR, and the library implementation will be based
on a socket interface library under TCP/IP. The Contractor shall implement the connection
between its own internal functionality and the command protocol. If, for example, a private
database model is considered, the commands supported by the subsystem would deposit or return
values in the database. This would happen instantly so that an immediate reply would occur. The
utilization of this command protocol also permits monitoring the state of all subsystem
components. The act of monitoring the system shall in no way decrease or affect system
performance.

        5.6. Software
The Dome system shall include software to operate the Dome in every aspect defined in this
specification. The software shall include all necessary communication, motion control interface,
diagnostic, and any other software necessary for the proper and safe operation of the Dome. All
software shall be supplied to SOAR in listing, source, and object code form. The software shall

                                                25                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

be written in modular fashion. The use of specialized operating system facilities should be
avoided, and if that is the case, they shall be properly documented. The design shall permit
modifications and evolution of the code without disrupting the entire system. The
implementation shall be based on National Instrument’s LabVIEW/BridgeVIEW software
packages. It is mandatory that the Dome software links to the SOAR provided communications
library.

            5.6.1. Software Architecture
The software shall support all the necessary data flow to achieve all the System States defined in
Section 1.3 and for operation of the system in any of the three modes described in Section 5.3.
This includes methods to access and change all operational parameters in the motion control
cards, system database, and root operating system. The software shall support an initialization
process to return the system to default operating parameters.

            5.6.2. System Database
The Dome system shall include a complete database of operating parameters and log of critical
events. The database shall include a baseline set of parameters as well as current operational
default parameters that have been altered by the user. The system will constrain the operational
changes to be bound within safe limits and will not accept out of bound parameters. These
parameters include velocities, accelerations, and set points. For safe operation and reasonable
diagnostic opportunities the Dome system shall include a database to log critical faults for later
review.

           5.6.3. System Diagnostics
The Dome system shall be capable of self-diagnostic checks of all system components consistent
with the operational modes described in Section 1.4. These checks shall be implemented at
operator command or automatically, consistent with the operational states of the system.

        5.7. Soft Travel Limit
As a part of the safety system each shutter shall have software definable limits of travel for each
direction of motion. These adjustable set points shall restrain the system from traveling beyond
the set limits and will initiate a controlled stop upon approaching these limits. The system shall
remain fully operational at these limits but motions are to be restricted to depart from the limit
condition.

        5.8. Reduced Speed Operation
The Dome system shall support the ability to enter a preset slow operation upon the receipt of a
SOAR provided signal. The system will be fully functional during this condition but all system
motions shall be constrained to a preset slow maximum velocity. The reduced speed shall be in
effect when the crane is in use or out of the stowed position.

        5.9. Emergency Stop System
The Dome control system shall include an appropriate hard-wired point in the system to connect
with the SOAR Emergency Stop (E-stop) System. The SOAR E-stop system will be mushroom
“panic” switches distributed throughout the facility to enable an immediate stop of all equipment
within the facility. Immediate stops will be necessary if personnel anticipate collisions, smell or

                                                26                                     DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

see smoke, hear inappropriate noises, etc. The connection point for the E-stop system in the
Dome control system shall be at a sufficient depth in the system to immediately disable power to
all subsystems upon receipt of the signal and without governing by software systems. No
subsystem shall be damaged by the activation of an emergency stop.


6. THERMAL REQUIREMENTS

        6.1. Dissipated Power
Heat producing components located in the Dome can perturb dimensions of the telescope or
adversely affect optical seeing. When possible heat producing components shall be located in
other areas of the facility. Heat producing equipment that is located within the Dome shall meet
the following requirements:

            6.1.1. Electronics within the Observing Environment
Systems that must be in close proximity to the Telescope and will hence occupy regions of the
telescope enclosure shall not dissipate more than a total of 100 watts to the environment in any
operational state. In the event that the components would do so, heat removal measure must be
taken. The Contractor shall provide insulated housings and suitable cooling heat exchangers,
fans, etc for equipment within the fixed enclosure to reduce dissipated power to the specified
level. SOAR shall provide suitable flows of ambient temperature glycol/water coolant at the
locations of such systems. The Contractor shall provide insulated housings and means to duct the
warm air away from the telescope viewing path for such equipment located on the rotating
Dome.

             6.1.2. Electronics within Other Regions of the SOAR Facility
Other electronics systems may dissipate power at nominal industrial rates consistent with use in
institutional environments. Facility locations and conditions for these electronics are described in
Section 7.

       6.2. Thermal Sensing, Control, and Conditioning of Dome Assemblies
The objective is to maintain telescope optical surfaces during observing within –0.6 to +0.2ºC
and to minimize heat dissipated to the observing environment, in particular near or in the optical
path.

            6.2.1. General Thermal Conditioning Strategy
The observing environment is serviced by high capacity glycol/water air conditioning systems.
This system is specified to maintain the observing environment at the average expected
nighttime temperature throughout the day. As the evening approaches, the set point of this
system will be adjusted to approximately 1 to 5ºC below expected ambient temperature. This
temperature will be maintained for several hours to allow the observing environment and
telescope to equilibrate. Set point is predicated in part on the dew point, expected thermal/time
gradient, experiential data, etc. At the onset of observing the air conditioning will be switched off
and the facility downdraft ventilation system turned on. This system is capable of up to 30 air
changes per hour that provide observing area flushing to equilibrate temperatures in the
observing optical path to ambient and dissipate convected heat, providing optimal optical seeing.

                                                 27                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification



            6.2.2. Actuators & Mountings
The Contractor shall minimize the heat capacity and thermal mass of all Dome components in
pursuit of the best rate of equilibration. If necessary, components shall be insulated to reduce
response to transient ambient thermal conditions. Actuators, sensors, electronics, and other active
heat producing components shall be selected to offer minimum dissipated power. To the extent
the duty cycle and control bandwidth permits and to the extent practical, actuators shall be
designed to provide power-off hold of position and/or force.

7. SOAR FACILITY
The SOAR facility is located at 30.233º latitude south. The SOAR facility that will house the
Mount structure and its subsystems is shown in Appendix D. This section describes the
conditions and locations for various parts of the facility that can be used by the Dome support
systems.

         7.1. Observing Area
The observing area is that space where the Telescope resides. This space consists of the volume
surrounded by the 9-meter radius silo and the Dome. This space is air conditioned throughout the
day to stay close to the anticipated outside temperature at the onset of observing the following
evening. This space is then open to the outside conditions throughout the night, 365 nights a
year, weather permitting. The observing space will only be conditioned with a chilled glycol
system. No heaters are provided. All equipment housed within the Observing area shall have
restricted heat dissipation as defined in Section 6.

        7.2. Control Room
The facility will have a control room in the control and service building. This space will be
maintained with heat and cooling to maintain a standard building environment. The temperatures
will be maintained from 15 < T < 25°C.

       7.3. Computer Room
Directly adjacent the Control room will be a computer room designated to house all SOAR
control computers. Local computers for the user interface will also be housed in the computer
room. Computers are expected to have appropriate keyboard, monitor, and mouse extenders, as
necessary to allow the separation of these parts from the main computer and power supplies. The
computer room will be fully air conditioned within a temperature range of 18 < T < 23°C.

        7.4. Mechanical Equipment Building
The SOAR facility includes a mechanical equipment building located at the southern end of the
control and service building. This room is intended for all equipment that is loud, heat producing,
and/or operates with vibration. This room is separated to allow a separate foundation for
vibration control, space for sound control, and distance to put large heat sources as far from the
telescope as possible. This building will have waste heat exhaust fans directed to the down wind
side of the mountain. This room will not be temperature-controlled, except for heating as locally
required by equipment. The achievable range of local temperature control will be 10 < T < 35°C.
Space in the equipment building is available to be allocated to SOAR subsystems as needed.


                                                28                                     DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification


       7.5. Instrument Utility Room
Within the lower level of the cylindrical telescope silo building will be a separately enclosed
space for instrument utility equipment. This room (approximately 12m2) will house the
compressors, chiller(s), tanks, pumps, etc. that are smaller scale, produce less heat than the large
mechanical equipment, and benefit from close proximity to the telescope and instruments. The
space will be insulated and vibration isolated from the rest of the enclosure. Similar to the
Mechanical Equipment Building, this space will be temperature controlled only with local
heating as specifically required for equipment with a range of 10 < T < 35°C.

       7.6. General Facility Space
There is significant additional space within the SOAR facility that has been designated for
general use. Space can be allocated, as needed, to SOAR subsystems upon request. The general
space within the facility is neither heated nor cooled and thus experience temperatures as
described by the Environmental Survival conditions.

        7.7. Intra-Facility Distances
Table 7-1 defines the distances (±10%) for cables and utilities that interconnect between various
locations within the facility. The maximum distance is used for the Dome drives. All cables run
through cable trays in the lower level of the facility.

                From:                           To:                   Distance (meters):
              Dome Drive                   Control Room                      50
              Dome Drive                 Computer Room                       50
              Dome Drive                Mechanical Room                      45
              Dome Drive             Instrument Utility Room                 26
             Control Room                Computer Room                       12
             Control Room           Mechanical Equipment Room                21
             Control Room            Instrument Utility Room                 24
            Computer Room            Instrument Utility Room                 28

                       Table 7-1 Facility to Observing Level Cable Distances



        7.8. SOAR Supplied Utilities
SOAR will supply a water/glycol coolant fluid flow to any location within the facility required
for equipment cooling to ambient conditions. SOAR will also supply power to all required
locations within the facility. Power is defined previously. Lines will be terminated with an
appropriate manual cut off switch consistent with the power provided. A supply of compressed
air is also available throughout the facility. This air will be 827kPa (120 psi), have a nominal
flow rate of 0.6 Standard Cubic Meters/Min (20 SCFM) and have general filtering. Components
requiring special conditions will need to include the necessary processing.

8. INSTALLATION
The Dome shall be designed and fabricated for on-site assembly. The internal steel structure
shall have bolted joints to allow pre-assembly for test at the Contractor’s facility. After testing
                                                29                                      DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

the structure shall be disassembled for shipping. The Contractor shall provide technical support
for assembly and debug of the Dome at the Telescope facility.

         8.1. Site Installation
The Dome is designed with bolted joints between major substructures to allow fast assembly at
the SOAR site. The bogies and Dome drives shall be installed on the facility silo while a
temporary roof is in place. The internal steel structural frame shall be assembled next to the
facility. The shutters may be installed at this time. To the extent possible, part of the panel
system should be installed before lifting the internal structure frame onto the facility. The
remaining panels shall be assembled in two to three sections with appropriate lifting lugs to be
used to rapidly lift and aid assembly on the internal steel frame.

A preliminary sequence of installation is described here: Initial installation of the bogies and
drive assemblies shall be accomplished using suitable cranes and lifts without the Dome in place.
The Dome is partially assembled next to the facility, the temporary roof is removed, and the
partially assembled Dome will be lifted and emplaced on the stationary bogies. The panel system
will be lifted in sections and attached to the internal structure.

The final installation plan shall be defined by the Contractor and SOAR as described in the SOW
and this specification. The Contractor shall provide technical support as defined in the Statement
of Work.

             8.1.1. Dome Bogies and Drive
The facility will have a temporary roof to provide protection during the bogie and drive
installation. The bogies are aligned with the each other at assembly. Alignment shall be
accomplished with laser alignment equipment. A level plane shall be defined to locate the
rotating surface of the Dome defined by the top of the bogie wheels. The angular alignment of
the bogies with respect to the center of rotation of the Dome shall be within the specified values.

                   8.1.1.1. Bogie Alignment
       Camber Alignment:          ±2º

       Steering Alignment:            ±2 arcmin

After alignment the bogies are grouted in place.

The Dome drives shall be emplaced on the fixed facility and leveled. Final location and
anchoring of the drives is performed after installation of the ring beam.

             8.1.2. General Sensors
Installation of the general sensors shall be determined during Detailed Design. The Contractor
shall specify an installation method and materials appropriate to the sensor design.

9. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The SOAR Telescope site is located at elevation 2,700m (8,860ft) on Cerro Pachón, Chile.
Radiation from the sun shall be included in the determination of the choice of materials for the
                                                30                                     DSP99-013
                                                                 SOAR Dome Specification

Dome and panel system. All loads, live loads, ice / snow loads, wind loads, and temperature
effects shall be combined per ASCE 7-88 Standard or equivalent when determining the critical
cases for stress and deflections.

        9.1. Operating Conditions
The following data represents the range of environmental conditions during operation. All Dome
systems must be fully functional during the worst case combination of these conditions. The
depression temperature is the temperature to which an exposed object will cool through radiation
to the nighttime sky.

         Wind Speeds:                              < 20m/s (66.6ft/s) with 25m/s gusts (82ft /s)

         Temperature:                              -10 to +25C (+14 to +77F)

         Relative Humidity:                        5% to 95%

         Maximum Uniform Ice Build-up:             25mm (1.0in) or 22kg/m2 (4.7psf)

         Depression Temperature:                   -25C (-13F)

       9.2. Survival Conditions
The following data represents the range of non-operating environmental conditions the Dome is
required to withstand. The Dome shall be in the fully closed stationary configuration when
considering worst case combination of these conditions.

         Wind Speeds:                              67m/s gusts (220ft/s)

         Temperature:                              -25 to +30C (-13 to +86F)

         Maximum Diurnal Temperature
         Difference:                               30C (54F)

         Snow Loading on Projected
         Horizontal Surface Area:                  170kg/m2 (35psf)

         Additional Uniform Ice Build-up
         On Exposed Surfaces Not Covered
         with Snow:                                25mm (1.0in) or 22kg/m2 (4.7psf)

         Range of Annual Precipitation1:           11.4mm to 487mm (0.45 to 19.2in)

         Design Precipitation Event:               25mm/h (1.0in/h) with 30m/s (98.4ft/s) wind



1
    Information shown is from nearby CTIO, during the time period spanning 1965 to 1992
                                               31                                   DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

       Seismic Ground Acceleration:                   Zone 4 Requirements per the Uniform
                                                      Building Code


10. GENERAL STATUS AND SENSING SYSTEM
The Dome system shall include various status and general-purpose sensors to monitor system
health, subsystem condition, and performance. All sensor signals shall be provided to the control
system and shall be accessible from the TCS and Dome Terminal. In addition to the sensors
identified in other sections of this specification the following general-purpose sensors shall be
provided.

        10.1. Sensors
After site integration, SOAR will install various environmental sensors in the Dome. To support
this effort, the contractor shall provide expansion slots in the dome and shutter controller for data
acquisition cards. The number of slots shall be based on the requirement to install twenty (20)
sensors on both the dome and the shutter.

11. SAFETY
The Dome shall include safety systems to prevent personnel injuries or equipment damage. The
Contractor shall submit a safety analysis and plan at least 1 month prior to the Acceptance
Testing of the Dome. All elements of safety covered under this section shall be incorporated into
the plan, as well as additional elements the Contractor may wish to add.

        11.1. Over Speed Protection
All drives shall include a monitor that removes power and applies the fail safe brake when an
over speed condition is detected. The protection shall be in the drive control system. The over
speed limit shall be consistent with the design of the drive system to prevent damage to the drive
or the Dome.

        11.2. Over Current Protection
All drives shall include over current protection. If the drive is stalled for any reason power shall
be removed from the motor and the fail-safe brake applied. The time required to remove power
shall be consistent with the design of the drive system to prevent damage to the drive or the
Dome.

       11.3. Interlock Procedures

            11.3.1. Dome and Shutter Drives
All drives shall be interlocked with a safety switch at the aerial man-lift park position. The Dome
and shutter drives shall be disabled or limited to reduced-speed operation when the man-lift is in
operation. The SOAR Project will provide the Dome Contractor with technical information
regarding this switch and the interlock at the beginning of work.

           11.3.2. Aerial Man-lift
Personnel operating the aerial man-lift shall be checked out and authorized for such operation by
Site personnel prior to man-lift operation.

                                                 32                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification



             11.3.3. Dome Crane
The Dome crane shall have safety interlocks that provides a signal to the TCS that the crane is or
is not in the stow position. The Dome shall rotate at reduced speed when the crane is out of the
stowed position.

       11.4. Captive Tools and Fasteners
Every effort shall be made in the Dome design to minimize the use of tools for overhead
maintenance. When tools must be used for servicing and maintenance, they shall be secured by
lanyards to the servicer’s tool belt or the man-lift. All fasteners, covers panels, and other
components which can be accessed shall be captivated by the use of ¼ turn captivated fasteners,
wire loop, bails, threads, or some similar means.

No lock washers shall be used for accessible fasteners above the telescope. Chemical locking
compounds or aircraft-type locking nuts shall be used instead.

        11.5. Mirror Cover
The mirror cover shall be closed to cover the primary mirror (M1) prior to any overhead
servicing or moving the man-lift within the facility. A cover shall be installed on the tertiary
mirror (M3) prior to any overhead work.

12. COATINGS
All surfaces of the Dome shall be treated with a protective coating as per the specification
provided in Appendix A. An epoxy enamel paint system over primer shall be used on all non
moving contact metallic surfaces. The color and paint system selected by the Contractor shall be
approved by SOAR. Drive surfaces, bearing tracks, or surfaces that provide for moving contact
shall not be painted. Unpainted surfaces shall be protected from corrosion by appropriate choice
of materials or coatings. Radiation from the sun consistent with the location of the Telescope site
shall be considered when choosing external coatings.

       12.1. Internal Coatings
The color of the final coat shall be a diffuse gray.



       12.2. External Coatings
The color of the final coat shall be white.

13. RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS

The SOAR facility shall be used 365 nights a year. The objective of the facility is to allow the
maximum telescope use and quality for the given weather conditions on any night of the year.
The remote nature of the site puts further premium on having robust systems that are easily
repaired.



                                                  33                                   DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification


       13.1. Duty Cycle
The Dome shall be capable of operating 350 nights a year, at a maximum frequency of 25 full
travel cycles for Dome rotation, shutter, and windscreen. Half of these cycles shall be at
maximum velocity, half at 10% maximum velocity.

       13.2. Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)
The MTBF for the Dome shall be designed to be no less than 5,000 hours, or approximately once
every two years.

       13.3. Design Life
The design life of the Dome shall be 20 years. Friction and wear components not expected to
provide reliable performance over such a life span shall be easily inspected and replaced.
Servicing instructions shall include inspections of such equipment to evaluate conditions on a
periodic basis. Structural fatigue shall be considered in the design due to the long design life.

        13.4. Routine Servicing
All routine servicing shall be specified and provided with the final documentation. All routine
servicing and general maintenance shall be designed so as to take no longer than eight hours. A
normal daytime shift.

        13.5. Access Panels
As required, removable access panels shall be located on the Dome for servicing of all drives,
bearings, and tracks. All panels shall be attached using captivated hardware. External access is
necessary for the shutter track and bogie assemblies. These access panels shall be located at each
end of travel and, at a minimum, two locations of intermediate travel. As required, additional
access for other subsystems shall be determined during the design phase.

         13.6. Critical Spares
The Contractor shall perform a critical risk analysis during the detailed design phase and provide
a list of critical spare parts to the SOAR Project for timely procurement.

        13.7. Modularity
The Dome subsystems shall be organized into modules for the ease of installation and servicing.
Particularly any components that have critical alignments that would be easier to achieve in the
work area and then placed on the Dome. Parts that have critical alignments shall be mounted
with adjustment screws and subsequent locking mechanisms to facilitate initial and subsequent
alignments.

        13.8. Special Tools and Equipment
The contractor shall provide all special tools and equipment necessary for initial set-up,
maintenance, and servicing operations. All imperial tooling shall be considered special tools.
This excludes common hand tools such as screwdrivers, wrenches, sockets, Allen keys, etc.
Custom stands, sights and instruments necessary for initial set-up of the system, debug, and
regular maintenance shall be delivered as special tooling and equipment. Any special handling
fixtures, spreader bars, and lifting hardware necessary for handling parts of the Dome shall be
deliverable with the Dome. Special tools shall be marked with the part number.

                                               34                                     DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification



        13.9. Lifting points
All major subassemblies and substructures of the Dome shall include lifting lugs to allow proper
handling during initial assembly and subsequent possible removal. Jacking points on sub-
assemblies shall be included where necessary for maintenance. The internal steel structural frame
shall be assembled next to the facility. The shutters shall be installed at this time. To the extent
possible, part of the panel system should be installed before lifting the internal structure frame
onto the facility. The remaining panels shall be assembled in two to three sections with
appropriate lifting lugs to be used to rapidly lift and aid assembly on the internal steel frame.

       13.10. Lifting Fixtures
Special lifting fixtures that are used for installation and are required for maintenance shall be
designed, documented, fabricated and delivered with the Dome.

        13.11. Quick Release Attachments
Attachment points, such as eye bolts, shall be located at several external locations on the arch
girder. The attachments shall be sealed to prevent water from entering the Dome. These
attachments are used for securing safety cables during external maintenance operations. The
cables or ropes will be similar to the types used for mountain climbing with quick disconnects.

        13.12. Dome Drive Lifting Points
Lifting lugs shall be located on the arch girders a radial location coincident with the dome drives.
The Dome is rotated to position the lug over the drive to be serviced. These lugs are used to
attach Contractor designed lifting hardware used to remove the drive assembly during
maintenance operations.

14. ACCEPTANCE TESTING
The Contractor shall provide an Acceptance Test Plan and Verification Matrix. To the extent
possible, the Dome shall be acceptance tested as a fully integrated assembly at the Contractor’s
site. The panel system shall not be installed but the mass and inertia is simulated through
appropriate test mass. SOAR will provide a computer to simulate the Telescope control system
operation. These tests shall be satisfactorily performed to demonstrate compliance with the stated
requirements in this Specification prior to Dome acceptance.

        14.1. Required Tests
The tests shall include full Dome drive operation, shutter operation, crane operation under
normal and emergency operating conditions. The tests shall verify the performance requirements
in this Specification.

The bogies and Dome drives shall be installed in an assembly similar to the final installation.
The internal frame, with shutter door frames and drive, shall be assembled and placed on the
bogies. The slip rings shall be installed on the Dome and the shutter. Appropriate test masses
shall be attached to the structure and shutter doors to simulate the mass properties of the fully
assembled Dome under the environmental operating conditions. The main concern is to
reproduce the friction and wind loading between the bogies, drives, shutters, and Dome.


                                                35                                      DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification


        14.2. Test Standards
All equipment and standards used in acceptance testing shall be calibrated and traceable to
established standards to ensure accuracy and integrity of testing.

These tests shall be satisfactorily performed to demonstrate compliance with the stated
requirements in this Specification prior to the Dome acceptance.

Failure to meet all acceptance test requirements to the satisfaction of the SOAR Project shall
result in rework or other corrective actions by the Contractor until the subject requirements are
met.

        14.3. Test Masses
Test masses shall be fabricated to replicate the Dome assembled mass properties under normal
environmental operating conditions defined in this Specification. These test masses shall be
installed on the Dome during all performance and acceptance testing. The test masses are not
deliverable items.

       14.4. Cabling and Hoses
The final deliverable cables and hoses shall be used in all acceptance testing.

15. PACKAGING AND SHIPPING
The Dome shall be disassembled into a minimum number of parts and subassemblies after
completion of acceptance testing at the Contractor’s facility. The parts and subassemblies shall
be packaged in appropriate shipping containers and transported to the Telescope site. It may be
advantageous for some subassemblies to remain in their integrated form that will not fit in a
container. These subassemblies shall be packaged to survive shipping and will be considered on
a case by case basis.

16. DOCUMENTATION
The following documentation shall be provided at the completion of acceptance testing at the
Contractor’s facility unless noted otherwise in this specification or the Dome SOW.



       16.1. Operation Manual
An Operation Manual shall be provided with the Dome detailing the operator inputs that are
required to achieve normal and diagnostic mode operation of the Dome.

        16.2. Servicing Procedures
Servicing procedures, including troubleshooting techniques shall be provided within three weeks
of the Dome acceptance. The procedures shall also include all technical information provided by
sub-component manufacturers, consumable servicing materials specifications (e.g. grease, oil,
etc), as well as clearly written disassembly/assembly instructions for the major components of
the Dome. The procedures shall include a list of all special tools and additional support
equipment required. The list shall reference “where used.” A servicing schedule for components
requiring regular maintenance shall be provided.

                                                36                                   DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification



        16.3. Test Results / Benchmarks
Final test results and “benchmark” quantities shall be recorded and provided with the Acceptance
Test Results. Such quantities characterize the Dome performance at the Contractor’s facility, and
will be used as a baseline for maintenance checks.

        16.4. Operations Log
An Operations Log shall be maintained beginning when the Dome or major subsystems first start
trial operations at the Contractor’s facility. The Log shall record the dates the Dome or major
subsystems were operated, by whom, and with what purpose (e.g. routine maintenance tests,
troubleshooting, etc). In addition to recording the routine information, any unusual, unexplained,
or unpredicted motion or condition observed shall be recorded in the Log.

SOAR personnel shall assume responsibility for maintaining the Log following delivery and
installation of the Dome to the site.

       16.5. Safety Plan / Procedures
A Safety Plan/Procedure shall be provided within three (3) weeks of Dome acceptance. The plan
shall include precautions specific to Dome installation, maintenance, general safety
requirements, and safety equipment required. This document can be included as a section in the
Servicing Procedures if desired by the Contractor.

         16.6. Documentation
Within two weeks of successful Acceptance Test, the Contractor shall supply full-size copies of
all drawings, a drawing tree, software listings, “as built” specifications and drawings, component
specifications, literature, and manuals; electrical schematics, layouts, interconnection lists, and
cable descriptions; analysis files (computer generated and classical), and all current CAD format
files, on CD, associated with the final Dome configuration.

        16.7. Installation Procedures
The Dome Contractor shall provide a detailed procedure for unpacking, installation, debug, and
testing of the Dome on-site after delivery.




                                                37                                     DSP99-013
             SOAR Dome Specification




APPENDIX A




   A-1                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification




                                APPENDIX A
               SOAR APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS


General: The following standards are the general specifications for the design, fabrication and
integration of all SOAR components and subsystems. Equivalent Brazilian or international
standards may be substituted to facilitate design and fabrication. Published standard
specifications and/or codes are referred to by the following abbreviations: (In the case of conflict
between the published standards, the standard affording the most protection to the SOAR Project
shall prevail. In the case of conflict between a standard and this document, this document shall
prevail.) Contractor substitution is permitted to obtain improved performance or reduced cost is
subject to written approval by the SOAR Project.

1. ABBREVIATIONS
      AISC     American Institute of Steel Construction
               AISC Manual of Steel Construction, 9th ed.
               AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication
               and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.
               Latest edition with the latest revisions.

       ANSI            American National Standards Institute

       ASCE            American Society of Civil Engineers

       ASTM            American Society for Testing and Materials

       AWS             American Welding Society
                       AWS D1.1-92 “Structural Welding Code – Steel”, with latest revisions.


       SSPC            Steel Structures Painting Council
                       Good Painting Practice, Steel Structure Painting Manual Vol.1
                       Systems and Specifications, Steel Structures Painting Manual Vol. 2

       UBC             Uniform Building Code, 1994
                       Division III-EarthQuake Design

2. WORKMANSHIP
        2.1. Fabrication and Assembly
Fabrication and assembly is to be performed in accordance with AISC “Specification of the
Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings”, latest edition with latest
revisions. An alternate standard for standard fabrication practice may be substituted with SOAR
approval.


                                              A-2                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

           2.1.1. Welding
Welding is to be performed in accordance with the above AISC specification, as well as with
AWS D1.1-92 “Structural Welding Code – Steel”, with the latest revisions. An alternate standard
for welding practice may be substituted with SOAR approval.

             2.1.2. Stress Relieving
Stress Relieving is to be performed in accordance with Section 4.4 of AWS D1.1-92 (above) for
stress relief by heat treatment; or as approved by the SOAR Project. Vibratory stress relieving is
allowed as approved by SOAR.

            2.1.3. Edges
All metal edges shall be free of burrs and sharp corners. No sharp edges that might constitute a
hazard to personnel shall remain on the finished components of the Dome.

3. MATERIALS
The following are the specifications for the common materials required for fabrication of the
SOAR Dome. Materials specified by the Contractor shall be consistent with all requirements
including life cycle, reliability, and maintainability. Substitution is permitted to obtain improved
performance or reduced cost subject to written approval by SOAR only.

        3.1. Material Certification
Material certification is required for all major structural materials. The Contractors shall submit
evidence to SOAR that the mill or fabricator has complied with the requirements contained in
this section and/or the specifications established by the Contractor’s design as approved by the
SOAR Telescope Project.

        3.2. Structural Steel
All hot rolled steel plates, shapes, sheet piling, and bars shall be new steel conforming to ASTM
Specification A6 “Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates,
Shapes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for Structural Use” or equivalent international standards.

       3.3. Structural Steel Shapes, Plates, and Bars
Carbon Steel, ASTM A36 “Standard Specification for Structural Steel.” ASTM A36, except
where different, fabricated components or shapes are specified by the Contractor’s design as
accepted by the SOAR Telescope Project.

     3.4. Round Steel Pipe
ASTM A53, Grade B.

     3.5. Square and Rectangular Tubing
ASTM A501.

       3.6. Structural Bolts and Threaded Fasteners
Structural bolts and threaded fasteners shall comply with the following ASTM specifications as
appropriate for the types and at the locations as specified on the drawings:


                                              A-3                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

           3.6.1. ASTM A325 Type 1
“High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints.” No galvanized bolts shall be used.

        3.6.2. Threaded Round Stock
ASTM A36.

           3.6.3. Bolts and Nuts, High Strength Bolts
Bolts and nuts for all high strength bolts shall be heavy hex head conforming to ANSI. Standards
B18.2.1 and B 18.2.2 respectively. Nuts shall conform to ASTM A563, “Standard Specification
for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts” or equivalent international standards.

            3.6.4. Washers
All washers shall be circular, flat and smooth and shall conform to the requirements for Type A
washers in ANSI Standard B 23.1. Washers for high strength bolts shall be hardened and
conform to ASTM F 436, Specification for Hardened Steel Washers. Beveled washers for
America Standard Beams and channels shall be square or rectangular and taper in thickness
(16 2/3% slope) with an average thickness of 5/16”. When an outer face of a bolted part has a
slope greater than 1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis, a beveled washer shall be
used. Equivalent international standards are acceptable.

            3.6.5. Stainless Steel Bolts and Nuts
Stainless Steel bolts, nuts, and washers shall comply with ASTM F837 for high strength
applications and ASTM 582 for standard use or equivalent international standards.

           3.6.6. Load Indicator Washers
Field Bolting: All field bolting of high strength friction bolts shall use load indicator washers
such as “Coronet Load Indicators” as manufactured by Cooper and Turner or “Bethlehem Load
Indicator Washers” as manufactured by Bethlehem Steel Corp.

Shop Bolting: All shop bolting of high strength friction bolts shall use load indicator washers as
specified above or load indicator bolts such as “LeJeune Bolts” as manufactured by LeJeune Bolt
Company or “Load Indicator Bolts” as manufactured by Bethlehem Steel Corporation.

            3.6.7. Bolt Lubrication:
All bolts shall be well lubricated at the time of installation. Dry, rusty bolts will not be allowed.
Bolts or nuts shall be wax dipped by the bolt supplier or “Johnson’s Stick Wax 140” or similar
material shall be used with all bolts in the shop or field.

           3.6.8. New Bolts
All new bolts, washers, and nuts shall be used for assembly of the system. New bolts shall be
procured and installed per the AISC specification above.

       3.7. High Strength Bolting




                                              A-4                                       DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

             3.7.1. Applicable Specifications and Procedures
Assembly and tightening of all bolted connections shall be performed in conformance with AISC
specification “Structural Joints using ASTM A325 and A 490 Bolts” and in Section 3.6.3 above.
Procedures, tolerances, and requirements for surface preparation, installation, use of hardened
and load-indicating washers, alignment of member surfaces, tightening, and inspection are
clearly called out in the above specification and shall be adhered to by the Contractor.

Oversize, Short-slotted and Long-slotted Holes: The dimensions and washer requirements of
oversize, short slotted, and long slotted holes shall conform to the high strength bolting
specification previously cited.

Tightening of High Strength Friction Bolts by use of a Direct Tension Indicator: All field -
bolting of high strength friction bolts shall use load indicator washers with hardened washers as
specified by the manufacturer.

Shop bolting of high strength friction bolts shall use load indicator washers as specified above or
load indicator bolts.

4. WELDING
The following standards and specifications shall apply to all welding:

       4.1. Electrodes
Shall be compatible with the parent metal joined.

      4.2. Welding Electrodes
General: ASTM A233 AWS 501, and classification numbers and sizes as recommended by
AISC and AWS for the specific material and use.

       4.3. Electrodes for Welding
Comply with AWS D1.1, “Structural Welding Code – Steel”. Electrodes for various welding
processes shall be as specified below:

       SMAW:          E70XX low hydrogen
       SAW:           FF7X-EXXX
       GMAW:          ER70S – X
       FCAW:          E7XT-X

        4.4. Applicable Codes and Standards
All Welding is to be carried out in accordance with the provisions of AWS D1.1-92, “Structural
Welding Code” and AISC “Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural
Steel for Buildings,” latest edition.

5. PAINTING AND CORROSION CONTROL
General: Without limiting the general aspects of other requirements of these specifications, all
surface preparation, coating and painting of interior and exterior surfaces shall conform to the
applicable requirements of the Steel Structures Painting Council and the manufacturer’s printed

                                             A-5                                       DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

instructions. All metallic surfaces which will remain exposed to air when the components are
assembled into the SOAR telescope Dome shall be finished, either prepared and painted or
passivated by another process such as anodizing, oxides, or irridite. The process for surface
treatment will be specified by the Contractor, consistent with the recommendations of the paint
or process manufacturer, and approved by SOAR. Following approval of a process by SOAR the
Contractor will not deviate from the approved process without prior approval by SOAR of the
change. For external portions of the Dome, the intent is to provide surfaces that will not corrode,
can be easily cleaned, and are cosmetically pleasing. SOAR reserves the right to choose the
colors that will be applied from a range of options to be provided by the Contractor. All
unpainted mating surfaces that are exposed to the air during shipping shall be coated with a
removable corrosion inhibitor.

       5.1. Quality Assurance
General: Quality assurance procedures and practices shall be utilized to monitor all phases of
surface preparation, application and inspection throughout the duration of the project. Procedures
or practices not specifically defined herein may be utilized provided they meet recognized and
accepted professional standards and are approved by SOAR.

Surface Preparation: Surface preparation will be based upon comparison with “Pictorial
Surface Preparation Standards for Painting Steel Surfaces” SSPC-Vis-1 and ASTM Designation
D2200; and “Visual Standard for Surfaces of New Steel Airblast Cleaned and Sand Abrasive.”

Application: No coating or paint shall be applied under the following conditions. When the
surrounding air temperature or the temperature of the surface to be coated or painted is (a) below
the minimum surface temperature for the products specified herein or (b) too wet or damp less
than 2.7°C (5°F) above the dew point, or (c) when the air temperature is expected to drop below
specified minimum temperature within six hours after application of coating.

If above conditions are prevalent, coating or painting shall be delayed or postponed until
conditions are favorable. The day’s coating or painting shall be completed in time to permit the
film sufficient drying time prior to damage by atmospheric conditions.

       5.2. Safety and Health Requirements
General: In accordance with requirements set forth by regulatory agencies applicable to the
construction industry and manufacturer’s printed instructions and appropriate technical bulletins
and manuals, the Contractor shall provide and require use of personal protective lifesaving
equipment for persons working on or about the project site.

        5.3. Surface Preparation
Near White Blast Cleaning (SSPC-SP10): The removal of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mil
scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products and other foreign matter by compressed air nozzle
blasting, centrifugal wheels or other specified method. Discoloration caused by certain stains
shall be limited to no more than 5% of each square inch of surface area. Mil profile 1.0 – 2.0. All
welds shall be neutralized with a suitable chemical compatible with the specified coating
materials.


                                             A-6                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification


       5.4. Painting Sequence
Primer coats shall be applied at the fabrication facility immediately after blast cleaning and prep.
Painted areas shall have been blast cleaned the same day. Subsequent coats shall be applied
within one week or other time period as indicated by the paint manufacturer.

       5.5. Exceptions to Painting Requirements
Machined Surfaces: On pieces that contain machined surfaces specifically for mating to other
machined or non-machined surfaces, those surfaces are to be left unpainted, and are to be coated
with a preservative such as light machine oil and wrapped with a durable waterproof wrapping.
All unpainted mating surfaces that are exposed to the air during shipping shall be coated with a
removable corrosion inhibitor.

Stainless steel shall be left unpainted. The Contractor may request relief from painting other
areas of the structure if to do so yields a performance benefit. Such request shall take place
during Detailed Design.

The Contractor may propose alternate standards and processes for painting or other surface finish
treatments as appropriate to the materials used and the overall objectives of the SOAR
performance and environmental conditions.

        5.6. Contamination and Cleaning
Surface finish treatments and hardware selected by the Contractor for the Dome shall not
generate particles that may contaminate optical surfaces. Finishes shall be compatible with a
cleaning process to be defined by the Contractor consistent with the recommendations of the
finish supplier.




                                              A-7                                       DSP99-013
       APPENDIX B


COMPONENT SPECIFICATIONS
               SOAR Dome Specification




  APPENDIX C


DESIGN DRAWINGS




      A-1                      DSP99-013
                 SOAR Dome Specification




    APPENDIX D


REFERENCE DOCUMENTS




                                 DSP99-013
                    SOAR Dome Specification




       APPENDIX E


PANEL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION




           E-1                      DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification




1. PURPOSE
This specification covers the design, fabrication, and erection of the Dome panel system for the
SOAR Telescope Project.


2. SCOPE
This specification defines the structural, mechanical, environmental, and assembly requirements
for the installed dome panel system, nesting shutter doors, the interface with the Dome structure,
and utilities. In addition, all requirements in the Dome Specification apply to the panel system.


3. BACKGROUND
The Dome is for the SOAR Telescope Project. The telescope is a 4.2 meter altitude-azimuth
design. The Dome will be erected on Cerro Pachon, Chile.

4. DOME SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

        4.1. General
The Dome is a 5/8 portion of a 10-meter outside diameter sphere. Twin steel arch girders and a
steel base ring beam structurally support the panels. The arch girders also support the nesting
double shutter system as well as a facility crane. The term “Panel System” refers to the insulated
monocoque structure, completely self-supporting, and requiring no internal or external support
structure. Each spherical panel includes integral, flush mounting points.

The Panel System regions, as shown in Figure 4.1, will be fully supported around boundary
edges by the arch girders and base ring. The Panel System is required to support Dead, Live,
Wind, and Ice / Snow loading spanning between primary framing supporting members. A
stiffened smooth spherical or geodesic type paneling system is envisioned.

       4.2. Fixed Dome
The fixed Dome area is the 5/8 sphere minus the shutter opening and is determined by the ring
beam, and arch girders. The fixed Dome area is defined in Figure 4.1.

       4.3. Shutters
The shutters are rectangular portions of the sphere. The shutter panel area is shown in Figure 4.2.
The shutter sizes and interfaces are defined by the drawings provided in Appendix C.

        4.4. Vents
2.7m2 of ventilation area shall be provided at the top of the Dome. Standard weatherproof
“mushroom” type hoods shall be provided to prevent the intrusion of precipitation, including
rain, ice, and snow. A grill mesh shall be incorporated to prevent large insects and fowl access
into the dome interior. Four (4) Greenhech Model GRS-36 gravity vents ,or equivalent, are
required on the top of the Dome panel system. The vents shall include Greenhech VCD-23
powered back draft louvered dampers or equivalent. Limit switches shall be installed to the

                                             E-2                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification

dampers to sense opened and closed positions. All cabling and attachments shall be the
responsibility of the Panel Contractor. Power and control of the dampers shall be provided by the
Dome Contractor. The vents shall be attached to curbs on the panels system. The attachment area
shall be weatherproof. Proper vertical orientation of the vents shall be considered in the
mounting.

        4.5. External Ladder Attachment
An external ladder shall be attached on each side of the arch girders. The ladder will be used for
servicing the shutters. The ladder will be enclosed in a cage as required by local standards. The
location of the ladder shall be coordinated with SOAR.

       4.6. Internal Lighting Attachment
Provisions shall be made for attaching three (3) light fixtures on the internal surface of the panel
system. Attached conduit shall be included with the panels. The light fixture locations and
conduit routing are shown on drawing ED4. The light fixture are specified in Appendix B of the
Dome Specification

         4.7. Lighting Protection
Lighting protection system shall be included in the panel system. The Contractor shall provide
all lighting arrestors, mounting for the lighting arrestors and cabling located on the panel system.
The mounts shall be internal with the arrestor protruding through the panels. A sealing method
shall be included in panel. Cabling for the system shall be routed and attached inside the Dome
on the panels. Arrestor locations and cable routing is shown on drawing ED1. A lighting analysis
shall be performed by the Contractor to define the location, type, and quantity of the lighting
arrestors on the Dome. The installation and design of the system shall meet the Lightning
Protection Institute (LPI) Code 175 and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 780.
Installation shall be made by or under the supervision of an LPI certified master installer.
Complete installation to receive system certification including submittal of forms LPI 175-A and
175-B.

5. REQUIREMENTS

       5.1. General
The Contractor shall minimize the total weight of the panel system. The system shall minimize
the loads transferred into the two arch girders. Optimally, the Dome panel system is self-
supporting and adds stiffness to the overall Dome assembly without increasing the Dome weight
with additional support structure.

The Panel System is required to be watertight, regardless of the direction of water impingement,
due wind driven rain.

        5.2. Mechanical Requirements
The following properties are based on composite panels with a foam core separating the face
sheets.



                                              E-3                                       DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification

          5.2.1. Panel Thickness
       Maximum: 76.2mm (3 inches)

          5.2.2. Core Thickness
       Minimum: 50.8mm (2.00 inches)

          5.2.3. Thermal Insulation
       R19 Equivalent

          5.2.4. System Weight
       Maximum: 24.5kg/m2 (5psf)

          5.2.5. Face Sheet Properties
       Minimum Thickness:                           1.02mm (0.040 inches)

       Minimum Modulus of Elasticity (E):           1.77 E10 Pa (2.57 E6 psi)

       5.3. Environmental Conditions
The SOAR Telescope site is located at 30.233º latitude south and elevation 2,700m (8,860ft) on
Cerro Pachón, Chile. Radiation from the sun shall be included in the determination of the choice
of materials for the panel system.

             5.3.1. Operating Conditions
The following data represents the range of environmental conditions during operation. All Dome
systems must be fully functional during the worst case combination of these conditions. The
depression temperature is the temperature to which an exposed object will cool through radiation
to the nighttime sky.

All loads, live loads, ice / snow loads, wind loads, and temperature effects shall be combined per
ASCE 7-88 Standard or equivalent when determining the critical cases for stress and deflections.

       Wind Speeds:                                 < 20m/s (66.6ft/s) with 25m/s gusts (82ft/s)

       Temperature:                                 -10 to +25C (+14 to +77F)

       Relative Humidity:                           5% to 95%

       Maximum Uniform Ice Build-up:                25mm (1.0in) or 22kg/m2 (4.7psf)

       Depression Temperature:                      -25C (-13F)




                                             E-4                                      DSP99-013
                                                                 SOAR Dome Specification

           5.3.2. Survival Conditions
The following data represents the range of non-operating environmental conditions the Dome is
required to withstand. The Dome shall be in the fully closed stationary configuration when
considering worst case combination of these conditions.

All loads, live loads, ice / snow loads, wind loads, seismic, and temperature effects shall be
combined per ASCE 7-88 Standard when determining the critical cases for stress and deflections.

         Wind Speeds:                              67m/s gusts (220ft/s)

         Temperature:                              -25 to +30C (-13 to +86F)

         Maximum Diurnal Temperature
         Difference:                               30C (54F)

         Snow Loading on Projected
         Horizontal Surface Area:                  170kg/m2 (35psf)

         Additional Uniform Ice Build-up on
         Exposed Surfaces not Covered w/Snow:      25mm (1.0in) or 22kg/m2 (4.7psf)

         Range of Annual Precipitation2:           11.4mm to 487mm (0.45 to 19.2in)

         Design Precipitation Event:               25mm/h (1.0in/h) with 30m/s (98.4ft/s) wind

         Seismic Ground Acceleration:              Zone 4 Requirements per the Uniform
                                                   Building Code

         5.4. Deflections

            5.4.1. Dome Paneling System
         Maximum deflection under worst case load combination = span/240

            5.4.2. Shutters Panels
         Maximum deflection under worst case load combination = span/360

         5.5. Interfaces

            5.5.1. Structural Steel
All panel system interfaces to the Dome structure shall be mutually defined with the Contractor
and SOAR. The interface shall account for differences in expansion due to the different
coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the materials.




2
    Information shown is from nearby CTIO, during the time period spanning 1965 to 1992.
                                            E-5                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

To the extent possible the loads shall be evenly distributed into the ring beam and arch girder.
All interfaces shall be water tight.

6. COATINGS
All surfaces of the Dome panel system shall be treated with a protective coating as per the
specification provided in Appendix A. An epoxy enamel paint system over primer shall be used
on all metallic surfaces. The color and paint system selected by the Contractor shall be approved
by SOAR. Radiation from the sun consistent with the location of the Telescope site shall be
considered when choosing external coatings. Fiberglass panels shall use a gelcoat surface coat.

       6.1. Interior Coatings
The color of the final coat shall be a diffuse gray.

       6.2. Exterior Coatings
The color of the final coat shall be white.

7. RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS
The SOAR facility shall be used 365 nights a year. The objective of the facility is to allow the
maximum telescope use and quality for the given weather conditions on any night of the year.
The remote nature of the site puts further premium on having robust systems that are easily
repaired.

        7.1. Design Life
The design life of the Dome shall be 20 years. Structural fatigue shall be considered in the design
due to the long design life.

        7.2. Routine Servicing
All routine servicing shall be specified and provided with the final documentation. All routine
servicing and general maintenance shall be designed so as to take no longer than eight hours. A
normal daytime shift.

       7.3. Critical Spares
The Contractor shall provide a list of critical spare parts to the SOAR Project for timely
procurement.

       7.4. Modularity
The panel system shall be organized into modules for the ease of installation and servicing. The
system shall be designed for assembly at the Telescope site.

       7.5. Special Tools and Equipment
The Contractor shall provide all special tools and equipment necessary for initial set-up,
maintenance, and servicing operations. All imperial tooling shall be considered special tools.
This excludes common hand tools such as screwdrivers, wrenches, sockets, Allen keys, etc.
Custom stands, sights and instruments necessary for initial set-up of the system and regular
maintenance shall be delivered as special tooling and equipment. Any special handling fixtures,


                                               E-6                                     DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification

spreader bars, and lifting hardware necessary for handling parts of the panel system shall be
deliverable with the system. Special tools shall be marked with the part number.

         7.6. Lifting points
All major subassemblies and substructures of the panel system shall include lifting lugs to allow
proper handling during initial assembly and subsequent possible removal. To the extent possible,
part of the panel system should be assembled before lifting the internal structure frame onto the
facility. The remaining panels shall be assembled in two to three sections with appropriate lifting
lugs to be used to rapidly lift and aid assembly on the internal steel frame.

       7.7. Lifting Fixtures
Special lifting fixtures that are used for installation and are required for maintenance shall be
designed, documented, fabricated and delivered with the panel system.

8. PAINTING AND CORROSION CONTROL
General: Without limiting the general aspects of other requirements of these specifications, all
surface preparation, coating and painting of interior and exterior surfaces shall conform to the
applicable requirements of the manufacturer’s printed instructions. The process for surface
treatment will be specified by the Contractor, consistent with the recommendations of the paint
or process manufacturer, and approved by SOAR. Following approval of a process by SOAR the
Contractor will not deviate from the approved process without prior approval by SOAR of the
change. For external portions of the Dome, the intent is to provide surfaces that will not corrode,
can be easily cleaned, and are cosmetically pleasing. SOAR reserves the right to choose the
colors that will be applied from a range of options to be provided by the Contractor.

       8.1. Quality Assurance
General: Quality assurance procedures and practices shall be utilized to monitor all phases of
surface preparation, application and inspection throughout the duration of the project. Procedures
or practices not specifically defined herein may be utilized provided they meet recognized and
accepted professional standards and are approved by SOAR.

Surface Preparation: Surface preparation shall be consistent with the panel Contractor’s
standard process. The process procedure shall be provided to SOAR for approval.

Application: No coating or paint shall be applied under the following conditions. When the
surrounding air temperature or the temperature of the surface to be coated or painted is (a) below
the minimum surface temperature for the products specified herein or (b) too wet or damp less
than 2.7°C (5°F) above the dew point, or (c) when the air temperature is expected to drop below
specified minimum temperature within six hours after application of coating.

If above conditions are prevalent, coating or painting shall be delayed or postponed until
conditions are favorable. The day’s coating or painting shall be completed in time to permit the
film sufficient drying time prior to damage by atmospheric conditions.




                                             E-7                                       DSP99-013
                                                                   SOAR Dome Specification


       8.2. Safety and Health Requirements
General: In accordance with requirements set forth by regulatory agencies applicable to the
construction industry and manufacturer’s printed instructions and appropriate technical bulletins
and manuals, the Contractor shall provide and require use of personal protective lifesaving
equipment for persons working on or about the project site.

       8.3. Surface Preparation
The removal of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, mold release
agents, and other foreign matter by the panel Contractor’s or paint manufacture’s standard
process.

       8.4. Painting Sequence
Primer coats shall be applied at the fabrication facility as indicated by the paint manufacturer or
Contractor’s standard procedure.

       8.5. Exceptions to Painting Requirements
Machined Surfaces: On pieces that contain machined surfaces specifically for mating to other
machined or non-machined surfaces, those surfaces are to be left unpainted, and are to be coated
with a preservative such as light machine oil and wrapped with a durable waterproof wrapping.
All unpainted mating surfaces that are exposed to the air during shipping shall be coated with a
removable corrosion inhibitor.

Stainless steel shall be left unpainted. The Contractor may request relief from painting other
areas of the structure if to do so yields a performance benefit. Such request shall take place
during the detailed design.

The Contractor may propose alternate standards and processes for painting or other surface finish
treatments as appropriate to the materials used and the overall objectives of the SOAR
performance and environmental conditions.

        8.6. Contamination and Cleaning
Surface finish treatments and hardware selected by the Contractor for the Dome shall not
generate particles that may contaminate optical surfaces. Finishes shall be compatible with a
cleaning process to be defined by the Contractor consistent with the recommendations of the
finish supplier.




                                             E-8                                       DSP99-013
                   SOAR Dome Specification




      APPENDIX F


CONTROLS SYSTEM DESIGN




         F-1                       DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification


                               APPENDIX F
                       Dome Control Concept Design
The Dome control system consists of groups of equipment physically located in different areas of
the facility. The equipment requires a highly reliable interconnect. For equipment located on the
Dome itself, power and individual rough signals may be routed through slip rings. Low level
and/or high speed signals shall not be routed through the slip rings. To solve this problem slave
controllers on the Dome and shutter are necessary. For this purpose, a spread-spectrum radio
modem shall be used to provide communication between the master Dome controller, which will
be located in the Control Room, the Dome slave controller, located on the Dome, and the Shutter
slave controller, located on the shutter. Figure 1 defines the main elements of the Dome control
system. The modem shall be chosen to be compatible with the controller. Recommended
equipment and manufacturers are provided in Table 1 at the end of this appendix.




           E-stop
                              Dome            Vents           Shutter      Encoder
                              Drives                           Drive

            TCS                             Interlock
                          Encoder                                               UPS
                                             Slave                  Slave
                                             Dome                  Shutter
           Master                                                               Inter-
                                            Controller            Controller
           Dome                                                                  lock
                          Manual
          Controller
                          Control         Future Data           Future Data
                           At the
                                          Acquisition           Acquisition
                                                                                 Moves
                          Observing           I/O                   I/O          with the
            Control
            Room            Level          (Sensors)             (Sensors)       Shutter


                 Stationary                         Moves with the Dome



Figure 1 – Dome Control Block Diagram

The master Dome controller, shown in Figure 2, is responsible for directly controlling the
position of the Dome through the rotational drives, while the slave shutter controller is
responsible for positioning the shutter according to the commands sent by the master Dome
controller via the spread spectrum RF modem. The slave Dome controller is primarily intended
to serve as a data acquisition unit as well as for interlock and auxiliary I/O (vents).
                                             F-2                                     DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification




   Spread-Spectrum                                   Network
                                    RS-232                                TCS             E-stop
    Radio Modem                                      Controller

                                                      Isolated                          3Ø Power
      Bi-directional                                  4-20mA
                                 Bi-directional       Outputs
      Incremental
                                    Counter
        Encoder
                                                                           4x
                                                      Isolated
                                                                          Dome
                                                      RS-485
        Absolute                    Barcode                               Drive
        Encoder                     Reader            Isolated
                                                       Digital
                                                      Outputs
                                G       Isolated
                                U        Digital
                                I        Inputs
                                                                         Manual
                                                                         Control
Figure 2 – Master Dome Controller Diagram


1.0 DOME ROTATIONAL DRIVES AND POSITION SENSORS
Four rotational drives with electric motors, helical reduction gearboxes and electromagnetic
brakes are used to evenly distribute the rotational drive force. To achieve a highly smooth
continuous motion and electromechanical stress free operation, variable speed motor drives must
have embedded vectorial torque control capabilities. Due to the nature of the Dome behavior and
size, two different position-sensing systems shall be implemented. The first is an absolute
encoder in the form of bar code labels or tape fixed underneath the dome ring beam with a
simple laser reader and eye protection device. The second sensor is a bi-directional incremental
encoder, coupled to the ring beam through a rubber wheel and an articulated arm to ensure a
continuous non-slipping contact. The position shall be chosen based on the worst operational
case. The main function of this second sensor is to provide information about instantaneous
speed and acceleration of the Dome with the high resolution required by the control equipment
and implemented algorithms. The alternate function is to provide a means to calculate the Dome
position between two markers, thus providing the required positioning accuracy. Since the Dome
itself is an extremely inertial control object, slew rate limited control loops (like PIR -
Proportional Integral Retardè) are highly recommended. In this approach, overload of Dome
drives and electric power lines will be minimal. Reliable interlock between the application of the
brake and rotational state shall also be provided. Reinforced safety procedures shall be adopted
to handle overspeed, overcurrent and other exceptional events to avoid damages to the equipment
as well as the Dome. This drive control concept is shown in Figure 3.


                                              F-3                                     DSP99-013
                                                                     SOAR Dome Specification



In order to achieve the required positioning accuracy, a suitable encoder resolution is required.
For instance, using barcode labels placed each 10° and a 512 pulses per revolution bi-directional
incremental encoder driven by a 250mm outer diameter wheel, provides a resolution better than
0.01°. Optionally, a high-resolution (0.05° or better) barcode tape may be used instead of the
system described above.



 Isolated                                                                              Isolated
                                      Electromagnetic
  Digital                                                                               Digital
                                           Brake
 Outputs                                                                                Inputs



                                                                                        E-stop

                           Variable
 Isolated                                                 Electric
                          Frequency
 RS-485                                                    Motor                      3Ø Power
                            Drive


                                                                                       Encoder

 Isolated
 4-20mA
 Outputs                    Angular                                                      Drive
                                                         Gearbox
                            Speed                                                      Interface




Figure 3 - Dome / Shutter Drive Diagram.

2.0 DOME AND SHUTTER DRIVE CONTROLLERS
Figure 3 defines the Dome and shutter drive control concept design. Each drive controller shall
provide all signals necessary to operate the variable frequency drive. In particular an isolated RS-
485 communication channel for presetting all functional parameters, including overspeed, an
isolated 4-20mA output for torque control (Dome rotation) or speed control (shutter opening)
and isolated digital inputs and outputs for brake status verification, brake releasing and other
necessary interlocks. Adequate level translation devices shall be used in order to guarantee
electrical compatibility between the digital I/O and field equipment. Where torque control
techniques are used, overspeed protection is essential to avoid damage to the drives. This
protection is required in the case of the dome drives.



                                              F-4                                       DSP99-013
                                                                    SOAR Dome Specification


3.0 SHUTTER DRIVE CONTROL
The shutter control system, shown in Figure 4, shall operate in an on/off mode (steps), according
to the operational states already described in the control section. Attached to the inner shutter is
one rotational drive with an electric motor, helical reduction gearbox and electromagnetic brake.
There is only one encoder on the shutter. The same absolute encoder reading device is used for
the shutter and for the Dome. A high-resolution (0.05° or better) barcode tape is attached to the
underside of the arch girder with the read head attached to the inner shutter door. Reliable
interlocks shall be provided, in particular limit switches. A small local uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) is required for the slave shutter controller, sensors and radio link. The UPS
provides power to these systems during short-term power interruptions. The future component
upgrade is for a 10kVA power capacity device such as a heat tape.



 Spread-Spectrum
                                     RS-232
  Radio Modem                                               Isolated                  Future
                                                             Digital                Component
                                                            Outputs                  Upgrade

    Future Data                      Isolated
   Acquisition I/O                    Analog
     (Sensors)                        Inputs
                                                            Isolated                  Shutter
                                                            RS-485                     Drive

    Shutter &                        Isolated
    Windscreen                        Digital
     Switches                         Inputs
                                                            Isolated
                                                            4-20mA
     3Ø Power                                               Outputs
                                        M
                                        U
                                        I                   Reader                   Encoder
       E-stop


Figure 4 - Slave Shutter Controller Diagram.

4.0 WINDSCREEN COUPLING AND OVERLOAD SWITCH
The windscreen is attached to the shutter by mechanical means allowing a rectangular opening
for the optical path. To detect abnormal operational conditions, i.e. jamming, an overload switch
shall be provided.




                                              F-5                                       DSP99-013
                                                                  SOAR Dome Specification


5.0 CRANE OPERATION UNIT AND INTERLOCK
The Dome control system shall provide a signal to the TCS to confirm the stowed (docked)
position of the crane. An interlock shall limit the Dome rotation to 10% of the maximum velocity
and accelerations when the crane is not in the stowed position. As an extra safety feature, the
crane interlock shall include the hand control unit itself. A wall mount hook or cradle shall be
provided to stow the hand unit when not in use. If the hand unit is removed from the hook a
switch shall be activated to inform the TCS that the crane is in use and reduced Dome rotation
speed is in effect.



                                                           Isolated
   Spread-Spectrum
                                      RS-232                Digital               Vents
    Radio Modem
                                                           Outputs




     Future Data                      Isolated             Isolated
                                                                                Auxiliary
    Acquisition I/O                    Analog              4-20mA
                                                                                  I/O
      (Sensors)                        Inputs              Outputs



                                                                               3Ø Power
   Crane, Damper,                     Isolated                M
 Shutter & Windscreen                  Digital                U
       Switches                        Inputs                 I
                                                                                 E-stop



Figure 5 - Slave Dome Controller Diagram. 3kVA additional power for the auxiliary I/O shall
be provided.

6.0 DATA AQUISTION I/O AND VENTS
Means to connect future data acquisition I/O sensors shall be provided. Space shall be provided
for twenty (20) sensors on each of the Dome and shutter controllers. The sensors and interface
cards will be installed by SOAR to provide temperature and humidity data. Both slave
controllers shall be able to read and transmit the data to the master Dome controller. The output
of the sensors shall be available to the TCS and HVAC control system in degrees Celsius and
relative humidity.

The Dome slave controller shall control the powered dampers included with the four gravity
vents located on the dome for air exchange. In addition, a manually operated switch shall be
provided to open the vent dampers.



                                             F-6                                     DSP99-013
                                                                      SOAR Dome Specification


7.0 MANUAL USER INTERFACE (MUI)
The Dome control system shall include manual operation features in order to allow some limited
local interactions.

        7.1 Hand Paddle
The hand paddle consists of a series of buttons with specifically associated functions to rotate the
Dome in both directions and to open and close the shutter. These activities are performed at the
observing level. SOAR will provide conduits to four different points, next to each Dome drive, to
connect the unit. The hand paddle shall include a 15 meter long cable. The cable shall be
hardwired into the hand paddle with a connector at the other end. The Contractor shall provide
four (4) mating panel type connectors to be mounted in the facility. The implementation of the
hand paddle control shall be through an eight-input isolated digital card in the master Dome
controller. One input shall serve as a presence status flag to indicate that the unit is in its wall
receptacle. A second input shall serve as a readiness status flag to indicate that the unit has been
connected to one of the four available connectors. The hand paddle shall have an interlock that
sets the status flag that indicates the unit is in use. Only one (1) wall receptacle shall be in use at
a time. The remaining six inputs shall be used for the following functions: “Rotate Slow
Clockwise”, “Rotate Slow Counterclockwise”, “Rotate Fast Clockwise”, “Rotate Fast
Counterclockwise”, “Open the Shutter”, “Close the Shutter”. The slow and fast speed settings
shall be adjustable and shall be accessible through the master Dome controller. The master Dome
controller shall implement all timing requirements related to the operation of hand paddle.

        7.2 Dome MUI
Switches shall be provided on the Dome for manual operation of the following subsystems:
“Individually Open and Close each of the Four Vents”, “Shutter Emergency Close” and “Shutter
Emergency Open”. The last two functions are intended to override the shutter control system.
The control system and software shall prevent the operation of these functions when the shutter
control system is active. Hardware protection, i.e. activation key, shall be provided.




                                               F-7                                        DSP99-013
      SOAR Dome Specification




F-8                   DSP99-013
Item     Name              Description            Manufacturer         Part Number Selection            Internet Site
 1      Master Dome PCI or CompactPCI           National Instruments       Interface cards shall be      www.natinst.com
           Controller based controller for                                chosen according to the
                               the Dome.                                         selected platform.
 2       Slave Dome Controller placed in                    Opto22       SNAP series with 16-slot        www.opto22.com
            Controler the Dome for remote                              backplane and 120V power
                                actuation.                                    supply. Brain and I/O
                                                                            modules as needed to
                                                                        support the specified field
                                                                                           devices.
 3      Slave Shutter    Controller placed in               Opto22       SNAP series with 16-slot        www.opto22.com
           Controller         the shutter for                          backplane and 120V power
                          remote actuation.                                   supply. Brain and I/O
                                                                            modules as needed to
                                                                        support the specified field
                                                                                           devices.
 4     Dome / Shutter Variable frequency                       EMS      G5 series according to the     www.emsdrives.com
               Drive drive for the motors.                                     power of the motor.
 5     Dome / Shutter      Electric motor.                     SEW                 According to M3              www.sew-
               Drive                                                                  specification.        eurodrive.com
 6     Dome Encoder       Barcode labels.                   Planner
 7     Dome Encoder      Barcode reader.                   Keyence
 8     Dome Encoder          Bidirectional
                              incremental
                                 encoder.
 9
10
11



                        Table 1. Control System Recommended Equipment
      SOAR Dome Specification




F-2                             DSP99-013

								
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