Division 700. Materials Requirements Specifications do not include all materials requirements to construct items covered under Divisions 200 through 800. For additional, detailed requirements, refer to the current AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing or to ASTM specifications. ARTBA's A Guide to Standardized Highway Drainage Products is approved by the AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee and provides additional requirements for drainage items. Individual Agencies should add specifications for locally used materials and augment requirements for some materials included here. Where more than one option exists within a cited Subsection, the Agency will identify the one to use. Material specifications are not all shown in active voice; a simple reference is shown instead. Section 701. Hydraulic Cement 701.01 Hydraulic Cement. Type Specification Hydraulic cement AASHTO M 85 Blended hydraulic cement AASHTO M 240 Masonry cement ASTM C 91 Provide product from only one mill for any brand and type of hydraulic cement except to reduce excessive air entrainment when using air-entraining cement. Protect the cement from dampness during storage. Prohibit the use of partially set cement or cement that contains caked lumps. Prohibit the use of cement salvaged from discarded or used bags. Section 702. Asphalt Meet the following for the type and grade specified: 702.01 Asphalt Cements. AASHTO M 20 for penetration-graded asphalt, M 320 for performance-graded asphalt, or M 226 for viscosity-graded asphalt. 702.02 Cutback Asphalt. AASHTO M 81 and M 82. 702.03 Emulsified Asphalt. AASHTO M 140 or M 208. 702.04 Asphalt for Dampproofing and Waterproofing. Coal tar, AASHTO M 118. 702.05 Asphalt Primer for Dampproofing and Waterproofing. Creosote, AASHTO M 121. 702.06 Temperature Application Range, °C Type and Grade of Material Spray Mix RC 70 27 to 66 27 to 66 RC 250 28 to 79 27 to 66 RC 800 71 to 107 57 to 85 RC 3000 93 to 135 85 to 107 MC 30 10 to 49 10 to 49 MC 70 27 to 66 27 to 66 MC 250 38 to 93 38 to 99 MC 800 85 to 127 93 to 12 MC 3000 109 to 135 93 to 121 All emulsions 10 to 71 10 to 71 Asphalt cement (all 204 maximum As required to achieve a Kinematic grades) Viscosity of 150 to 300 centistokes. Section 703. Aggregates 703.01 Concrete Aggregates. A. Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 6. B. Coarse Aggregate. AASHTO M 80. C. Lightweight Aggregate. AASHTO M 195. Furnish coarse aggregate in specified separate sizes of either the No. 4 to 20 mm and the 20 mm to 38 mm sizes, or the No. 4 to 25 mm, and 25 mm to 50 mm (No. 3) sizes. It is not necessary to separate nominal top size of coarse aggregate of 25 mm or less. 703.02 Plant-Mix Asphalt Base Course Aggregates. A. Coarse Aggregate. AASHTO M 283. Furnish coarse aggregate of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel. B. Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 29. 703.03 Road-Mix Asphalt Base and Surface Coarse Aggregates. Blend coarse aggregate meeting ASTM D 692 with fine aggregate meeting AASHTO M 29 to produce the specified gradation. Use aggregates of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel. 703.04 Treated or Untreated Base Coarse Aggregates. AASHTO M 147. Provide aggregates of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel or natural gravel. 703.05 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates. General. A. Coarse Aggregate. ASTM D 692. Provide aggregate of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel or natural gravel. Unless specified, use only one kind of aggregate. B. Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 29. Provide aggregate of natural sand, manufactured sand, stone screenings, slag screenings, or a combination of these. 703.06 Aggregate Gradation for Asphalt Pavement. Size, grade, proportion, and combine aggregate fractions to produce composite blends meeting the following grading requirements: Mix Designation and Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size Percent Passing Sieve 20-mm mix 13-mm mix 10-mm mix 25 mm 100 20 mm 90 to 100 100 13 mm 90 to 100 100 10 mm 60 to 80 73 to 93 90 to 100 #4 40 to 60 51 to 71 60 to 80 #8 28 to 48 34 to 54 40 to 60 #16 20 to 36 22 to 38 27 to 47 #30 14 to 26 18 to 30 21 to 33 #50 8 to 20 10 to 22 14 to 26 #100 7 to 15 9 to 17 10 to 18 #200 2 to 8 2 to 8 2 to 8 (The Agency may supply other gradations.) 703.07 Aggregate Gradation for Cold Plant Mix Asphalt Pavement. A. Aggregate for Pavement. Size, grade, proportion, and combine the several aggregate fractions so that resulting composite blends meet grading specifications. (The Agency may supply other gradations.) B. Aggregate for Top Dressing. Use top dressing material containing dry sand, stone screenings, or slag screenings graded so that at least 95 percent passes the 4.75- mm sieve and not more than 40 percent passes the 300-µm sieve. 703.08 Cover Coat Material Aggregate. Use ASTM D 1139. Use aggregates of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel. Use only one type of aggregate unless alternate types are approved. When testing under AASHTO T 182, provide aggregate with a retained asphalt film above 95 percent. Use aggregates not meeting this requirement for asphalt surface treatments and seal coats only when supplemented with an acceptable chemical additive or wetting agent that produces a water-resistant film. (The Agency may supply specifications.) THE SECOND PARAGRAPH ISN’T REALLY AN AGGREGATE ISSUE DIRECTLY. THIS IS A CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION ISSUE FOR THE COMBINED AGGREGATE AND ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENT. 703.09 Blotter Material Aggregate. AASHTO M 43, Size 10. Use aggregate free of organic or other harmful material. 703.10 Filler. AASHTO M 17. 703.11 Bed Course Material. A. Sidewalks and Curbing. Use material containing cinders, sand, slag, gravel, crushed stone, or other approved material graded so that all particles pass a 13- mm sieve. B. Protecting Slopes. Cover slopes with porous, free-draining material consisting of sand, cinders, gravel, slag, crushed stone, or other approved free-draining material. Use uniformly graded and sized material so that 100 percent passes a 40- mm sieve. 703.12 Masonry Mortar Aggregate. AASHTO M 45. 703.13 Limestone Dust. AASHTO M 17. Acceptable only if free of flat platelet grains or rhombohedral grains. 703.14 Lightweight Aggregate for Structural Concrete. Moved to Subsection 703.01. 703.15 Aggregate for Riprap. Provide [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96], crushed, quarried, or natural stone aggregate. Use stone with an apparent specific gravity of at least 2.4 or use broken concrete with absorption less than 5 percent. Provide stone that contains no weak laminations and cleavages and that will not disintegrate when exposed to water or weathering. Use aggregate for riprap that meets the following additional requirements: A. Class 1 Riprap Stone: 1. Primary Stone. Stone at least 75 mm thick, with a minimum 23-kg mass; at least 60 percent must have a mass of more than 35 kg. 2. Choke Stone. Fragments or spalls sized to wedge between the primary stones. B. Class 2 Riprap Stone. Use smaller stones graded to ensure even distribution throughout the riprap; at least 60 percent must have a mass of more than 35 kg. C. Grouted Riprap. Stone meeting requirements for Class 1 or Class 2 riprap. D. Wire-Enclosed Riprap. Round or angular aggregate, with at least 95 percent retained on a 13-mm square opening screen. E. Sacked-Concrete Riprap. Aggregate includes clean pit run, sandy or gravel material free of roots, organic matter, or other detrimental matter. Meet the following gradation requirements: Passing a 50-mm sieve 80 to 100 percent Passing a 75-µm sieve 0 to 4 percent 703.16 Filter Aggregate for Riprap. Provide aggregates of [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96] particles or fragments of crushed stone or natural gravel. Screen or crush materials to meet the following gradation requirements: Sieve Percent Passing 75 mm 100 12.5 mm 20 to 50 75 µm 0 to 10 Section 704. Aggregate for Drainage ELIMINATE SECTION 704. THIS SHOULDN’T BE A NEW SECTION IT STILL SHOULD BE UNDER 703. AGGREGATE. IN SOME CASES IT IS THE SAME SPECIFICATIONS. CHANGE REFERENCES IN THE CONSTRUCTION SPECS. RENUMBER OTHER SECTIONS 704.01 Permeable Material. Use [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96], clean sand, gravel, crushed stone, or crushed slag to backfill trenches, construct underdrains, or for other subdrainage purposes. Ensure that permeable material contains no organic material, clay balls, or other detrimental matter. 704.02 Coarse Aggregate for Underdrain Course. AASHTO M 80, and gradation requirements of AASHTO M 43 for size No. 89. (Agency may specify alternative gradation.) 704.03 Fine Aggregate for Underdrain. AASHTO M 6. (Agency may specify alternative gradation.) 705. Stone Blanket Protection, Filter Blanket, and Fabrics 705.01 Stone Blanket Protection. AASHTO M 80 and gradation requirements AASHTO M 43 for size No. 357. 705.02 Filter Blanket. AASHTO M 80 and gradation requirements AASHTO M 43 for size No. 467. 705.03 Filter Fabric for Subsurface Drainage. AASHTO M 288, Class A or B. 705.04 Fabric Reinforcement for Asphalt Pavement. AASHTO M 288, Paving Grade. Section 706. Masonry Units 706.01 Clay or Shale Brick. Meet one of the following specifications and grade requirements: Sewer brick AASHTO M 91 Building brick AASHTO M 114 706.02 Concrete Brick. ASTM C 55 for grade specified. 706.03 Concrete Masonry Blocks. Meet rectangular or segmented concrete masonry blocks and, when specified, shape ends to interlock at vertical joints. Use solid blocks meeting requirements of ASTM C 129, C 139, or C 145, and hollow blocks meeting ASTM C 90, grade as specified. Comply with dimensions specified. Section 707. Joint Materials 707.01 Joint Fillers and Sealants. A. Poured Joint Sealants. AASHTO M 173, M 282, ASTM D 3405, or D 3581-90. B. Preformed Joint Sealants. AASHTO M 220. Provide lubricants to install preformed compression seals in concrete pavement to meet ASTM D 2835. C. Preformed Joint Fillers. AASHTO M 33, M 153, or M 213, as specified. Furnish filler for each joint in a single piece for the full depth and width required. Punch the filler to accommodate the dowels. When authorized to use more than one piece for a joint, accurately staple or otherwise securely fasten the abutting ends to shape. 707.02 Joint Mortar. Use joint mortar of one part portland cement and two parts sand and water mixed to the required consistency. Use mortar within 30 minutes of mixing. 707.03 Flexible Watertight Gaskets. AASHTO M 198, Type A (rubber) or Type B (flexible plastic) ring gaskets. Section 708. Concrete, Clay, and Plastic Pipe 708.01 Nonreinforced Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 86 for specified diameters and strength classes. 708.02 Reinforced Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 170 or M 242 for specified diameters and strength classes or D-loads. Unless otherwise specified, pipe wall design and use of elliptical reinforcement in circular pipe are optional. Use precast reinforced concrete end sections that meet the specified requirements. 708.03 Perforated Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 175 for specified diameters and strength classes. 708.04 Drain Tile. AASHTO M 178 or M 179 for specified material, diameters, and quality classes. 708.05 Porous Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 176 for specified diameters. 708.06 Perforated Vitrified Clay Pipe. AASHTO M 65 for specified diameter and strength class. Provide bells with integral spacer lugs providing an annular opening and self-centering feature, when specified. 708.07 Vitrified Clay Pipe. AASHTO M 65 for specified diameters and strength classes for unperforated pipe. 708.08 Reinforced Concrete Arch Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe. AASHTO M 206 for class specified. 708.09 Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe. AASHTO M 207 for class specified. 708.10 Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe Using Flexible, Watertight Gaskets. AASHTO M 198. MOVE UP UNDER JOINT MATERIALS 707. THIS IS FOR THE JOINT MATERIAL NOT THE JOINT. 708.11 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings. ASTM D 3034, AASHTO M 278, or M 304 for specified type or class. For perforated pipe, ensure perforation size and spacing meet AASHTO M 278 or M 304. 708.12 Polyethylene (PE) Corrugated Drainage Pipe or Tubing. AASHTO M 252 or M 294 for perforations of the specified type and class. SEPARATE THESE TWO PIPES TYPES. M252 IS FOR LOW GRADE ROADWAY DRAINAGE. M294 IS USED FOR SMALL CULVERTS, STORM SEWER, ETC. 708.13 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings. AASHTO M 264. For perforated pipe, ensure perforation size and spacing meet AASHTO M 278 requirements. 708.14 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Section. AASHTO M 259 or M 273 for specified dimensions and loading conditions. Section 709. Metal Pipe 709.01 Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe. ASTM A 716 for specified diameters. 709.02 Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic-Coated for Sewers and Drains. Use pipe and coupling bands meeting AASHTO M 36-specified dimensions. Ensure that special sections such as elbows and prefabricated flared end sections meet AASHTO M 36. 709.03 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe and Pipe Arches. Use pipe and coupling bands meeting Subsection 709.02 and AASHTO M 190 requirements for specified dimensions and bituminous coating type. Fully coat coupling bands with bituminous materials. Ensure that special sections such as elbows and prefabricated flared end sections meet AASHTO M 36 and M 190 requirements. Use pipe that meets AASHTO M 36, zinc and aramid fiber-coated sheet, when fiber- bonded bituminous coating is specified. Use bituminous coating that meets AASHTO M 190 for the type specified. 709.04 Metallic-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 36 for the specified diameters and perforation class. 709.05 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 36, including specified perforation class. Coat pipe with bituminous material meeting AASHTO M 190 for specified type and coating. Fully coat coupling bands. Meet specified minimum diameter perforations after coating. 709.06 Corrugated Aluminum Culvert Pipe. AASHTO M 196 for specified dimensions. 709.07 Corrugated Aluminum Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 196 for specified diameter and perforations. 709.08 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Aluminum Culvert Pipe. AASHTO M 196. Coat the pipe with bituminous material meeting AASHTO M 190. Provide coating and invert paving type specified. 709.09 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Aluminum Pipe Underdrain. AASHTO M 196. Coat pipe with bituminous material to meet AASHTO M 190, as specified. 709.10 Steel Structural Plate for Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 167 for conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates. 709.11 Full Bituminous-Coated Steel Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 167 for conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates. Coat conduit with bituminous material that meets AASHTO M 190 or M 243. 709.12 Aluminum Structural Plate for Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 219 for conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates. 709.13 Full Bituminous-Coated Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 219 for conduits. AASHTO M 190 or M 243 for bituminous material coating. 709.14 Corrugated Steel Pipe, Polymer Precoated, for Sewers and Drains. AASHTO M 245. 709.15 Nestable Corrugated Steel Pipe. Military Specification MIL-P-236. 709.16 Slotted Corrugated Steel Pipe. Use slotted pipe with either angle-slots or grate-slots, as specified. AASHTO M 183 for angle slot drains. Subsection 714.08 for grate-slot drain assemblies. Meet galvanization requirements under AASHTO M 111 for slot angles and grate-slot assemblies. Furnish commercial-quality flashing galvanized with a G165 coating designation to meet ASTM A 525. Meet ASTM A 307 for bolts and nuts. Meet ASTM A 501 for structural tubing spacers. Galvanize bolts, nuts, and spacers to meet AASHTO M 111. Section 710. Paints (Reserved) Section 711. Reinforcing Steel and Wire Rope 711.01 Reinforcing Steel. Billet-steel bars for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 31 AND ASTM A706M, A996M Rail-steel bars for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 42 M322 Axle-steel bars for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 53 M322 Fabricated steel bar or rod mats for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 54 Welded steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 55 or AASHTO M 221 Prestressing strand for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 203 Prestressing wire for concrete reinforcement AASHTO M 204 Furnish deformed bars for concrete structures meeting the tensile properties for the grade specified. Furnish tie bars that meet AASHTO M 31 or M 42. Do not use rail steel for tie bars to be bent and restraightened during construction. Furnish plain, round dowel bars meeting AASHTO M 31, or M 322, mechanical properties only, or AASHTO M 227. Ensure dowels are free from burs or other distortions that might limit slippage in the concrete. Meet AASHTO M 254 for pre-applied protective and bond- breaking coatings. Use metal of an approved design for dowel bar sleeves. Provide epoxy-coated reinforcing steel to meet AASHTO M 284. THE ABOVE SECTION NEEDS A LOT OF WORK. PRESTRESSED STRAND AND WIRE SHOULD NOT BE INCLUDED UNLESS [AS WRITTEN] YOU WANT DEFORMATIONS IN THE STRANDS. SAME IS TRUE FOR WIRE FABRIC AS M55 IS SMOOTH WIRE. M221 IS DEFORMED WIRE. TIE BARS SHOULD BE A SEPARATE SPECIFICATION FROM REINFORCING STEEL OR THE REFERENCE TO TIE BARS SHOULD BE IN THE CONSTRUCTION ITEM UNDER MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS. PAVEMENT DOWEL BARS SHOULD BE A SEPARATE SPECIFICATION. YOU WANT THEM SMOOTH, NOT DEFORMED. YOU ALSO HAVE ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SLEEVES. 711.02 Wire Rope or Wire Cable. AASHTO M 30 for type specified. Section 712. Fence and Guardrail 712.01 Barbed Wire. AASHTO M 280 or M 305 for specified coating class and style. 712.02 Woven Wire. AASHTO M 279 for specified coating class and style. 712.03 Chain-Link Fence. AASHTO M 181 for chain-link fabric, fittings, and hardware for the specified metal, coating, wire sizes, and mesh. 712.04 Metal Beam Rail. AASHTO M 180 for the specified class and type of corrugated-sheet steel beam rail elements. AASHTO M 183 for galvanized or painted rub rails and AASHTO M 222 for corrosion-resistant rail. AASHTO M 111 galvanization requirements. 712.05 Timber Rail. Cut timber rail from the specified grade of dry, well-seasoned, and dressed timber stock of the species specified, to meet AASHTO M 168. Use timber preservatives meeting AASHTO M 133. Meet the following pressure treatment requirements: General—AWPA C1 Guardrail and fence posts—AWPA C2 Structural timbers—AWPA C14 Piles—AWPA C3 Creosote—minimum retention of  kg/m3 for species not covered under AWPA C14 712.06 Fence Posts. A. Wood. Furnish straight, sound, seasoned, and peeled wood posts with ends cut square. Trim knots flush with the surface. Treat posts as specified. Peeling requirements do not apply to red cedar posts or bracing. Use dimension timber and lumber, of the specified species and grade, for fences or gates. Ensure members are sound, straight, and free from knots, splits, and shakes. Dress and finish all sides. B. Concrete. Furnish concrete and reinforcing steel for concrete posts as specified. [STATE SPECIFICATIONS NEED TO BE INCLUDED] C. Steel. Furnish rolled steel posts meeting AASHTO M 281 and galvanize to meet AASHTO M 111. Furnish tubular steel posts meeting AASHTO M 181. Use standard commercial grade fittings, hardware, and appurtenances to current standard practice if not otherwise specified. 712.07 Guardrail Posts. ARTBA Bulletin No. 268, A Guide to Standardized Highway Barrier Rail Hardware. 712.08 Guardrail Hardware. ARTBA Bulletin No. 268, A Guide to Standardized Highway Barrier Rail Hardware. 712.09 Steel Box Beam Rail. ASTM A 500 or A 501. Galvanize after fabrication to meet AASHTO M 111. ASTM A 500 or A 501 dimensional and mechanical requirements for corrosion-resistant steel rail elements. Ensure elements have an atmospheric corrosion resistance approximately twice that of carbon structural steel with copper. Prohibit the use of painted or galvanized rail elements. Meet posts conforming to Subsection 712.07 and hardware that meets Subsection 712.08. I AM LOST IN THIS SPECIFICATION. USE ASTM A500 OR A501 WITH OR WITHOUT GALVANIZING? 712.10 Wire-Enclosed Riprap. A. Woven Wire. Use 50 mm by 100 mm V-mesh fabric, with two-strand twisted, [12.5] gage wires. AASHTO M 279, Class 1 or better. B. Lacing and Tie Wire. Use galvanized, [12.5] gage smooth steel wire. In lieu of lacing, use 9 gage galvanized hog rings at 100 mm spacings. C. Steel Stakes. Provide 1.5 m or greater length steel stakes of 75 mm O.D. standard pipe, or 100 mm by 100 mm by 10 mm angles. 712.11 Gates. Federal Specification RR-F-191 Fencing, Wire and Post Metal (and Gates, Chain- Link Fence, and Accessories). Section 713. Concrete Curing Materials and Admixtures 713.01 Curing Materials. Burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf AASHTO M 182 Sheet materials for curing concrete AASHTO M 171 Liquid membrane-forming compounds for curing concrete AASHTO M 148 713.02 Air-Entraining Admixtures. AASHTO M 154. 713.03 Chemical Admixtures. AASHTO M 194 for water-reducing, set-retarding, and set- accelerating admixtures. Section 714. Miscellaneous Requirements 714.01 Water. AASHTO M 157, Section 4.1.4 for mixing and curing. Test water under AASHTO T 26. Potable-quality water requires no testing. Use irrigation-quality water free of elements harmful to plant growth for irrigating trees, plants, and seeded areas. 714.02 Calcium Chloride. AASHTO M 144. 714.03 Hydrated Lime. AASHTO M 216 for specified type and grade. 714.04 Sodium Chloride. AASHTO M 143. 714.05 Stone Curbing. A. Stone Curb. From approved sources. Use only one type of stone in each application. Ensure no drill holes mar exposed faces. Cut joints of circular or curved stone curb on radial lines. Furnish stone segments at least  mm in length. 1. Faces: a. Top. True plane with surface variations less than  mm. Pitch front and back arris lines straight and true. b. Front. True plane with variations less than  mm. c. Butted ends (top and front face). Finish ends square with the planes of the top, back, and face. Provide a true plane with a maximum gap of  mm. Ensure the remainder of the end breaks back no more than  mm from the plane of the joint. d. Back. Limit surface batter to 3:1. B. Slope Stone Curb. Meet requirements for stone curb, except as follows: 1. Top surface maximum variation of  mm;  mm on other exposed faces 2. Unexposed surfaces maximum variation of  mm from a true plane within a length of  mm 3. Maximum gap of  mm on exposed faces between adjacent segments of curb 4. Stone segments at least  mm in length 714.06 Precast Concrete Curbing. Precast as specified. Meet Subsection 711.01 for reinforcing steel. Use reinforcing steel meeting 711.01 714.07 Precast Concrete Units. Manhole risers and components. AASHTO M 199 A. Cast units in steel forms. B. Compressive strength: 20.7 MPa (28 day) under AASHTO T 22. C. Air content:  percent 11/2 percent. D. Cure precast units under AASHTO M 170. E. Water absorption of individual cores: less than 8 percent under ASTM C 642-90. F. Provide additional reinforcing steel, as necessary, to handle precast units. Cast cylinders from each concrete batch or truck mixer load of concrete to provide at least two cylinders each for compression tests at 7, 14, and 28 days. If the specified strength requirements are met at 7 or 14 days, certify units for use 14 days from the casting date. Reject units with cracked, honeycombed, or patched areas more than [20,000] mm2. Provide precast reinforced concrete manhole riser sections and appurtenances under AASHTO M 199. 714.08 Frames, Grates and Covers, Ladder Rungs. Gray iron castings AASHTO M 105 (Strength class optional) Carbon steel castings AASHTO M 103 (Strength class optional) Structural steel AASHTO M 183 or ASTM A 283, GRADE D or better Galvanizing AASHTO M 111 Malleable iron castings ASTM A 47 (Grade optional) 714.09 HOLD FOR FUTURE USE 714.10 Quick Lime. AASHTO M 216. 714.11 Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolans Used with Hydraulic Cement. AASHTO M 295. 714.12 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Mineral Admixture. AASHTO M 302. Section 715. Roadside Improvement Materials 715.01 Loam (Topsoil). Loam is defined as the "A" horizon of the soil profile (Soil Science Society of America). Provide loam containing loose, friable, sandy material free of subsoil admixtures, refuse, stumps, rocks, roots, brush, weeds, or other material that impedes plant growth. Ensure minimum and maximum pH of __________ (by Agency). Ensure organic matter of loam between ____ and ____ percent as determined by test method ______ (by Agency, test loam according to standards of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists). Loam Gradation Sieve Size Percent Passing 25 mm 100 6 mm 97 to 100 2 mm 80 to 100 Particle Size Minimum Maximum Sand 75-µm to 2-mm sieve 20 75 Silt 0.002 mm to 75-µm sieve 10 60 Clay 0.002 mm or less 5 30 Ensure loam contains stones less than 50 mm in diameter. 715.02 Agricultural Limestone. Provide a calcic or dolomitic ground limestone containing at least ___ percent (by Agency) of total (calcium and magnesium) carbonates. Meet standards of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Ensure a minimum 40 percent passing a 150-µm sieve and a minimum 95 percent passing a 2.36-mm sieve. (Note to Agency: Use other agricultural liming materials as specified; i.e., agricultural hydrated, agricultural pulverized, agricultural superfine, agricultural granulated slag. Indicate acceptable materials, sieve analysis, and application rates.) 715.03 Fertilizer. Provide a commercial-grade fertilizer meeting the standards of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists and the specified nutrient content. Furnish an affidavit certifying the nutrient content. 715.04 Seed. Meet the following seed formula(s): (Agency to provide the types of seed or seed mixtures, including percentage of purity, germination, and weed seed content.) Deliver in labeled and sealed containers to the job. Seed and labels are subject to the Association of Official Seed Analysts testing provisions. Inoculate legume seed with approved cultures under manufacturer=s instructions. 715.05 Mulch A. Wood Chips. 1. From disease-free green hardwood; use wood chips from elm trees only under the following conditions (Agency to specify). 2. A nominal thickness of ___ mm (Agency to specify). 3. At least  percent having an area between [650 and 4000] mm2. 4. Include no leaves, twigs, shavings, bark, or other materials that impede plant growth. B. Straw. Provide from oat, wheat, rye grain crops with no noxious weeds, mold, or objectionable material. C. Hay. Provide mowed, herbaceous hay with no noxious weeds, mold, or objectionable material. D. Wood Cellulose Fiber. Use natural or cooked cellulose fiber that disburses easily in water and that has no toxic effect when combined with seed or other materials. Include a colored dye that will not affect plant growth, when specified. Furnish a manufacturer=s certification verifying the following properties: 1. Moisture content of  percent  percent. 2. A pH between [3.5 and 5.0]. 3. Minimum water holding capacity  g/100 g fiber. 4. Minimum organic matter:[(97] percent. 5. Wood fiber: [45 to 55] percent. E. Sawdust. Reject sawdust containing any toxic substances and older than ____ years (Agency to specify). F. Peat Moss. Furnish brown, granulated sphagnum peat moss containing at least 75 percent partially decomposed stems and leaves in ___________ (loose or compressed) bales. Ensure peat is nearly free from woody substances and contains no sticks, stones, or mineral matter. Texture may vary from porous fibrous to spongy fibrous. Ensure air-dry at time of application with a [3.5 to 5.5] pH. G. Peat Humus. Furnish natural peat or peat humus from fresh water-saturated areas consisting of sedge, sphagnum or reed peat with 100 percent passing a [12.5] mm sieve. Ensure humus contains no sticks, stones, roots, or objectionable materials. Meet the following: Acidity range: 4.0 to 7.5 pH Minimum water-absorbing ability: 200 percent by weight on oven-dry basis Minimum organic content: 60 percent when dried at 105 oC Keep freshly excavated peat saturated with water until used. 715.06 Plant Materials. A. Quality of Plant Materials. Meet the current edition of AAmerican Standard for Nursery Stock@ (ASNS), ANSI, Z60.1 of the ANN and as follows: 1. Use healthy nursery-grown stock that has been transplanted or root- trimmed two or more times. 2. Normal developed branch systems with no disfiguring knots, broken terminal growth, or other blemishes. 3. Trees with reasonably straight stems and branches that reflect natural growth patterns. 4. State and Federal laws controlling inspection for plant diseases and insect infestations. B. Plant Names. Use plants with scientific and common plant names conforming to Hortus Third by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Deliver named and tagged plants of the size specified. Obtain approval to substitute species. C. Grading Standards. Grade plants to conform to the American Standard for Nursery Stock, as approved by the American National Standards Institute, Inc., current edition. D. Nursery Inspection and Plant Quarantine. Supply healthy plants free from disease and insect pests. Ship plants according to nursery inspection and plant quarantine regulations of the States of origin and destination. Ensure the certificate of inspection accompanies each package, box, bale, or carload shipped or delivered. E. Ball and Burlap Plants. Dig, ball, and burlap plants carefully to conserve as many fibrous roots as possible. Ensure that soil forms a firm ball and is the original, undisturbed soil in which the plant was grown. Ensure ball size conforms to ASNS. F. Delivery and Inspection. Make plants and related certifications available for inspection in the nursery or collecting source  days prior to delivery. Approval to move nursery material is not final acceptance. G. Protection and Temporary Storage. Keep plants moist and protected during transit, temporary storage, and on the project site. Protect plants delivered, but not scheduled for immediate planting, as follows: Open bare root bundles, separate plants, and lean in trenches. Cover balled and burlapped material with sawdust, woodchips, or other suitable material to keep moist. 715.07 Erosion Control Net Material. Furnish material in lengths of a minimum ______ meters (by Agency). A. Burlap. Use standard weave burlap with a mass of [120 to 170] g/m2 . B. Jute Mesh. Use jute mesh of a uniform, plain weave with warp and weft meters approximately the same size. The physical requirements are: 1. Width: 1150 to 1200 mm 25 mm, 78 warp ends per width, 45 weft ends per meter. 2. Range of cloth weight: 0.6 to 0.9 kg/running m with a 5 percent minimum tolerance at standard atmospheric conditions. C. Woven Paper or Sisal Mesh Netting. Weave paper or sisal mesh netting from twisted yarns available in rolls 1150 to 1220 mm wide. Mesh may vary from closed to open weave and range from 3 mm to 6 mm openings. Limit shrinkage after wetting to no more than 20 percent of the surface area. D. Erosion-Control Netting. Use 3 meter-wide black polypropylene extruded plastic net with rectangular mesh openings approximately 25 mm by 50 mm or 19 mm by 21 mm. Ensure a material mass of approximately 13 g/m2. Use 255 mm pins, 11- gage wire or heavier, with 50 mm throats to secure the netting. E. Wood Fiber Blanket. Furnish blankets with uniform interlocking wood excelsior fibers with net backing on one side. Ensure fibers are curled, barbed, and evenly distributed to provide consistent thickness. Ensure a mass of 530 g/m2 10 percent, under average atmospheric conditions with a backing mesh size no greater than 38 mm by 75 mm. Weave backing from twisted paper, cotton cord, a biodegradable plastic, or other approved material. Ensure blanket is nontoxic to plants. Furnish in rolled strips 1220 mm wide 25 mm. F. Fiberglass Roving Material. Form fiber glass roving material from continuous fibers drawn from molten glass, coated with a chrome-complex sizing compound, collected into strands. Lightly bind together into roving without the use of clay, starch, or other deleterious substances. Wind the roving into a cylindrical package approximately 0.3 m high so it can be fed continuously from the center of the package through an ejector driven by compressed air and expanded into a mat of glass fibers on the soil surface. Use material without solvents or other agents toxic to plant or animal life. Meet the following: Property Limits Strand/rove 56 to 64 Fibers/strand 184 to 234 Fibers diameter, mm 0.009–0.010 (Trade Designation G) Meters/kilogram of rove 420–460 Organic content, percent maximum 0.75 G. Staples. Anchor erosion mat with U-shaped staples, 11-gage or larger diameter steel wire. For firm soils, use staples 25 mm to 50 mm wide and at least 150 mm long. For loose soils, use staples at least 305 mm long. Use staples at least 200 mm long if placing jute fabric over sod. 715.08 Miscellaneous. [come up with another name PLANT MATERIAL SUPPORT?] A. Water. Subsection 714.01 [shouldn’t need to be listed. Should be listed in the construction item ―Use water meeting 714.01‖ or under the materials section in the applicable construction item.] B. Bracing and Anchoring Stakes. Brace or support trees with wooden stakes meeting the American Lumber Standards. C. Hose. Use rubber or fabric garden or stream hose with ___ gage (Agency to specify) wire to brace and guy trees. D. Guy Wire. Use new, soft annealed galvanized steel, ___ gage (Agency to specify). E. Wrapping Material. Use crinkled waterproof paper with a mass of at least 200 g/m2. Wrap with two sheets of paper cemented together with asphalt. Use masking tape when specified. Use burlap in 150-mm-wide rolls, when specified. F. Twine. 1. 75 mm or smaller diameter trees, use two-ply twine. 2. Greater than 75-mm diameter trees, use three-ply twine. G. Antidesiccant. Permeable emulsion permitting transpiration.