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					                                       Intro to CSS Toolkit

What’s Your Inheritance?
HTML tags will result in the CSS “document tree” below. The “tree” structure shows how the
rules of styles you develop are affected by inheritance.
Here’s the code for a very simple web page:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
lang="en""http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
    <title>My home page</title>
  <head>
    <body>
      <h1>My home page</H1>
      <p>Welcome to my home page! Let me tell you about my favorite
  composers:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>John Lennon </li>
        <li> Tupac </li>
        <li> Beethoven </li>
     </ul>
    </body>
  </html>

This code results in the following “tree” that shows the hierarchy (levels) of inheritance. The
root node (HTML) is at the top. It has two children: HEAD and BODY. HEAD has one child:
TITLE. BODY has three children: H1, P, and UL. The UL has 3 LI leaf nodes.




In “outline” form, using a dot to show indenting for each level, that gives:

HTML
.HEAD
..TITLE
.BODY
..H1
..P
..UL
...LI
...LI
...LI




* Info and tree based on: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/conform.html



                                                               LaGuardia Center for Teaching and Learning_PS102005
The Box Model
The following is from: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html . Please visit that page for
more information and to follow the links.
Each box has a content area (e.g., text, an image, etc.) and optional surrounding padding,
border, and margin areas; the size of each area is specified by properties defined below. The
following diagram shows how these areas relate and the terminology used to refer to pieces
of margin, border, and padding:




The margin, border, and padding can be broken down into left, right, top, and bottom
segments (e.g., in the diagram, "LM" for left margin, "RP" for right padding, "TB" for top
border, etc.).
The perimeter of each of the four areas (content, padding, border, and margin) is called an
"edge", so each box has four edges:
content edge or inner edge
The content edge surrounds the element's rendered content.
padding edge
The padding edge surrounds the box padding. If the padding has 0 width, the padding edge is
the same as the content edge. The padding edge of a box defines the edges of the containing
block established by the box.
border edge
The border edge surrounds the box's border. If the border has 0 width, the border edge is the
same as the padding edge.
margin edge or outer edge
The margin edge surrounds the box margin. If the margin has 0 width, the margin edge is the
same as the border edge.
Each edge may be broken down into a left, right, top, and bottom edge.
The dimensions of the content area of a box -- the content width and content height --
depend on several factors: whether the element generating the box has the 'width' or 'height'
property set, whether the box contains text or other boxes, whether the box is a table, etc.
Box widths and heights are discussed in the chapter on visual formatting model details.
The box width is given by the sum of the left and right margins, border, and padding, and the
content width. The height is given by the sum of the top and bottom margins, border, and
padding, and the content height.
The background style of the various areas of a box are determined as follows:
Content area: The 'background' property of the generating element.
Padding area: The 'background' property of the generating element.
Border area: The border properties of the generating element.
Margin area: Margins are always transparent.
                                                      LaGuardia Center for Teaching and Learning_PS102005
Online Resources

All CSS2 selectors from W3C
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/propidx.html
From azimuth to z-index, try out all the styles you can apply. From the World Wide Web
Consortium (the W3C), the organization that is attempting to standardize web coding to make
it easier for all of us to design with somewhat dependable results! Note that the W3C
explanations and guidelines are not always written in user-friendly language. Some of the
resources below are more helpful as tutorials.

NYPL Online Style Guide
http://www.nypl.org/styleguide/
The New York Public Library’s helpful guide to html, xhtml and css.

West Civ
http://www.westciv.com/style_master/house/tutorials/index.html
An *indispensable* resource with free online tutorials. They’ve also developed reasonably
priced css and html editors, and online courses (available for purchase on this site.)

A List Apart
www.alistapart.org
Great, searchable collection of articles and technical tips

Zen Garden
www.csszengarden.com
See what separating content from presentation actually means with real-life examples by
some great designers!

Cssdiscuss
http://www.css-discuss.org/
Got questions? Let other web developers help you on this discussion board run by some of the
best css geeks around.

Listamatic and Float Tutorial
http://css.maxdesign.com.au/index.htm
Lists are very important in css. They can be used as vertical or horizontal navigation, and to
create rollover effects without using undependable, inaccessible javascript. This site offers
how-to’s for a range of list styles. It also provides a step-by-step guide for floating (placing)
elements on the page.

Firefox Browser and Developer’s Toolbar
http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/
Use this browser in conjunction with Chris Pederick’s free Web Developer’s Toolbar
(http://www.chrispederick.com/work/firefox/webdeveloper/ ) and you’ll be able to see
anyone’s css and source code at a glance as well as check out whether their (and your) html
and your css validate. Also, because Firefox is reknowned for being immune to adware and
spyware, it is becoming used by more and more people.

Chris Pederick’s free Web Developer’s Toolbar for Firefox is an essential resource for any web
designer who wants to use css well. Get it today!




                                                         LaGuardia Center for Teaching and Learning_PS102005

				
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