Division 700

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					                            Division 700. Materials Requirements

        Specifications do not include all materials requirements to construct items covered under
Divisions 200 through 800. For additional, detailed requirements, refer to the current AASHTO
Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing or to
ASTM specifications. ARTBA's A Guide to Standardized Highway Drainage Products is
approved by the AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee and provides additional requirements
for drainage items. Individual Agencies should add specifications for locally used materials and
augment requirements for some materials included here.
        Where more than one option exists within a cited Subsection, the Agency will identify the
one to use.
        Material specifications are not all shown in active voice; a simple reference is shown

                                Section 701. Hydraulic Cement

701.01 Hydraulic Cement.

      Type                                      Specification
      Hydraulic cement                          AASHTO M 85
      Blended hydraulic cement                  AASHTO M 240
      Masonry cement                            ASTM C 91

       Provide product from only one mill for any brand and type of hydraulic cement except to
reduce excessive air entrainment when using air-entraining cement.
       Protect the cement from dampness during storage. Prohibit the use of partially set cement
or cement that contains caked lumps. Prohibit the use of cement salvaged from discarded or used

                                     Section 702. Asphalt

       Meet the following for the type and grade specified:

702.01 Asphalt Cements. AASHTO M 20 for penetration-graded asphalt, M 320 for
performance-graded asphalt, or M 226 for viscosity-graded asphalt.

702.02 Cutback Asphalt. AASHTO M 81 and M 82.

702.03 Emulsified Asphalt. AASHTO M 140 or M 208.

702.04 Asphalt for Dampproofing and Waterproofing. Coal tar, AASHTO M 118.

702.05 Asphalt Primer for Dampproofing and Waterproofing. Creosote, AASHTO M 121.
702.06 Temperature Application Range, °C

         Type and Grade
           of Material                Spray                             Mix
      RC 70                     27 to 66            27 to 66
      RC 250                    28 to 79            27 to 66
      RC 800                    71 to 107           57 to 85
      RC 3000                   93 to 135           85 to 107
      MC 30                     10 to 49            10 to 49
      MC 70                     27 to 66            27 to 66
      MC 250                    38 to 93            38 to 99
      MC 800                    85 to 127           93 to 12
      MC 3000                   109 to 135          93 to 121
      All emulsions             10 to 71            10 to 71
      Asphalt cement (all       204 maximum         As required to achieve a Kinematic
        grades)                                       Viscosity of 150 to 300 centistokes.

                                   Section 703. Aggregates

703.01 Concrete Aggregates.

       A.     Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 6.
       B.     Coarse Aggregate. AASHTO M 80.
       C.     Lightweight Aggregate. AASHTO M 195.
              Furnish coarse aggregate in specified separate sizes of either the No. 4 to 20 mm
              and the 20 mm to 38 mm sizes, or the No. 4 to 25 mm, and 25 mm to 50 mm
              (No. 3) sizes. It is not necessary to separate nominal top size of coarse aggregate
              of 25 mm or less.

703.02 Plant-Mix Asphalt Base Course Aggregates.

       A.     Coarse Aggregate. AASHTO M 283. Furnish coarse aggregate of crushed stone,
              crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel.
       B.     Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 29.

703.03 Road-Mix Asphalt Base and Surface Coarse Aggregates. Blend coarse aggregate
meeting ASTM D 692 with fine aggregate meeting AASHTO M 29 to produce the specified
       Use aggregates of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel.

703.04 Treated or Untreated Base Coarse Aggregates. AASHTO M 147. Provide aggregates
of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed gravel or natural gravel.
703.05 Asphalt Concrete Aggregates. General.

       A.     Coarse Aggregate. ASTM D 692. Provide aggregate of crushed stone, crushed
              slag, crushed gravel or natural gravel. Unless specified, use only one kind of
       B.     Fine Aggregate. AASHTO M 29. Provide aggregate of natural sand,
              manufactured sand, stone screenings, slag screenings, or a combination of these.

703.06 Aggregate Gradation for Asphalt Pavement. Size, grade, proportion, and combine
aggregate fractions to produce composite blends meeting the following grading requirements:

                  Mix Designation and Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
                                                Percent Passing
            Sieve            20-mm mix            13-mm mix         10-mm mix
      25 mm              100
      20 mm              90 to 100            100
      13 mm              90 to 100            100
      10 mm              60 to 80             73 to 93          90 to 100
      #4                 40 to 60             51 to 71          60 to 80
      #8                 28 to 48             34 to 54          40 to 60
      #16                20 to 36             22 to 38          27 to 47
      #30                14 to 26             18 to 30          21 to 33
      #50                8 to 20              10 to 22          14 to 26
      #100               7 to 15              9 to 17           10 to 18
      #200               2 to 8               2 to 8            2 to 8
      (The Agency may supply other gradations.)

703.07 Aggregate Gradation for Cold Plant Mix Asphalt Pavement.

       A.     Aggregate for Pavement. Size, grade, proportion, and combine the several
              aggregate fractions so that resulting composite blends meet grading specifications.
              (The Agency may supply other gradations.)
       B.     Aggregate for Top Dressing. Use top dressing material containing dry sand, stone
              screenings, or slag screenings graded so that at least 95 percent passes the 4.75-
              mm sieve and not more than 40 percent passes the 300-µm sieve.

703.08 Cover Coat Material Aggregate. Use ASTM D 1139. Use aggregates of crushed stone,
crushed slag, crushed gravel, or natural gravel. Use only one type of aggregate unless alternate
types are approved.
        When testing under AASHTO T 182, provide aggregate with a retained asphalt film
above 95 percent. Use aggregates not meeting this requirement for asphalt surface treatments and
seal coats only when supplemented with an acceptable chemical additive or wetting agent that
produces a water-resistant film. (The Agency may supply specifications.) THE SECOND

703.09 Blotter Material Aggregate. AASHTO M 43, Size 10.

       Use aggregate free of organic or other harmful material.

703.10 Filler. AASHTO M 17.

703.11 Bed Course Material.

       A.      Sidewalks and Curbing. Use material containing cinders, sand, slag, gravel,
               crushed stone, or other approved material graded so that all particles pass a 13-
               mm sieve.
       B.      Protecting Slopes. Cover slopes with porous, free-draining material consisting of
               sand, cinders, gravel, slag, crushed stone, or other approved free-draining
               material. Use uniformly graded and sized material so that 100 percent passes a 40-
               mm sieve.

703.12 Masonry Mortar Aggregate. AASHTO M 45.

703.13 Limestone Dust. AASHTO M 17. Acceptable only if free of flat platelet grains or
rhombohedral grains.

703.14 Lightweight Aggregate for Structural Concrete. Moved to Subsection 703.01.

703.15 Aggregate for Riprap. Provide [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96], crushed, quarried, or
natural stone aggregate. Use stone with an apparent specific gravity of at least 2.4 or use broken
concrete with absorption less than 5 percent. Provide stone that contains no weak laminations
and cleavages and that will not disintegrate when exposed to water or weathering. Use aggregate
for riprap that meets the following additional requirements:

       A.      Class 1 Riprap Stone:
               1.      Primary Stone. Stone at least 75 mm thick, with a minimum 23-kg mass;
                       at least 60 percent must have a mass of more than 35 kg.
               2.      Choke Stone. Fragments or spalls sized to wedge between the primary
       B.      Class 2 Riprap Stone. Use smaller stones graded to ensure even distribution
               throughout the riprap; at least 60 percent must have a mass of more than 35 kg.
       C.      Grouted Riprap. Stone meeting requirements for Class 1 or Class 2 riprap.
       D.      Wire-Enclosed Riprap. Round or angular aggregate, with at least 95 percent
               retained on a 13-mm square opening screen.
       E.      Sacked-Concrete Riprap. Aggregate includes clean pit run, sandy or gravel
               material free of roots, organic matter, or other detrimental matter. Meet the
               following gradation requirements:

                   Passing a 50-mm sieve              80 to 100 percent
                   Passing a 75-µm sieve              0 to 4 percent

703.16 Filter Aggregate for Riprap. Provide aggregates of [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96]
particles or fragments of crushed stone or natural gravel. Screen or crush materials to meet the
following gradation requirements:

           Sieve          Percent Passing
       75 mm            100
       12.5 mm          20 to 50
       75 µm            0 to 10

Section 704. Aggregate for Drainage ELIMINATE SECTION 704. THIS SHOULDN’T BE

704.01 Permeable Material. Use [Define, e.g. AASHTO T 96], clean sand, gravel, crushed
stone, or crushed slag to backfill trenches, construct underdrains, or for other subdrainage
purposes. Ensure that permeable material contains no organic material, clay balls, or other
detrimental matter.

704.02 Coarse Aggregate for Underdrain Course. AASHTO M 80, and gradation
requirements of AASHTO M 43 for size No. 89.
(Agency may specify alternative gradation.)

704.03 Fine Aggregate for Underdrain. AASHTO M 6.
(Agency may specify alternative gradation.)

                   705. Stone Blanket Protection, Filter Blanket, and Fabrics

705.01 Stone Blanket Protection. AASHTO M 80 and gradation requirements AASHTO M 43
for size No. 357.

705.02 Filter Blanket. AASHTO M 80 and gradation requirements AASHTO M 43 for size
No. 467.

705.03 Filter Fabric for Subsurface Drainage. AASHTO M 288, Class A or B.

705.04 Fabric Reinforcement for Asphalt Pavement. AASHTO M 288, Paving Grade.
                                  Section 706. Masonry Units

706.01 Clay or Shale Brick. Meet one of the following specifications and grade requirements:

       Sewer brick               AASHTO M 91
       Building brick            AASHTO M 114

706.02 Concrete Brick. ASTM C 55 for grade specified.

706.03 Concrete Masonry Blocks. Meet rectangular or segmented concrete masonry blocks and,
when specified, shape ends to interlock at vertical joints. Use solid blocks meeting requirements
of ASTM C 129, C 139, or C 145, and hollow blocks meeting ASTM C 90, grade as specified.
Comply with dimensions specified.

                                  Section 707. Joint Materials

707.01 Joint Fillers and Sealants.

       A.      Poured Joint Sealants. AASHTO M 173, M 282, ASTM D 3405, or D 3581-90.
       B.      Preformed Joint Sealants. AASHTO M 220. Provide lubricants to install
               preformed compression seals in concrete pavement to meet ASTM D 2835.
       C.      Preformed Joint Fillers. AASHTO M 33, M 153, or M 213, as specified. Furnish
               filler for each joint in a single piece for the full depth and width required. Punch
               the filler to accommodate the dowels. When authorized to use more than one
               piece for a joint, accurately staple or otherwise securely fasten the abutting ends to

707.02 Joint Mortar. Use joint mortar of one part portland cement and two parts sand and water
mixed to the required consistency. Use mortar within 30 minutes of mixing.

707.03 Flexible Watertight Gaskets. AASHTO M 198, Type A (rubber) or Type B (flexible
plastic) ring gaskets.

                         Section 708. Concrete, Clay, and Plastic Pipe

708.01 Nonreinforced Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 86 for specified diameters and strength

708.02 Reinforced Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 170 or M 242 for specified diameters and
strength classes or D-loads.
        Unless otherwise specified, pipe wall design and use of elliptical reinforcement in circular
pipe are optional.
        Use precast reinforced concrete end sections that meet the specified requirements.

708.03 Perforated Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 175 for specified diameters and strength

708.04 Drain Tile. AASHTO M 178 or M 179 for specified material, diameters, and quality

708.05 Porous Concrete Pipe. AASHTO M 176 for specified diameters.

708.06 Perforated Vitrified Clay Pipe. AASHTO M 65 for specified diameter and strength
class. Provide bells with integral spacer lugs providing an annular opening and self-centering
feature, when specified.

708.07 Vitrified Clay Pipe. AASHTO M 65 for specified diameters and strength classes for
unperforated pipe.

708.08 Reinforced Concrete Arch Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe. AASHTO M 206
for class specified.

708.09 Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe. AASHTO
M 207 for class specified.

708.10 Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe Using Flexible, Watertight

708.11 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings. ASTM D 3034, AASHTO M 278,
or M 304 for specified type or class. For perforated pipe, ensure perforation size and spacing
meet AASHTO M 278 or M 304.

708.12 Polyethylene (PE) Corrugated Drainage Pipe or Tubing. AASHTO M 252 or M 294
for perforations of the specified type and class.

708.13 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings. AASHTO M 264.
For perforated pipe, ensure perforation size and spacing meet AASHTO M 278 requirements.

708.14 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Section. AASHTO M 259 or M 273 for specified
dimensions and loading conditions.

                                    Section 709. Metal Pipe

709.01 Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe. ASTM A 716 for specified diameters.

709.02 Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic-Coated for Sewers and Drains. Use pipe and
coupling bands meeting AASHTO M 36-specified dimensions.
    Ensure that special sections such as elbows and prefabricated flared end sections meet

709.03 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe and Pipe Arches. Use pipe and coupling
bands meeting Subsection 709.02 and AASHTO M 190 requirements for specified dimensions
and bituminous coating type. Fully coat coupling bands with bituminous materials.
        Ensure that special sections such as elbows and prefabricated flared end sections meet
AASHTO M 36 and M 190 requirements.
        Use pipe that meets AASHTO M 36, zinc and aramid fiber-coated sheet, when fiber-
bonded bituminous coating is specified. Use bituminous coating that meets AASHTO M 190 for
the type specified.

709.04 Metallic-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 36 for the
specified diameters and perforation class.

709.05 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 36,
including specified perforation class.
       Coat pipe with bituminous material meeting AASHTO M 190 for specified type and
coating. Fully coat coupling bands. Meet specified minimum diameter perforations after coating.

709.06 Corrugated Aluminum Culvert Pipe. AASHTO M 196 for specified dimensions.

709.07 Corrugated Aluminum Pipe for Underdrains. AASHTO M 196 for specified diameter
and perforations.

709.08 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Aluminum Culvert Pipe. AASHTO M 196. Coat the
pipe with bituminous material meeting AASHTO M 190. Provide coating and invert paving type

709.09 Bituminous-Coated Corrugated Aluminum Pipe Underdrain. AASHTO M 196. Coat
pipe with bituminous material to meet AASHTO M 190, as specified.

709.10 Steel Structural Plate for Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 167 for
conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates.

709.11 Full Bituminous-Coated Steel Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches.
AASHTO M 167 for conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates. Coat conduit with
bituminous material that meets AASHTO M 190 or M 243.

709.12 Aluminum Structural Plate for Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches. AASHTO M 219 for
conduits, and bolts and nuts for connecting plates.

709.13 Full Bituminous-Coated Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches.
AASHTO M 219 for conduits. AASHTO M 190 or M 243 for bituminous material coating.
709.14 Corrugated Steel Pipe, Polymer Precoated, for Sewers and Drains. AASHTO M 245.

709.15 Nestable Corrugated Steel Pipe. Military Specification MIL-P-236.

709.16 Slotted Corrugated Steel Pipe. Use slotted pipe with either angle-slots or grate-slots, as
        AASHTO M 183 for angle slot drains. Subsection 714.08 for grate-slot drain assemblies.
Meet galvanization requirements under AASHTO M 111 for slot angles and grate-slot
        Furnish commercial-quality flashing galvanized with a G165 coating designation to meet
ASTM A 525. Meet ASTM A 307 for bolts and nuts. Meet ASTM A 501 for structural tubing
spacers. Galvanize bolts, nuts, and spacers to meet AASHTO M 111.

                                 Section 710. Paints (Reserved)

                        Section 711. Reinforcing Steel and Wire Rope

711.01 Reinforcing Steel.

      Billet-steel bars for concrete reinforcement                      AASHTO M 31 AND
                                                                         ASTM A706M,
      Rail-steel bars for concrete reinforcement                        AASHTO M 42 M322
      Axle-steel bars for concrete reinforcement                        AASHTO M 53 M322
      Fabricated steel bar or rod mats for concrete reinforcement       AASHTO M 54
      Welded steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement               AASHTO M 55 or
                                                                         AASHTO M 221
      Prestressing strand for concrete reinforcement                    AASHTO M 203
      Prestressing wire for concrete reinforcement                      AASHTO M 204

        Furnish deformed bars for concrete structures meeting the tensile properties for the grade
        Furnish tie bars that meet AASHTO M 31 or M 42. Do not use rail steel for tie bars to be
bent and restraightened during construction.
        Furnish plain, round dowel bars meeting AASHTO M 31, or M 322, mechanical
properties only, or AASHTO M 227. Ensure dowels are free from burs or other distortions that
might limit slippage in the concrete. Meet AASHTO M 254 for pre-applied protective and bond-
breaking coatings.
        Use metal of an approved design for dowel bar sleeves.
        Provide epoxy-coated reinforcing steel to meet AASHTO M 284.



711.02 Wire Rope or Wire Cable. AASHTO M 30 for type specified.

                              Section 712. Fence and Guardrail

712.01 Barbed Wire. AASHTO M 280 or M 305 for specified coating class and style.

712.02 Woven Wire. AASHTO M 279 for specified coating class and style.

712.03 Chain-Link Fence. AASHTO M 181 for chain-link fabric, fittings, and hardware for the
specified metal, coating, wire sizes, and mesh.

712.04 Metal Beam Rail. AASHTO M 180 for the specified class and type of corrugated-sheet
steel beam rail elements. AASHTO M 183 for galvanized or painted rub rails and AASHTO
M 222 for corrosion-resistant rail. AASHTO M 111 galvanization requirements.

712.05 Timber Rail. Cut timber rail from the specified grade of dry, well-seasoned, and dressed
timber stock of the species specified, to meet AASHTO M 168. Use timber preservatives
meeting AASHTO M 133.
       Meet the following pressure treatment requirements:
       General—AWPA C1
       Guardrail and fence posts—AWPA C2
       Structural timbers—AWPA C14
       Piles—AWPA C3
       Creosote—minimum retention of [185] kg/m3 for species not covered under AWPA C14

712.06 Fence Posts.

       A.     Wood. Furnish straight, sound, seasoned, and peeled wood posts with ends cut
              square. Trim knots flush with the surface. Treat posts as specified. Peeling
              requirements do not apply to red cedar posts or bracing.
              Use dimension timber and lumber, of the specified species and grade, for fences
              or gates. Ensure members are sound, straight, and free from knots, splits, and
              shakes. Dress and finish all sides.
       B.      Concrete. Furnish concrete and reinforcing steel for concrete posts as specified.
       C.      Steel. Furnish rolled steel posts meeting AASHTO M 281 and galvanize to meet
               AASHTO M 111. Furnish tubular steel posts meeting AASHTO M 181. Use
               standard commercial grade fittings, hardware, and appurtenances to current
               standard practice if not otherwise specified.

712.07 Guardrail Posts. ARTBA Bulletin No. 268, A Guide to Standardized Highway Barrier
Rail Hardware.

712.08 Guardrail Hardware. ARTBA Bulletin No. 268, A Guide to Standardized Highway
Barrier Rail Hardware.

712.09 Steel Box Beam Rail. ASTM A 500 or A 501. Galvanize after fabrication to meet
         ASTM A 500 or A 501 dimensional and mechanical requirements for corrosion-resistant
steel rail elements. Ensure elements have an atmospheric corrosion resistance approximately
twice that of carbon structural steel with copper. Prohibit the use of painted or galvanized rail
elements. Meet posts conforming to Subsection 712.07 and hardware that meets Subsection

712.10 Wire-Enclosed Riprap.

       A.      Woven Wire. Use 50 mm by 100 mm V-mesh fabric, with two-strand twisted,
               [12.5] gage wires. AASHTO M 279, Class 1 or better.
       B.      Lacing and Tie Wire. Use galvanized, [12.5] gage smooth steel wire. In lieu of
               lacing, use 9 gage galvanized hog rings at 100 mm spacings.
       C.      Steel Stakes. Provide 1.5 m or greater length steel stakes of 75 mm O.D. standard
               pipe, or 100 mm by 100 mm by 10 mm angles.

712.11 Gates. Federal Specification RR-F-191 Fencing, Wire and Post Metal (and Gates, Chain-
Link Fence, and Accessories).

                  Section 713. Concrete Curing Materials and Admixtures

713.01 Curing Materials.

      Burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf                           AASHTO M 182
      Sheet materials for curing concrete                            AASHTO M 171
      Liquid membrane-forming compounds for curing concrete          AASHTO M 148

713.02 Air-Entraining Admixtures. AASHTO M 154.

713.03 Chemical Admixtures. AASHTO M 194 for water-reducing, set-retarding, and set-
accelerating admixtures.

                           Section 714. Miscellaneous Requirements

714.01 Water. AASHTO M 157, Section 4.1.4 for mixing and curing. Test water under
AASHTO T 26. Potable-quality water requires no testing.
        Use irrigation-quality water free of elements harmful to plant growth for irrigating trees,
plants, and seeded areas.

714.02 Calcium Chloride. AASHTO M 144.

714.03 Hydrated Lime. AASHTO M 216 for specified type and grade.

714.04 Sodium Chloride. AASHTO M 143.

714.05 Stone Curbing.

       A.      Stone Curb. From approved sources. Use only one type of stone in each
                      Ensure no drill holes mar exposed faces. Cut joints of circular or curved
               stone curb on radial lines. Furnish stone segments at least [1200] mm in length.
               1.     Faces:
                      a.      Top. True plane with surface variations less than [6] mm. Pitch
                              front and back arris lines straight and true.
                      b.      Front. True plane with variations less than [25] mm.
                      c.      Butted ends (top and front face). Finish ends square with the planes
                              of the top, back, and face. Provide a true plane with a maximum
                              gap of [13] mm. Ensure the remainder of the end breaks back no
                              more than [100] mm from the plane of the joint.
                      d.      Back. Limit surface batter to 3:1.
       B.      Slope Stone Curb. Meet requirements for stone curb, except as follows:
               1.     Top surface maximum variation of [13] mm; [25] mm on other exposed
               2.     Unexposed surfaces maximum variation of [75] mm from a true plane
                      within a length of [600] mm
               3.     Maximum gap of [20] mm on exposed faces between adjacent segments of
               4.     Stone segments at least [600] mm in length

714.06 Precast Concrete Curbing. Precast as specified. Meet Subsection 711.01 for reinforcing
steel. Use reinforcing steel meeting 711.01

714.07 Precast Concrete Units. Manhole risers and components. AASHTO M 199

       A.      Cast units in steel forms.
       B.      Compressive strength: 20.7 MPa (28 day) under AASHTO T 22.
       C.      Air content: [6] percent  11/2 percent.
       D.      Cure precast units under AASHTO M 170.
       E.      Water absorption of individual cores: less than 8 percent under ASTM C 642-90.
       F.      Provide additional reinforcing steel, as necessary, to handle precast units.
       Cast cylinders from each concrete batch or truck mixer load of concrete to provide at least
two cylinders each for compression tests at 7, 14, and 28 days. If the specified strength
requirements are met at 7 or 14 days, certify units for use 14 days from the casting date.
       Reject units with cracked, honeycombed, or patched areas more than [20,000] mm2.
       Provide precast reinforced concrete manhole riser sections and appurtenances under

714.08 Frames, Grates and Covers, Ladder Rungs.

      Gray iron castings               AASHTO M 105 (Strength class optional)
      Carbon steel castings            AASHTO M 103 (Strength class optional)
      Structural steel                 AASHTO M 183 or ASTM A 283, GRADE D or better
      Galvanizing                      AASHTO M 111
      Malleable iron castings          ASTM A 47 (Grade optional)


714.10 Quick Lime. AASHTO M 216.

714.11 Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolans Used with Hydraulic Cement.

714.12 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Mineral Admixture. AASHTO M 302.

                        Section 715. Roadside Improvement Materials

715.01 Loam (Topsoil).

        Loam is defined as the "A" horizon of the soil profile (Soil Science Society of America).
        Provide loam containing loose, friable, sandy material free of subsoil admixtures, refuse,
stumps, rocks, roots, brush, weeds, or other material that impedes plant growth. Ensure minimum
and maximum pH of __________ (by Agency). Ensure organic matter of loam between ____ and
____ percent as determined by test method ______ (by Agency, test loam according to standards
of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists).

      Loam Gradation
            Sieve Size                Percent Passing
             25 mm                         100
                 6 mm                     97 to 100
                 2 mm                     80 to 100
       Particle Size                          Minimum           Maximum
       Sand 75-µm to 2-mm sieve                  20               75
       Silt 0.002 mm to 75-µm sieve              10               60
       Clay 0.002 mm or less                      5               30

       Ensure loam contains stones less than 50 mm in diameter.

715.02 Agricultural Limestone. Provide a calcic or dolomitic ground limestone containing at
least ___ percent (by Agency) of total (calcium and magnesium) carbonates. Meet standards of
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
        Ensure a minimum 40 percent passing a 150-µm sieve and a minimum 95 percent passing
a 2.36-mm sieve.
        (Note to Agency: Use other agricultural liming materials as specified; i.e., agricultural
hydrated, agricultural pulverized, agricultural superfine, agricultural granulated slag. Indicate
acceptable materials, sieve analysis, and application rates.)

715.03 Fertilizer. Provide a commercial-grade fertilizer meeting the standards of the Association
of Official Agricultural Chemists and the specified nutrient content. Furnish an affidavit
certifying the nutrient content.

715.04 Seed. Meet the following seed formula(s):
(Agency to provide the types of seed or seed mixtures, including percentage of purity,
germination, and weed seed content.)
       Deliver in labeled and sealed containers to the job. Seed and labels are subject to the
Association of Official Seed Analysts testing provisions.
       Inoculate legume seed with approved cultures under manufacturer=s instructions.

715.05 Mulch

       A.      Wood Chips.
               1.      From disease-free green hardwood; use wood chips from elm trees only
                       under the following conditions (Agency to specify).
               2.      A nominal thickness of ___ mm (Agency to specify).
               3.      At least [50] percent having an area between [650 and 4000] mm2.
               4.      Include no leaves, twigs, shavings, bark, or other materials that impede
                       plant growth.
       B.      Straw. Provide from oat, wheat, rye grain crops with no noxious weeds, mold, or
               objectionable material.
       C.      Hay. Provide mowed, herbaceous hay with no noxious weeds, mold, or
               objectionable material.
       D.      Wood Cellulose Fiber. Use natural or cooked cellulose fiber that disburses easily
               in water and that has no toxic effect when combined with seed or other materials.
             Include a colored dye that will not affect plant growth, when specified.
                     Furnish a manufacturer=s certification verifying the following properties:
             1.      Moisture content of [12] percent  [3] percent.
             2.      A pH between [3.5 and 5.0].
             3.      Minimum water holding capacity [900] g/100 g fiber.
             4.      Minimum organic matter:[(97] percent.
             5.      Wood fiber: [45 to 55] percent.
      E.     Sawdust. Reject sawdust containing any toxic substances and older than ____
             years (Agency to specify).
      F.     Peat Moss. Furnish brown, granulated sphagnum peat moss containing at least 75
             percent partially decomposed stems and leaves in ___________ (loose or
             compressed) bales. Ensure peat is nearly free from woody substances and contains
             no sticks, stones, or mineral matter. Texture may vary from porous fibrous to
             spongy fibrous. Ensure air-dry at time of application with a [3.5 to 5.5] pH.
      G.     Peat Humus. Furnish natural peat or peat humus from fresh water-saturated areas
             consisting of sedge, sphagnum or reed peat with 100 percent passing a [12.5] mm
             sieve. Ensure humus contains no sticks, stones, roots, or objectionable materials.
             Meet the following:

           Acidity range:                            4.0 to 7.5 pH
           Minimum water-absorbing ability:          200 percent by weight on oven-dry basis
           Minimum organic content:                  60 percent when dried at 105 oC

                    Keep freshly excavated peat saturated with water until used.

715.06 Plant Materials.

      A.     Quality of Plant Materials. Meet the current edition of AAmerican Standard for
             Nursery Stock@ (ASNS), ANSI, Z60.1 of the ANN and as follows:
             1.      Use healthy nursery-grown stock that has been transplanted or root-
                     trimmed two or more times.
             2.      Normal developed branch systems with no disfiguring knots, broken
                     terminal growth, or other blemishes.
             3.      Trees with reasonably straight stems and branches that reflect natural
                     growth patterns.
             4.      State and Federal laws controlling inspection for plant diseases and insect
      B.     Plant Names. Use plants with scientific and common plant names conforming to
             Hortus Third by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University.
                     Deliver named and tagged plants of the size specified. Obtain approval to
             substitute species.
      C.     Grading Standards. Grade plants to conform to the American Standard for
             Nursery Stock, as approved by the American National Standards Institute, Inc.,
             current edition.
       D.     Nursery Inspection and Plant Quarantine. Supply healthy plants free from disease
              and insect pests. Ship plants according to nursery inspection and plant quarantine
              regulations of the States of origin and destination. Ensure the certificate of
              inspection accompanies each package, box, bale, or carload shipped or delivered.
       E.     Ball and Burlap Plants. Dig, ball, and burlap plants carefully to conserve as many
              fibrous roots as possible. Ensure that soil forms a firm ball and is the original,
              undisturbed soil in which the plant was grown. Ensure ball size conforms to
       F.     Delivery and Inspection. Make plants and related certifications available for
              inspection in the nursery or collecting source [14] days prior to delivery.
                       Approval to move nursery material is not final acceptance.
       G.     Protection and Temporary Storage. Keep plants moist and protected during
              transit, temporary storage, and on the project site.
                       Protect plants delivered, but not scheduled for immediate planting, as
                       Open bare root bundles, separate plants, and lean in trenches. Cover balled
              and burlapped material with sawdust, woodchips, or other suitable material to
              keep moist.

715.07 Erosion Control Net Material. Furnish material in lengths of a minimum ______ meters
(by Agency).

       A.     Burlap. Use standard weave burlap with a mass of [120 to 170] g/m2 .
       B.     Jute Mesh. Use jute mesh of a uniform, plain weave with warp and weft meters
              approximately the same size. The physical requirements are:
              1.      Width: 1150 to 1200 mm  25 mm, 78 warp ends per width, 45 weft ends
                      per meter.
              2.      Range of cloth weight: 0.6 to 0.9 kg/running m with a 5 percent minimum
                      tolerance at standard atmospheric conditions.
       C.     Woven Paper or Sisal Mesh Netting. Weave paper or sisal mesh netting from
              twisted yarns available in rolls 1150 to 1220 mm wide. Mesh may vary from
              closed to open weave and range from 3 mm to 6 mm openings. Limit shrinkage
              after wetting to no more than 20 percent of the surface area.
       D.     Erosion-Control Netting. Use 3 meter-wide black polypropylene extruded plastic
              net with rectangular mesh openings approximately 25 mm by 50 mm or 19 mm by
              21 mm. Ensure a material mass of approximately 13 g/m2. Use 255 mm pins, 11-
              gage wire or heavier, with 50 mm throats to secure the netting.
       E.     Wood Fiber Blanket. Furnish blankets with uniform interlocking wood excelsior
              fibers with net backing on one side. Ensure fibers are curled, barbed, and evenly
              distributed to provide consistent thickness. Ensure a mass of 530 g/m2  10
              percent, under average atmospheric conditions with a backing mesh size no
              greater than 38 mm by 75 mm. Weave backing from twisted paper, cotton cord, a
              biodegradable plastic, or other approved material. Ensure blanket is nontoxic to
                      Furnish in rolled strips 1220 mm wide  25 mm.
     F.     Fiberglass Roving Material. Form fiber glass roving material from continuous
            fibers drawn from molten glass, coated with a chrome-complex sizing compound,
            collected into strands. Lightly bind together into roving without the use of clay,
            starch, or other deleterious substances. Wind the roving into a cylindrical package
            approximately 0.3 m high so it can be fed continuously from the center of the
            package through an ejector driven by compressed air and expanded into a mat of
            glass fibers on the soil surface. Use material without solvents or other agents toxic
            to plant or animal life.
                    Meet the following:

                         Property                            Limits
          Strand/rove                                56 to 64
          Fibers/strand                              184 to 234
          Fibers diameter, mm                        0.009–0.010
            (Trade Designation G)
          Meters/kilogram of rove                    420–460
          Organic content, percent maximum           0.75

     G.     Staples. Anchor erosion mat with U-shaped staples, 11-gage or larger diameter
            steel wire. For firm soils, use staples 25 mm to 50 mm wide and at least 150 mm
            long. For loose soils, use staples at least 305 mm long. Use staples at least
            200 mm long if placing jute fabric over sod.

715.08 Miscellaneous. [come up with another name PLANT MATERIAL SUPPORT?]

     A.     Water. Subsection 714.01 [shouldn’t need to be listed. Should be listed in the
            construction item ―Use water meeting 714.01‖ or under the materials section in
            the applicable construction item.]
     B.     Bracing and Anchoring Stakes. Brace or support trees with wooden stakes
            meeting the American Lumber Standards.
     C.     Hose. Use rubber or fabric garden or stream hose with ___ gage (Agency to
            specify) wire to brace and guy trees.
     D.     Guy Wire. Use new, soft annealed galvanized steel, ___ gage (Agency to specify).
     E.     Wrapping Material. Use crinkled waterproof paper with a mass of at least 200
            g/m2. Wrap with two sheets of paper cemented together with asphalt. Use masking
            tape when specified. Use burlap in 150-mm-wide rolls, when specified.
     F.     Twine.
            1.     75 mm or smaller diameter trees, use two-ply twine.
            2.     Greater than 75-mm diameter trees, use three-ply twine.
     G.     Antidesiccant. Permeable emulsion permitting transpiration.

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