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					                                                                              Annex 2
Public Disclosure Authorized

                                                                           Attachment V

                                                             Republic of Yemen
                                                   Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project
                                                       Summary of the Environmental Review

                                 As part of the preparation of the Yemen Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project
                                 an environmental review was undertaken. Field visits to the three pilot governorates
                                 of Ibb, Abyan and Hajja. The Review assessment procedure was consistent with the
                                 provisions of Operational Directive 4.01 Annex E, "Environmental Assessment".
                                 The Project was reviewed and designated Environmental Category B as there are no
Public Disclosure Authorized

                                 major adverse environmental issues involved. Furthermore, there are no land
                                 acquisition, involuntary resettlements, indigenous people or cultural heritage issues
                                 involved and there is no impact on international water ways. This annex
                                 summarizes the main findings of the review, makes recomrriendations for certain
                                 environmental issues to be addressed as part of the proposed project and proposes a
                                 number of environmental mitigation and monitoring measures.

                                 This summary focuses on what were seen to be the main areas of environmental
                                 concern i.e. Excreta and Wastewater Disposal, Gray Water (or sullage) Disposal,
                                 Reuse of Dried Sludges and Effluent, Sanitary Protection of Wells and Boreholes,
                                 Water Quality Testing and Surveillance, Solid Wastes Disposal and Storm Water
Public Disclosure Authorized


                                 Excreta and Wastewater Disposal
                                Rural Areas: In the rural areas visited, only a small percentage of house holds had
                                some form of latrine, of those few with latrines either inside the house or in a
                                separate building, most used a pour-flush system, which consists of a squatting pan,
                                usually ceramic, connected to an external cess pit. After use, the pan is flushed with
                                water using a hand held small pan or bucket. Other households in hilly areas were
                                seen to pipe the waste water down the hill side to soak away in the valley below.
                                Generally the latrines or cesspits are not emptied when full, they are covered with
                                sand, and the villagers dig a new pit. Sometimes, irresponsible households were
                                seen to allow the wastewater to continue to overflow on pathways and fields.
                                Sanitation coverage in some areas is less than 10% and the resulting indiscriminate
                                defecation in the fields nearby communities poses a serious environmental/health
Public Disclosure Authorized

                                issues. A major project objective is to isolate excreta and its accompanying health
                                risk from the general environment. Most of the Project villages fall into this low
                                coverage category as they are mainly small with an average population of less that
                                3,000. In the project areas visited the soils were mainly homogeneous and the
                                ground water was at great depth so the likelihood of ground water pollution from
                                onsite sanitation systems is low.
                                Rural Schools and Clinics: Many rural schools and clinics had no sanitation
                                facilities. Of those that did have facilities, these included pit latrines, cess-pits and
                                septic tanks, these are maintained individually by the administrative personnel,
                                however little attention is given to this issue. This could be improved by making
                                contracts with private individuals to maintain the facilities.

 Large Villages and Small Towns: In the in the more densely populated areas such as
 large villages and small towns (3,000 to 10,000 population), also rely on "on-site"
 disposal through latrines and cesspits. Sanitation coverage is higher in these areas,
 up to 60% causing potential surface and groundwater contamination problems. At
 the Governorate and district level the responsible body for emptying the cesspits
 and septic tanks in urban areas is the Municipality which is under the Ministry of
 Construction and Urban Planning. A number of the larger municipalities operate
 sanitation vacuum tankers. The wastes are theoretically disposed of in waste
 treatment plants or stabilization ponds if they exists (Ibb and Al Baida, for
 example), or more generally the wastes are clumpedin a valley or wadi in a non-
 residential area. Charges are not usually levied, but in some cases, the municipality
 is charging for extending the service outside of the town to nearby villages. The
 emptying of pit latrines and cesspits in these more densely populated areas can be
 improved, if the responsible and concerned authority can provide an emptying
 service using a vacuum tanker. The costs could be covered by user charges.
 However a major issue that should be addressed is to how to provide facilities
 where septic wastes can be emptied and treated.

  Extending Emptying services into Rural Areas: The possible extension of
 emptying services to rural areas depends on a number of factors: The willingness of
 the municipality to extend its services and thieavailability of equipment, how much
 are the villagers willing to pay for this service, and the accessibility of the villages. .
 A good example is the Municipality of Ibb, which provides an emptying service,
 and charges between 1,000-5,000 YR (US$ 6 to US$ 31), depending on the distance
 from the town. However, they only have one vehicle which is insufficient to serve
 more that a small area of the Governorate. Much of this burden would fall on the
 public sector who have a more important role in providing health and hygiene
 education so that communities understand the health implications of excreta, sludge
 and wastewater disposal. Potential may alsc, exists in the private sector, which can
 more readily employ people from the rural areas, provide the required equipment, if
 they can be persuaded that it could be a profitable investment. However, emphasis
 should be placed on introducing sanitation technology into the remote rural areas
 that does not require mechanized emptying, such as alternating twin pit latrines and
 deep (long life) pit latrines.

 Gray Water Disposal

 The majority of village households have no proper means of gray water or sullage
 disposal. It is usually piped away from the sink to the outside where it is allowed to
 soak into the ground, or if no sink exists, the waste is thrown onto the ground. Also,
 in general, the spillage from public stand posts or water points is allowed to pond on
 the ground, forming a stagnant pool where animals come to drink churning the area
 into a mud bath. Increasing water supply service levels in a village can exacerbate
 this problem unless the problem is addressed.

  The disposal of gray water at the household level can easily be improved by
 households constructing simple sanitary "soak-aways". Similarly, providing a
 concrete apron around a stand post, with a drain to channel the waste water to an
 animal trough or to an area of vegetation, can improve the surrounding area.

 Reuse Of Dried Sludge & Effluent
 Since this project is primarily focusing on mtral areas with rather dispersed housing
 clusters, most of the sanitation installations will be on-site facilities (pit latrines,
 septic tanks), with on-site sludge maturing techniques that will not require extensive
 emptying services. Excreta that has been contained in a pit latrine for two years or

  more is safe as all pathogens, including worm ova, will have died off and is safe to
  use as a soil conditioner.

  However, in a very few cases, where justified by population density and water use,
  communal septic tanks or oxidation ponds may be built as demonstrations. Before
  using sludges from these sources as a soil conditioner or fertilizer tests would be
  required to ensure that there was no health risk. Current practice of effluent disposal
  from treatment plants in some places in Yemen has been to let the effluent run into
  open ditches or other natural drains. Farmers have used the effluent for irrigation at
  their own initiative and without concern about the quality of the water. This is an
  indication that there is a demand for agricultural reuse of wastewater in some areas
  due to shortages of water and potential savings in fertilizer and pumping costs.
  Villagers also expressed interest in using latrine emptying and septic tank sludge as
  fertilizer (although this is not a common practice) because they believe that artificial
  fertilizer can cause damage to soils and plants and prefer natural fertilizer. A good
  example is in lbb , where the farmers use dried sludge from the treatment plant as

  The hygienic use of matured latrine contents manure and septic tank sludge as soil
  conditioner or fertilizers can be introduced into villages through demonstration and
  education programs. Septic tank and oxidation pond sludges need treatment in
  waste water treatment plants or be allowed to "mature" over time in drying beds.
  However, appropriate guidelines and controls are needed for the reuse of treated
  wastewater. The technical and maintenance responsibilities for treatment facilities
  would be under the concerned municipalities. However, GAREW at least initially
  should take responsibility for introducing waste water and sludge quality testing.
  This would include the adoption of safe effluent quality standards, restriction on
  crops where reuse is allowed so as to exclude vegetables that are eaten raw, control
  on exposure of farm workers and promotion of hygiene, and monitoring and field
  surveillance of wastewater reuse in accordance with WHO standards as discussed
  below in the mitigation and monitoring plan.

  Sanitary Protection of Wells and Boreholes

  Buckets and ropes are used to draw water from open wells. The buckets and ropes
  are often laid on the ground where they can pick up contaminants which are then
  introduced back into the well. Spillage from the buckets is often allowed to pond on
  the ground. The areas around the well are not usually fenced, and the wells are left
  open to the elements. Similarly, the spillage from public stand posts or water points
  is allowed to pond on the ground, forming a stagnant pool where animals come to
  drink churning the area into a mud bath. This can easily be improved by providing a
  concrete apron around the well stand post, with a drain to channel the waste water
  to an animal trough or to an area of vegetation. In the case of drilled boreholes it is
  very important to solidly grout between the ground and the borehole liner at the
  surface to prevent infiltration of polluted surface and spillage water into the aquifer.

 Water Quality Testing and Surveillance
 In general, limited water testing facilities are available at the Governorate or
 districts level. However, GAREW HQ and three GAREW Branches (Ibb Aden and
 Dhamar) and the NWSA Branch in Hajja have water testing equipment. GAREW
 branches only have the facility to carry out chemical tests. Present practice is to test
 each borehole after it has been drilled for chemical pollutants. Most borehole are
 deeper than 150 meters and the occurrence of pollution is rare. Occasionally,
 GAREW will carry out bacteriological tests on shallow boreholes and open dug
 wells or if the community report a problem with their water quality.

 Water quality surveillance can be improved by providing each GAREW Branch
 with portable water testing kits for both cheniical and bacteriological tests. Water
 quality should be tested after the development of a new source and on a regular
 basis thereafter and in response to any signal from a community that their water
 quality has changed.

 Solid Wastes Disposal & Storm Water Drainage

 In most villages the disposal of solid wastes is a very obvious problem, as paper and
 plastic wastes are indiscriminately strewn around the streets and disposal facilities
 are not provided. Flooding from storm water was not seen to be a major problem
 although some villagers reported occasional flooding problems during heavy rains.
 In some areas where storm water drains had been provide solid wastes were a major
 contributing factor to the blocking of these drains. Solid waste disposal can be
 greatly improved through hygiene education and this issue should be included in the
 proposed campaign which will promote improved collection and disposal in waste
 pits to be dug by the community.

 The main issue to be faced is poor excreta disposal facility (latrine) coverage. The
 project should have an intensive and vigorous environmental sanitation component
 to improve coverage and to address the other important issues of waste water
 disposal, solid waste disposal and storm water drainage. The sanitation component
 should have two main parts, i) a sanitation promotion campaign, and ii) physical
 support to the construction of household and community based excreta disposal
 systems. This should be reinforced by health and hygiene education.

 Sanitation promotion campaign. Social Mobilization Teams should work with
 village water user associations and individuals to promote on-site latrine
 construction and the development of village environmental action plans. These
 village plans would include identifying environmental problem in the village and
 mobilizing local resources to address them e.g. constructing rainwater drainage
 channels, identifying sites for the disposal of solid wastes and digging waste pits. In
 support of the promotion campaign demonstration latrines could be constructed at
 strategic locations such as village centers, schools and clinics. Latrine builder
 training courses can be organized and the graduates given certificates of attendance.
 Also the use of household soakaways for sullage (wastewater) disposal should be
 demonstrated and promoted. Other components of the promotion campaign will
 include fencing around and protecting wells to keep animals from polluting the
 source, concrete aprons and drainage channels around public stand posts etc.

 Latrine construction. The project should provide incentives for families or
 communities to construct the sanitation facilities. These incentives could include the
 provision of a porcelain pan and two bags of cement for each household. The
 principle that no household would be allowed to have a water connection until a
 latrine had been constructed should be applied. The Ventilated hmproved Pit (VIP)
 latrine and the pour-flush toilet are technically acceptable latrine designs that will
 reduce the need for regular maintenance.

 Schools Sanitation. Were ever possible schools and clinics will be provided with a
 good standard of sanitation i.e. a pour flush latrine with facilities for hand washing.
 This will be a key demonstration strategy in the health & hygiene campaign.
 Health and Hygiene Education. A health and hygiene education campaign should
 be staged in the project villages that will seek to i) impart knowledge and increase
 awareness of the need to improve hygiene practices, ii) promote good practice of
 collecting storing and using water, iii) improve hygienic practices for safe excreta
 disposal, and iv) promoting environmental improvements through solid and wastes
 management and disposal.

 Pit Latrine Emptying and Sludge Disposal in More Densely Populated Areas. The
 project should devise a strategy to improve and introduce a system for the hygienic
 emptying of latrines and septic tanks in the more densely populated areas. This
 could include expanding the services from local municipalities and/ or involving the
 private sector. The hygienic use of matured latrine emptying and sludges as soil
 conditioner or fertilizers can be introduced into villages through demonstration and
 education programs. However, appropriate guidelines or controls are needed for the
 reuse of treated wastewater. These include the adoption of safe effluent quality
 standards, restriction on crops where reuse is allowed so as to exclude vegetables
 that are eaten raw, control on exposure of farm workers and promotion of hygiene,
 and monitoring and field surveillance of wastewater reuse.

 Protection of Ground Water Sources. During the intensive campaign to promote
 latrine building, one important issue that will be taken into account is the possible
 pollution of ground water sources. A number of research studies have confirmed
 that pathogens and other pollutants do not travel far from a pit latrine or septic tank
 in homogeneous soils particularly as the volumes of water involved are very low.
 However, the risk of pollution relates to the nature of the soil and the depth of the
 ground water and each site should be assessed before construction to ensure that
 there is no water pollution potential. Good current good practice adopted in many
 countries is that latrines or septic tanks should not be located within 50 meters of a
 well or borehole.

 Sanitary Protection of Boreholes and Wells. Standard drawings will be provided
 that indicate the measures required for the sanitary protection of boreholes and
 wells that prevents surface run-off from re-entering wells carrying pollution with it.
 These measures should include: fencing, aprons and spillage water drainage
 channels, separate animal drinking troughs. Also in addition, open wells require
 parapets, hygienic windlass and buckets, and covers.

 Water Quality Monitoring. All GAREWS branches will be provided with water
 testing equipment to improve water quality monitoring. This should comprise of
 portable equipment that can measure both chemical and biological pollutants. Water
 quality testing should occur after the development of a new source and at regular
 intervals thereafter. In addition testing should occur whenever a village detect a
 change in their water quality which they should report to the nearest GAREW
 Branch. GAREW will train and assign water quality technicians to each of the
 project branches.

 Water Quality Monitoring Parameters: The basic water quality monitoring
 parameters include:

       -   pH and Salinity
       -   Biological Oxygen Demand
       -   Chemical Oxygen Demand
       -   Total Coliforms
       -   Fecal Coliforms

 Mitigation & Monitoring Plan

 The Project as a whole is in essence an environmental improvement initiative.
 However, in order to combat any potential negative impacts an environmental
 mitigation and monitoring plan has been prepared. The plan together with water

 quality monitoring parameters is detailed in the Project Operational Manual, and is
 summarized below;

 Ground Water Pollution - Mitigation. As discussed above the likely hood of ground
 water pollution from pit latrines or septic tanks is small. However, ground water
 quality testing should take place when a new borehole is drilled or when an old well
 is upgraded and at regular intervals there after, particularly those in the vicinity of
 latrine and WHO standards should be applied (i.e. WHO Guidelines for Drinking
 Water Quality as revised in the 1993 edition). Before any latrines are constructed
 the soils at the site should be inspected and the depth of ground water assessed to
 ensure that there is no potential for pollution. In addition, latrines or septic tanks
 should not be located within 50 meters of a well or borehole. Water quality testing
 equipment will be provided through the pro ject and appropriate training given.
 Communities will be trained by the SMTs to alert local Govemorate staff of any
 changes in water quality, this will trigger an immediate water test..

  Use of Waste Water - Mitigation: There is a possibility that one or two waste
 stabilization ponds may be constructed by the project for demonstration purposes in
 more densely populated areas and the treated waste water used for irrigation if the
 demand exists. Criteria for site selection wi]llbe developed as part of a limited
 environmental assessment to be undertaken before construction. If waste
 stabilization ponds are constructed, before the waste water is allowed to be used for
 crops it will initially be tested by GAREW staff to ensure that it complies with the
 World Bank and WHO standards (i.e. The World Bank's Pollution Prevention and
 Abatement Handbook and WHO Guidelines for the Reuse of Waste Water 1989).
 These standards will be documented in the Project's Operational Manual.
 Governorate staff will be responsible for any subsequent monitoring. Workers
 handling these waste will be give training and appropriate protective clothing and
 equipment by GAREW.

 Use of Dried Sludge - Mitigation: Dried sludge may be sold to farmers as soil
 conditioner or fertilizer if the demand exists. However, before sales, regular
 analysis of the dried sludge will be undertaklen,initially by GAREW staff, to ensure
 that it complies with WHO standards as mentioned above. In addition, a formal
 "rural waste-water and sludge disposal and reuse policy" will be developed in
 coordination with the Sana'a Water and Sewerage Project. This policy will set out
 good standards of practice and monitoring and define roles and responsibilities.
 Eventually, Governorate staff would assume this monitoring duty. Workers
 handling these waste will be give training and appropriate protective clothing and
 equipment by GAREW.

 Costs and Responsibilities: The cost for these environmental mitigation and
 monitoring measures have been included in the project cost. GAREW staff would
 be responsible for the initial implementation of the mitigation initiative i.e. testing
 and monitoring overseen by the PMU. Subsequently, the responsibility for regular
 monitoring may fall upon the local government i.e. the Governorate under the
 provisions of the new Local Government legislation.. The responsibility and
 supervision for emptying of pit latrines or septic tanks, as well as removal and
 treatment of sludge will be at the Governorate or district level, even if the actual job
 is carried out by a private entrepreneur. Should the Project work in a small town in
 which there is a need to empty cess pits and septic tanks, it would be conditional
 that the local authority provide a suitable vacuum truck (approx. $35,000) or
 contract a private sector service provider.


  One of the overall goals of the project is to significantly improve the environmental
  conditions in rural areas and thereby improve the health and quality of life for the
  rural inhabitants. This will mainly be achieved by improving drinking water quality
  and quantity and by reducing indiscriminate defecation and isolating human excreta
  from the general environment. Water quality and quantity will be improved through
  the construction and rehabilitation of water schemes and by introducing water
  quality testing. Excreta disposal will mainly be improved through the promotion of
  a program of latrine building. In addition, by providing a supporting health and
  hygiene education campaign, hygienic behavior will be improved which will ensure
  the maximum benefits from the investment will be obtained. The environmental
  review concludes that the project will generate very positive environmental impacts.
  Moreover, with the proposed mitigation measures, the project does not present any
  significant environmental risks.

Environmental Mitigation Plan and Costs

 Item                 PotentialNegative Mitigation                 Implementation   Monitoring        Costs
                      Impact            Measure                    Responsibility   Responsibility    US$
 Groundwater          Pollutionof the   Groundwater                GAREW            InitiallyPMU      Includedin proje
 Pollution from Pit   underlying aquifer.   quality testing at                      Local Govn't in   budget US$15,0(
 latrines                                   source                                  future.
                                            development and
                                            regular intervals.
                                            Soillsite inspection
                                            before latrine
                                      Latrinesto be more
                                      than 50 m from
 Use of Wastewater Transmission of    Regulartestingof GAREW                        InitiallyPMU      Includedin proje
                   Pathogensto crops. wastewater to                                 LocalGov'tin      budgetUS$4,OOC
                                      ensurepathogen                                future.
 Use of Dried         Transrnission
                                  of     Regulartestingof          GAREW            InitiallyPMU      Includedin proje
 Sludge               pathogensto crops. sludgeto ensure                            LocalGov't in     budgetUS$4,OOC
                                         pathogenfree.                              future.

  Environmental Monitoring Program

 Item                     Monitoring Parameters;             Monitoring Frequency       Monitoring Locations

 Ground Water             pH and salinity                    At the development of      Boreholes
 Quality                  BOD                                a new source.              Open Wells
                          Total coliforms
                          Fecal coliforms
                                                             At the rehabilitation of
                                                             an existing source.

                                                             Each six months
                                                             there after.

                                                             When ever the commu-
                                                             nity signal a change
                                                             in water quality.
 Waste Water              As above.                          At commencement of         At effluent discharge
 Quality                                                     reuse.                     point.
                                                             Each six months            At point of use.
                                                             there after.
 Dried Sludge             As above plus                      At commencement of         At point of sale or
 Quality                  microscopic exam.                  distribution.              distribution.
                          for viable ova.
                                                             Each six months
                                                             there after.

World Bank User
05/15/00 8:59 AM