Project Title by decree

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									April 30, 2003



OECS Environment and                                        Grenada Solid Waste Management
Sustainable Development Unit                                Authority
Morne Fortune                                               Grenada Industrial Park, Frequente
P. O. Box 1383                                              St. George’s, Grenada
Castries, St. Lucia



ATTENTION: Vasantha Chase                                   Selby DaBreo
           ESDU, Head of Unit                               Manager

Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy

We attach the Final Draft of the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) for
Grenada. With reference to the First Draft of the NWMS issued in February 2003, this
document has been prepared based on stakeholder comments received at a review
workshop held in St. George’s on April 2, 2003.

It has been the distinct pleasure of the Dillon team to assist in the preparation of this
important document. We look forward to having the opportunity to provide further
support to the GSWMA and the ESDU in the future.

Yours truly,

DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED




Scott D. Kyle, P.Eng.
Project Manager

SDK:jep
Our File: 02-1170-0200
Distribution: two bound copies and one CD-ROM to GSWMA
                one bound copy and one CD-ROM to ESDU




D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\042f4cd8-cff7-488d-bab9-c7f357e1d1a3.doc
Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003



                                     Executive Summary
The Grenada Waste Management Act, 2001 requires the Minister responsible for health (Minister of
Health and Environment) to produce a National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS). Once passed by
Cabinet, the NWMS becomes a legally binding document, serving as a blueprint to define actions
necessary to support the provisions of the Waste Management Act. Further, the Minister of Health is
obliged to update the NWMS every five years.

The attached document provides a draft version of Grenada’s first NWMS, developed through a
cooperative effort of the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority (GSWMA) and the Organisation of
Eastern Caribbean States Environment and Sustainable Development Unit (OECS ESDU) over a five
month period ending in April 2003. The preparation of the draft NWMS included consultation with a
broad range of waste management stakeholders within Grenada.

With reference to the Waste Management Act, this document is to be used by the Minister of Health as the
basis for a formalized public review program. Upon the completion of the public review, the Minister is
to develop (as necessary) a revised version of the draft NWMS for submission to Cabinet; Cabinet then
has the option to either approve the draft as the final NWMS or to refer the document back to the Minister
with direction to correct identified deficiencies. Once approved by Cabinet, any person or entity
undertaking functions under the Waste Management Act is obliged to comply with requirements
contained within the NWMS. Within the attached draft version of the NWMS, a Cabinet approval date of
September 2003 has been assumed.

Founded on the significant progress made in waste management over the last number of years, the draft
NWMS presents 18 Action Items to be implemented in Grenada during the initial five year period,
beginning October 2003. These Action Items are representative of the priority issues identified during the
stakeholder consultations. Noted themes of the Action Items developed for this draft NWMS are the
establishment of effective mechanisms to deal with littering and illegal disposal including increased
public education and enforcement efforts and the clarification of roles and responsibilities identified
within the Waste Management Act. It is acknowledged that the next version of the NWMS, to be prepared
within five years of the adoption of the initial Strategy, is likely to have a differing list of action items,
reflective of the specific priorities of the day.

Table E-1 presents a summary of the 18 recommended Action Items contained within the NWMS. In
many cases, the GSWMA is to serve at the lead agency in the implementation of the noted action; in
others, the Ministry of Health is the designated entity with primary responsibility. Regardless, effective
implementation of the recommended actions will require a cooperative effort of public and private sector
interests. Conceptual level costs, GSWMA professional staff time estimates and associated
implementation timelines are developed for each of the Action Items. Referring to all 18 initiatives, total
estimated “Establishment/Implementation” (E/I) and recurring annual “Operation and Maintenance”
(O/M) costs are forecasted at EC$1,001,000 and EC$884,000, respectively. In addition, to meet a specific
obligation included in the Act, an annual waste management reserve fund allowance of EC$1,050,000 is
recommended.

Recent data indicate that the quantity of waste generated in Grenada could grow from the current value of
approximately 30,000 tonnes to over 38,000 tonnes by 2021. Based on available information, the 18
Action Items can achieve a waste diversion rate of up to 21% by 2006. The implementation of the NWMS
will contribute to the protection of the environment and nation’s critical tourism resource, create private
and public sector employment, and extend the life of the new waste disposal facilities in Grenada and
Carriacou.




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Government of Grenada                                   Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                     April 2003


Table E-1        Five Year Implementation Program Action Items




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Government of Grenada                               Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                 April 2003


List of Acronyms


3Rs              Reduction, Reuse and Recycling
4Rs              Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery
CAST             Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism
CARICOM          Caribbean Commonwealth
C&D              Construction and Demolition
CBO              Community Based Organisation
CDB              Caribbean Development Bank
CEHI             Caribbean Environmental Health Institute
CIF              Cost, Insurance and Freight
EC               Eastern Caribbean
EIA              Environmental Impact Assessment
ESDU             Environment and Sustainable Development Unit
GRN              Grenada
GSWMA            Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority
HDPE             High Density Polyethylene
ICI              Industrial, Commercial and Institutional
LDCA             Land Development Control Authority
LDPE             Low Density Polyethylene
MoHE             Ministry of Health and the Environment
MRF              Materials Recovery Facility
MSW              Municipal Solid Waste
NAWASA           National Water and Sewerage Authority
NGO              Non Governmental Organisation
NWMS             National Waste Management Strategy
OECS             Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
PAHO             Pan American Health Organization
PET              Polyethylene Terephthalate
SWM              Solid Waste Management
UNEP             United Nationals Environment Programme
US               United States
WB               World Bank
WDC              Waste Diversion Coordinator




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Government of Grenada                                                          Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                                            April 2003




                                                  Table of Contents
                                                                                                                                        Page



Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy .................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
          1.1 Strategic Context of Solid Waste Management .............................................................1
          1.2 Legislation......................................................................................................................2
          1.3 Regional and International Agreements and Entities.....................................................3
          1.4 Roles and Responsibilities .............................................................................................5
          1.5 Strategy Development Process ......................................................................................9
          1.6 Solid Waste Management Strategic Objectives and Priorities ....................................10
          1.7 Strategy Document Organisation .................................................................................11
          1.8 Legislation....................................................................................................................12

2.0 Waste Management Strategy .................................................................................... 13
          2.1 Waste Characterisation ................................................................................................13
                 2.1.1 Municipal Solid Waste ..................................................................................14
                 2.1.2 Quarantine (International Ship and Aircraft-Generated) Waste..................19
                 2.1.3 Solid ICI Hazardous Waste ...........................................................................20
                 2.1.4 Hazardous Health Care Facility (Biomedical) Waste ..................................20
                 2.1.5 Foul Water and Sewerage .............................................................................20
                 2.1.6 Liquid ICI Hazardous Waste ........................................................................22
          2.2 Waste Forecast .............................................................................................................22
                 2.2.1 Municipal Solid Waste ..................................................................................22
          2.3 Five Year Strategy Objectives .....................................................................................24
          2.4 Waste Diversion Options .............................................................................................24
          2.5 Environmental and Pollution Control Policies ............................................................30
          2.6 Overview of Implementation Program ........................................................................35

3.0 Implementation Program ......................................................................................... 37
          3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................37
          3.2 Institutional Arrangements, Policy and Regulation Development ..............................38
                  3.2.1 Category Definition ......................................................................................38
                  3.2.2 Long-Term Objectives ...................................................................................39
                  3.2.3 Stakeholder Feedback ...................................................................................39
                  3.2.4 Analysis .........................................................................................................41
                  3.2.5 Five-Year Implementation Plan Actions .......................................................60
          3.3 Management, Operations, Monitoring and Enforcement ............................................63
                  3.3.1 Category Definition ......................................................................................63
                  3.3.2 Long-Term Objectives ...................................................................................63

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                3.3.3 Stakeholder Feedback ...................................................................................64
                3.3.4 Analysis .........................................................................................................64
                3.3.5 Five-Year Implementation Program Action Items ........................................66
         3.4 Public Education and Awareness .................................................................................69
                3.4.1 Category Definition ......................................................................................69
                3.4.2 Long-Term Objectives ...................................................................................69
                3.4.3 Stakeholder Feedback ...................................................................................69
                3.4.4 Analysis .........................................................................................................70
                3.4.5 Five-Year Implementation Plan Actions .......................................................72
         3.5 Program Summary .......................................................................................................73

4.0 Social, Environmental And Economic Impacts Of The National Waste
Management Strategy ..................................................................................................... 75
         4.1 Social Impacts ..............................................................................................................75
         4.2 Environmental Impacts ................................................................................................75
         4.3 Economic Impacts ........................................................................................................76

5.0 Public Consultation ................................................................................................... 78

6.0 Finalisation of the Strategy ....................................................................................... 79

7.0 Strategic Review and Update ................................................................................... 80
List of Figures:

Figure 1-1 Division of Waste Management Roles and Responsibilities ....................... 7

Figure 2-2 Summary of Characterisation Results by Sector ....................................... 16

Figure 3-3
Ministry of Health And Environment Institutional Structure
In Support of NWMS Implementation .......................................................................... 45

Figure 3-4
GSWMA Institutional Structure In Support of NWMS Implementation ................. 51

Figure 3-5 Process for Obtaining Approval for Waste Management Facility From
Minister of Planning ........................................................................................................ 52

Figure 3-6 Process for Obtaining A Waste Management Facility License ................ 56

Figure 3-7 Process for Obtaining A Waste Haulage Permit ....................................... 57

Figure 3-8 Suggested NWMS Implementation Schedule (Oct. 2003-Dec. 2008) ....... 74




List of Tables:

Table 2-1
Waste Categories and Strategy Development ............................................................... 13

Table 2-2
Comparative Per Capita Solid Waste Generation Rates ............................................. 18

Table 2-3 Grenada Population and Municipal Solid Waste Generation Projection -
2001 to 2021 ...................................................................................................................... 26

Table 2-4 Prioritised Listing of Action Plan Initiatives from Grenada “4Rs” Final
Project Report and .......................................................................................................... 29

Table 3-5
Waste Management Operational Service Delivery: Roles of Grenada
Solid Waste Management Authority (GSWMA) .......................................................... 47
Annexes:

Annex A
Noted Attendees

Annex B
Grenada Waste Characterisation
Program Project Report and Procedures
Manual, Executive Summary, February 2003

Annex C
Five-Year Implementation Program
October 2003-December 2008


Annex D
Position Descriptions
Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003



1.0          Introduction
The Grenada Waste Management Act, 2001 requires the Minister of Health to produce a National Waste
Management Strategy (NWMS) and to submit it to Cabinet for comment. Following the incorporation of
member’s comments, Cabinet will then adopt the NWMS for implementation by the Minister of Health.

The Act anticipates that any discarded material, liquid or solid (other than foul water or sewage) from
residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and agricultural operations, including vehicles, ships and
aircrafts, is to be addressed by the Strategy.

Since it is recognised that the degree of characterisation and perceived immediate risk varies considerably
by waste stream at this time, the first five-year implementation plan which accompanies this Strategy, in
some cases calls for specific waste management action now (e.g., municipal solid waste) and in other
cases, further analysis (e.g., hazardous waste) to establish a sound basis for the definition of future
initiatives. It is acknowledged that previously-initiated waste management initiatives led by the Grenada
Solid Waste Management Authority (GSWMA), including the operation of the residential collection
system and the Perseverance Landfill, are to continue as a component of NWMS implementation.



1.1          Strategic Context of Solid Waste Management
In Grenada, approximately 30,000 tons of solid waste are generated per year1; an amount that is growing
as the economy develops and as population increases. The consequences of solid waste generation and
how solid wastes are managed are profound.

   Health - Effective collection and management of wastes is essential to avoid attracting vermin and
    vectors that spread debilitating and deadly diseases. Effective waste management is central to the
    health of Grenadians;
   Economy - Grenada is, and seeks to build on its reputation as, a tourist destination. The strength of the
    economy and the services that can be supported by the economy increasingly depend on a vibrant
    tourism sector. A healthy and sustained tourism sector is threatened if wastes are allowed to clutter the
    land and sea; tourists will simply not come to a dirty country. Effective solid waste management is
    central to the health of the economy; and




1
         This is the estimated waste generation for 2002.

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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


   Environment - The quality of life of all Grenadians is sustained by the forests, healthy reefs and clean
    water of the islands that make up Grenada. Effective waste management, in turn, is central to the
    sustainability of health of the Grenadian environment.

An environmentally-appropriate standard of solid waste management is a national priority. This document
presents a Strategy through which Grenada will achieve and sustain such a standard, to the benefit of not
one or a few, but to the benefit of all Grenadians and all sectors.



1.2          Legislation
The legislative basis for waste management has evolved as understanding of the central importance of the
issue to Grenada has increased. Although there are several pieces of legislation that are relevant to waste
management, there are two that are primary:

   Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act, 1995. This Act establishes the Grenada Solid Waste
    Management Authority (GSWMA) and provides it with a broad mandate to provide for the
    management of wastes generated in the country; and
   Waste Management Act, 2001. This Act provides the basis for a well-regulated and efficient integrated
    waste management program over the long term.

Other legislation relevant to waste management includes:

   Environmental Levy Act, 1997, and amendments;
   Public Health Act, Cap. 263; and
   Abatement of Litter Act, 1974.

The Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act and the Waste Management Act provide the basis
for effective waste management in the country. However, there are overlaps and uncertainties created by
having several pieces of legislation that address solid waste management. This Strategy addresses these
concerns. Generally, where there are overlaps or uncertainties associated with the legal framework,
provisions of the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act and the Waste Management Act will
prevail. This Strategy therefore provides for the continued implementation of solid waste management
within a legal structure that is framed by the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act and the
Waste Management Act. Once passed by Cabinet, the content of the Strategy has, as defined in the Waste
Management Act, the full force of law.



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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003



1.3         Regional and International Agreements and Entities
Grenada participates in the following international and regional agreements, each of which addresses
waste management:


   Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities to the Convention for the
    Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (adopted
    under the Cartagena Convention). This protocol seeks to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the
    Caribbean Sea from land-based sources of pollution. Although particular emphasis is placed in the
    Protocol on liquid and chemical wastes, this Strategy, and actions that are taken consistent with this
    Strategy, constitute a partial response to the Protocol;

   Declaration of Barbados and Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small
    Island Developing States. The Declaration and Programme of Action identify management of wastes
    among a broad series of requirements for achieving sustainable development in small island
    developing states. This Strategy, and the actions that are undertaken in execution of this Strategy,
    respond to these documents; and

   The St. George's Declaration of Principles for Environmental Sustainability in the OECS and its
    associated OECS Environmental Management Strategy. These documents identify enhanced waste
    management as one of a series of requirements for achieving sustainable development in the OECS
    countries and identify specific actions to meet this need. This Strategy, and the actions that are
    undertaken in execution of this Strategy, respond to these documents.

Implementation of this Strategy not only addresses the solid waste management needs of Grenada, but
also responds to national obligations in support of international and regional agreements in which
Grenada participates.

A number of international and regional entities with whom Grenada participates have interests and
expertise in waste management that can be of assistance to Grenada as the country moves its waste
management program ahead. Among these:

   United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). UNEP is a repository of waste management
    information from around the world; lessons learned in other countries may be relevant to the waste
    management needs of Grenada;




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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


   Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). The OECS Environment and Sustainable
    Development Unit has managed implementation of the regional component of the OECS Solid and
    Ship Generated Waste Management Project. Although the project is scheduled to end in 2003, there
    are ongoing roles that can be implemented at the OECS regional level in support of waste management
    in Grenada, and these are identified in this Strategy;

   Caribbean Environmental Health Unit (CEHI). CEHI has considerable waste management
    experience across the CARICOM region. As well as landfill monitoring capability, CEHI has designed
    and implemented local composting programs and undertaken other waste management initiatives; and

   Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST). CAST is a project of the Caribbean Hotel
    Association and is a leading private sector entity in achieving enhanced environmental performance in
    the hotel sector across the Caribbean; waste management has been a particular focus of CAST's
    activities.

   Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). PAHO is an international public health agency that
    serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO). The
    organization provides technical collaboration in a variety of specialized public health fields. In recent
    years, PAHO has provided assistance to select OECS member states in the assessment of Ministry of
    Health resources and the development of new regulations to meet the requirements of national waste
    management objectives.



1.4          Roles and Responsibilities
Clear definition of the roles and responsibilities among the various entities formally involved in waste
management is essential for the effective implementation of waste management systems. An important
principle in this regard is that no single entity is given responsibility for implementing potentially
conflicting functions; a second important principle is that no single function should be the responsibility of
two entities. The most important consideration in these regards is to separate the function of service
delivery from policy and regulatory functions. This ensures that the long term direction of waste
management policy is not compromised by what is simply in the best or easiest interests of the service
provider while also ensuring that the service provider is not self-regulating; self-regulation service
typically results in the service provider being unable to sufficiently regulate their operations, with the
consequence of declines in service performance and increase in threats to the environment.




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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


The introduction to the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act provides GSWMA with the duty
of "developing solid waste management facilities and improving the coverage and effectiveness of solid
waste storage, collection and disposal facilities of Grenada". The Act goes on to provide very broad
authority to implement all aspects of solid waste management. The Waste Management Act on the other
hand, assigns defined roles to various agencies, and references responsibilities of the Minister of Health.
Since the Minister of Health may discharge waste management responsibilities through either the
Ministry of Health or the GSWMA, there is legislative uncertainty as to who has what responsibilities;
this has further significance given overlaps between this legislation and the Public Health Act and the
Litter Act. Notwithstanding that the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act might allow the
GSWMA itself to, in effect, establish policy, undertake planning, implement operations, monitor, enforce
and regulate itself, such an approach amounts to being lawmaker, policeman, judge and jury, a situation
that is not tenable as a long term basis for effective solid waste management. Taken together, the two
primary Acts addressing waste management (Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act and Waste
Management Act) provide a current and best-practices basis for GSWMA to be responsible for the
provision of services necessary for effective waste management, while policy, regulatory, monitoring,
compliance and enforcement roles are given to other entities. This delineation of roles and responsibilities
is consistent with the principles of effective waste management. Therefore, consideration of the two
primary waste management Acts together is appropriate and supportive of effective solid waste
management in Grenada and should therefore be adopted as a basis for the institutional components of
this Strategy.

Although separation of roles and responsibilities for waste management functions is necessary, it is also
important that the various entities with defined responsibilities engage in dialogue. This will ensure that
while the actions of different entities are independent, they are also informed by the capacities,
opportunities and constraints that are faced by other entities. At the highest level, dialogue will occur at
the Cabinet level, since the various government agencies responsible for waste management report to a
Minister.

Figure 1-1 illustrates a division of roles and responsibilities between the Ministries responsible for waste
management and the GSWMA that is consistent with the legal framework and which will provide for
effective waste management. Figure 1-1 identifies the major government entities referenced in the
legislation and delegated lines of ministerial responsibility for the various functions set out in the legal
framework and lines of communication necessary for effective implementation of the legal framework.
The figure also illustrates the following public sector solid waste management roles and responsibilities,
consistent with the legislation:

   Cabinet will approve the National Waste Management Strategy;


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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003


Figure 1-1       Division of Waste Management Roles and Responsibilities




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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003


   The Minister of Planning will approve waste management facility EIAs;
   The Minister of Health and the Environment will prepare the National Solid Waste Management
    Strategy and submit it to Cabinet, approve waste management/haulage licenses and permits; designate
    inspection entities associated with licenses and permits, issue emergency waste management orders,
    designate authorised officers and publish a used oil management plan prepared by the GSWMA. The
    Minister may make regulations regarding a wide range of activities concerning waste management;
   The Land Development Control Authority, is responsible for environmental impact assessments
    associated with waste management facilities, and reports through the Minister of Planning;
   The Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority (GSWMA) is responsible for delivery of public
    waste management services (either itself or through contract) and for sectoral/operational aspects of
    public awareness and education. In addition, GSWMA will prepare the used oil management plan that
    the Waste Management Act requires the Minister of Health to prepare, and will prepare a contingency
    plan GSWMA reports to the Minister responsible for the Environment, who at the time of preparation
    of this strategy is also responsible for Health. GSWMA has coordinated preparation of this strategy on
    behalf of the Minister;
   The Ministry of Health and the Environment is responsible for policy and planning, the
    management of the permit and license scheme set out in legislation, coordination of management of
    internationally (i.e., ship and airplane) generated waste, inspection and monitoring of compliance with
    approvals, preparation of regulations, maintenance of the register of licenses and permits, compliance
    and enforcement, and preparation of broad aspects of public education and awareness. As capacities
    increase, the Ministry will also be responsible for review/update of the waste management strategy
    and for ensuring the continuing relevance of the used oil management plan;
   The Police, as authorised officers under the Waste Management Act, are responsible for inspection
    and institution of proceedings against offenders under the Waste Management Act;
   The Minister of Finance must approve investments by the GSWMA in securities (note: approval is
    received through the GSWMA Board, of which the Minister of Finance is a member); and
   The Director of Audit is responsible for annual audits of the GSWMA accounts (note: the Director of
    Audit has access to annual audited statements prepared on behalf of the GWSMA by a third-party
    auditor).

The Waste Management Act establishes that industrial, commercial and institutional generators must
make their own arrangements for the management of the waste they generate. These generators, and the
GSWMA, may contract with private sector providers of waste management services to undertake
necessary waste management activities.




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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003



1.5         Strategy Development Process
The preparation of this waste management strategy has been coordinated through the GSWMA with the
assistance of the OECS Environment and Sustainable Development Unit. The strategy development
process has been consistent with the methodology prescribed in the Waste Management Act.

The following steps have been taken to prepare the Strategy

   Characterisation of solid waste generated in Grenada;
   Focus group meeting to initiate strategy development process;
   Gathering of initial data and documents;
   Holding of a two-day stakeholder workshop to define issues and directions (an attendees list is
    provided in Annex A);
   Preparation of a first draft of the proposed waste management strategy;
   Holding of stakeholder workshop to review the first draft of proposed strategy (an attendees list is
    provided in Annex A);
   Finalisation of draft strategy; and
   Public review and comment (pending).



1.6         Solid Waste Management Strategic Objectives and
            Priorities
The objective of this Strategy is the achievement and subsequent maintenance of integrated waste
management that is both effective and efficient to serve the people of Grenada. This objective is
understood in the context of the following:

   Integrated waste management. An approach to waste management that seeks to maximise diversion
    of waste from disposal through reducing waste generation, and applying reuse, recycling and
    composting initiatives to extract value from wastes consistent with economic, financial, capacity and
    other opportunities and constraints;
   Effective waste management. The delivery of waste management services that provides for reliable
    collection and management of wastes consistent with sound environmental principles; and
   Efficient waste management. The delivery of effective waste management services in ways that
    minimise costs and maximise economic returns to the people of Grenada.

In order to attain this objective, the Government of Grenada will adopt policies and actions that support:

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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


   Clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Continued clarity in the different entities involved in waste
    management is essential to the long-term delivery of high quality waste management services;
   Reducing the burden of waste on the country. Without change in the way we think about waste and
    in the ways we manage waste, increasing population and development leads to the commitment of
    ever increasing amounts of money to manage waste. Change is possible. Wastes that cost the country
    its environment and its money can become resources that support the people;
   Environmentally-responsible waste management. Wastes cannot be allowed to pollute the
    environment and negatively impact the economy or quality of life. Wastes will be managed in ways
    that protect the environment;
   Adequate financing for waste management that reflects polluter pay and user pay principles. Wastes
    are generated by all members and sectors of society, and all should share the costs involved in
    managing wastes. However, some cause more waste to be generated than others and some use waste
    management services more than others. The distribution of costs associated with waste management
    should reflect these factors;
   Participation by civil society in waste management decision-making. Waste management serves the
    needs of the community and the community should participate in decisions about waste management;
   Participation by the private sector. The private sector can be a critical partner in the implementation
    of effective and efficient waste management systems. Relationships for managing waste should be
    built with the private sector consistent with the requirements of the country and the capacity of the
    private sector; and
   Continuous improvement. Achieving the waste management objectives set out in this strategy will
    take time but through a focus on continuous improvement in how we manage wastes and the capacity
    of agencies and citizens to manage wastes Grenada can achieve these objectives.



1.7          Strategy Document Organisation
Section 2 of this document sets out options through which the strategic objectives and priorities will be
met and presents the Strategy through which the Government of Grenada will met these objectives and
priorities. Section 3 defines by component the implementation program through which the preferred
options for meeting the objectives will be met. This is presented in terms of:

   Defining each component;
   Identifying the long term objective to be achieved in addressing the component;
   Identifying key stakeholder inputs received with respect to the component during the preparation of
    this strategy;



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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003


   An analysis of options regarding how best to proceed to achieve the long term objective for the
    component; and
   Identification of key actions to be taken over the initial five-year period of strategy implementation
    and indicators of the effectiveness of those actions.

The social, environmental and economic impacts of the Strategy are assessed in Section 4 in accordance
with Section 4(3) of the Waste Management Act. In Section 5, requirements for strategy review and
updating are set out. The Executive Summary of the Grenada Waste Characterisation Program Project
Report and Procedures Manual is presented in Annex B; this provides a basis for the characterisation of
waste generated in Grenada and for mapping changes in waste composition over time. In Annex C, a
detailed description of action items identified in Section 3 for implementation over the initial five-year
period of this Strategy are presented. Annex D presents position descriptions for two new waste
management postings recommended as part of the Strategy.


1.8         Legislation
The Government of Grenada has promulgated new Acts in recent years that layout the obligations and
opportunities with respect to waste management. These instruments are discussed in detail in Section 2.5,
Environmental and Pollution Control Policies.




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Government of Grenada                                         Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                           April 2003



2.0         Waste Management Strategy

2.1         Waste Characterisation
Part I of the Waste Management Act defines “waste” to include the following:

        “any material, solid or liquid, discarded by the owner of the material…and includes any such
        material discarded from residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural or government
        establishments or operations ships, aircraft or vehicles; or public or community activities”

Further, Part II specifies that a National Waste Inventory must identify the total tonnage of waste
generated in Grenada, identify proportions of waste by specific categories (classifications) and must
estimate the proportion of the total waste stream generated by three generators: 1) the residential sector,
2) the tourist/hospitality service sector and 3) the industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) sector not
including tourist/hospitality.

For the purposes of the development of Grenada’s first National Waste Management Strategy,
acknowledging currently available data, discussions were held with government and OECS project
representatives regarding practical levels of characterisation detail for the wide range of waste materials
referenced in the Act. The results of those discussions are presented in Table 2-1.


                                                 Table 2-1
                                 Waste Categories and Strategy Development
                                                             Available
       Waste                                             Characterisation            Level of Strategy
      Category             Waste Type                       Information                  Emphasis
       Solid         Municipal Solid Waste              Characterisation          Detailed
                      (MSW)                               Program Report
                                                          (Feb. 2003)
                     Quarantine (international          Perseverance weigh        Recommend further
                      ship and aircraft-generated)        bridge records for         study/characterisation
                      Waste                               ship generated waste
                     ICI Hazardous Waste                No reliable previous      Recommend further
                                                          assessments                study/characterisation
                                                          identified
                     Hazardous Health Care              Draft National            Reference to
                      Facility (Biomedical) Waste         Biomedical Waste           recommendations in
                                                          Management Plan            pending final
                                                          (Oct. 2002)                Management Plan

                                                                                                   …cont’d
       Liquid        Foul water and sewerage           Grenada Wastewater         Quantity estimate only

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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


                                                         Available
      Waste                                          Characterisation             Level of Strategy
     Category               Waste Type                  Information                  Emphasis
                                                      Management Project
                                                      Final Report (Nov.
                                                      1999)
                     ICI Hazardous Waste           Available data             Reference to 2002
                                                      limited to 2002            OECS Report
                                                      OECS Regional              recommendations
                                                      Waste Oil initiative      Recommend further
                                                                                 study/characterisation

Where noted data voids currently exist, recommendations for further investigation are incorporated into
Section 3. Referring to the content of Table 2-1, current characterisation summaries of relevant waste
streams are presented in the following paragraphs.


2.1.1       Municipal Solid Waste
As an element of the overall strategy development initiative, a municipal solid waste (MSW)
characterisation Program was conducted in December 2002 by the GSWMA at the Perseverance Landfill.
Dillon Consulting assisted in the overall coordination of the program and led efforts related to data
assembly and analysis. Program completion was based on a protocol developed as part of a
characterisation assignment in Antigua in October 2001. The Executive Summary of the Grenada Waste
Characterisation Program Project Report (February 2003) is presented in Annex B.

Key program findings were as follows:


Quality
Figure 2-1 presents the summary of waste characterisation quality results by sector. Detailed quality data,
presenting the results by 52 material types, is provided in Annex B. Tables in Annex B present the
findings for the residential, ICI tourist/hospitality and ICI non-tourist/hospitality sectors, respectively.

It is noted that the percentage breakdowns for the ICI tourist/hospitality and ICI non-tourist/hospitality
sector reflect the data gathered through both sorting and scale data for the one week December 2002
program only. Scale data were incorporated into the sorting program results to account for the impact of
segregated loads (i.e., salvageable metals, vegetative waste, C&D debris) arriving at the landfill. The
residential breakdown reflects the sorting data only.




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Government of Grenada                                     Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                       April 2003



Figure 2-2       Summary of Characterisation Results by Sector




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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


The December 2002 data would be considered representative of a “wet/low tourist” season waste sample.
A subsequent “dry/high tourist” season sort would be required to identify changes to the waste stream
during the late December to May period.


Quantity
Based on Perseverance weigh bridge data for 2002, as well as population information from Grenada’s
2001 census, per capita waste generation estimates for the residential and ICI sectors are presented below.
It is noted that due to weigh bridge data limitations, ICI tourist/hospitality and ICI non-tourist/hospitality
are combined within a comprehensive ICI category.

Residential MSW:                  0.51 kg/person/day
ICI (combined) MSW:               0.34 kg/person/day
TOTAL:                            0.85 kg/person/day

Using 2001 tourism information provided by the Grenada Board of Tourism and a per capita/per day
waste generation estimate from the 1994 OECS Solid Waste Management Project Report (Canadian
Waste Management Collaborative, August 1994), it is possible to estimate the portion the ICI estimate
associated with the “stay-over” tourist/hospitality sector:

Number of stay-over visitors:     123,351 (Grenada and Carriacou)
Average length of stay:           7 nights
Generation rate:                  1.30 kg/tourist population equivalent/day
                                  (“tourist equivalent” = total number of estimated stay-over tourists x the
                                  average length of stay (nights))

Estimated ICI tourist/hospitality waste (2001) = 123,351 tourists x 7 nights x 1.30 kg/tourist population
equivalent/day = 1,122,494 kg

Adjusting this to a per person, per day value and using the 2001 Census value (Grenada including
Carriacou) of 102,632, we have:




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Government of Grenada                                                    Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                                      April 2003


ICI tourist/hospitality generation rate =                   1,122,494 kg/102,632 persons/365 days
                                        =                   0.03 kg/person/day

Therefore, referring to the three generating sectors specified in the Waste Management Act, an
approximated waste stream quantity breakdown is as follows:

Residential MSW:                                 0.51 kg/person/day
ICI non-tourist/hospitality MSW:                 0.31 kg/person/day
ICI tourist/hospitality MSW:                     0.03 kg/person/day
TOTAL:                                           0.85 kg/person/day


This value is significantly less than an approximated rate developed for Grenada’s 1999 4Rs Report (~1.4
kg/person/day). For comparison, reported generation values from other Caribbean jurisdictions are
presented in Table 2-2, Comparative Per Capita Solid Waste Generation Rates.


                                                  Table 2-2
                              Comparative Per Capita Solid Waste Generation Rates

             Source                                               Generation Rate (kg/person day)
                                                Residential                    ICI                                  Total
 OECS (1994) (1)
          Urban                                     0.65                            0.50                            1.15
          Rural                                     0.59                            0.30                            0.89
 Barbados (1997) (2)
          Combined Rate (3)                         0.95                            0.98                            1.93
 Trinidad (1998) (4)
          Combined Rate (3)                           -                               -                             1.80
 St. Lucia (1998) (5)
          Urban                                     0.78                            0.73                            1.51
          Rural                                     0.88                            0.43                            1.31
 Antigua (2001) (6)                                 0.79                            0.96                            1.75
 SVG (2002) (7)                                     0.34                            0.46                            0.80
 GRN (2002)                                         0.51                            0.34                            0.85
 1.      Rates (for period 1998-2015) used as part of the 1994 OECS Solid Waste Management Report.
 2.      Rate extracted from the Barbados Sanitation Service Authority Brief 1997-1998. Based on a national population of 259,000.
 3.      Combined per capita generation rate, including both the residential and ICI sectors.
 4.      Value provided by the Trinidad and Tobago Solid Waste Management Company Limited (SWMCOL).
 5.      Value extracted from four months of incoming waste volume estimate data gathered by the St. Lucia Solid Waste Management
         Authority (SLSWMA) at the Ciceron and Vieux Fort landfills, 1998.
 6.      Value determined from six days of incoming waste volume estimate data gathered by the Antigua National Solid Waste Management
         Authority at Cooks Disposal Site, October/November 2001.
 7.      Value presented in Solid Waste Characterisation Studies in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, June 2002, CWSA/SWMU.
 -       Value not identified.




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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


Clearly, there is a notable range amongst the identified values. This variance points to the necessity, as
highlighted in Section 3, to conduct further characterisation programs in the upcoming years and to share
the results with other Eastern Caribbean waste management entities.


2.1.2       Quarantine (International Ship and Aircraft-Generated) Waste
Quarantine waste includes debris materials arriving in Grenada from other jurisdictions onboard ship or
aircraft that contains portions or traces of food, vegetable, meat or dairy products. The primary concerns
associated with waste arriving by ship or aircraft are: a) a disproportionate amount of material being
offloaded in a particular port of call; and b) the potential for adverse effects to residents and ecosystems
due to the import of a foreign pest or pathogen. To date in Grenada, compliance with Annex V of
MARPOL 73/78 (the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships) has
entailed special management of waste materials from ships using dedicated collection containers and
segregated burial at the landfill site. Discussions with local officials indicate that wastes from aircraft are
typically handled within the regular municipal solid waste stream. Notwithstanding the level of effort
directed towards quarantine waste (particularly ship-generated) over the last number of years, discussions
with GSWMA personnel and other stakeholders appears to indicate a relatively inconsistent application of
the specialised management provisions associated with these materials.


Quality
No specific quality data on quarantine waste materials in Grenada were identified during the preparation
of this draft strategy.


Quantity
Personnel at the Perseverance Landfill track incoming loads of ship-generated waste separately on the
weigh bridge data base. Tonnage values for the last two years are as follows:

2001: 285 tonnes (extrapolated)
2002: 303 tonnes

The annual quantity of quarantine waste arriving by ship or aircraft is quite variable, and dependent upon,
among other things, global economic conditions and regional tourist activity.


2.1.3       Solid ICI Hazardous Waste
No reliable estimate of the characteristics of solid hazardous wastes generated at industrial, commercial or
institutional sources in Grenada was identified during the preparation of this draft strategy.




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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


2.1.4        Hazardous Health Care Facility (Biomedical) Waste
The OECS retained the E & ER Group to prepare a Biomedical Waste Management Plan for Grenada in
2002. The draft version of the project report (October 2002) provided the following hazardous health care
(biomedical) waste characterisation information:


Quality
No specific quality assessment of Grenada’s biomedical waste stream was identified in the draft 2002
report.

Key categories were identified as:         sharps
                                           cultures and stocks
                                           human blood, blood products and body fluids
                                           pathological wastes

Quantity
Grenada:         36,000 to 70,000 kg/year
Carriacou:       2,000 to 7,000 kg/year


2.1.5        Foul Water and Sewerage
Howard Humphries & Partners Limited, on behalf of the OECS, completed an evaluation of Grenada’s
wastewater management requirements in November 1999. Discussions with NAWASA, GSWMA and
OECS personnel during the preparation of the draft National Waste Management Strategy indicated that
this report remained a valid reference for the estimate of wastewater (foul water and sewerage).

Referring to the design period of 2000 to 2030, unless otherwise stated, key report findings were as
follows:

Facility Type (percent of households, 1991)
Pit Latrine: 58.9%                      WC connected to sewer: 2.9%
WC cesspit/septic tank: 33.2            Other: 1.1
None: 3.9                               None Stated: 0

Quality
No specific comment on foul water and sewerage quality was presented in the November 1999 report.




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


Quantity
Domestic:                                  125-150 litres/head/day
Commercial (St. George’s):                 1290-1500 litres/connection/day
Hotels:                                    340 to 425 litres/room/day


2.1.6       Liquid ICI Hazardous Waste
No reliable estimates of the characteristics of solid hazardous wastes generated at industrial, commercial
or institutional sources in Grenada were identified during the preparation of this draft strategy.



2.2         Waste Forecast
Using a 20-year design horizon, a quantity forecast for municipal solid waste in Grenada is presented in
the following paragraph. As data becomes available, it is recommended (see Section 3.3) that the
GSWMA develop projections for quarantine (ship and aircraft-generated) waste, solid and liquid ICI
hazardous waste, hazardous health care facility (biomedical) waste and foul water and sewerage. This
recommendation has been incorporated into the development of the Implementation Program presented in
Section 3.


2.2.1       Municipal Solid Waste
A twenty-year waste projection was prepared as a component of the Grenada Waste Characterisation
Program Project Report (February 2003). The Executive Summary for this report is presented in Annex
B. Two primary pieces of data are required to develop a future waste projection; per capita waste
generation rates (including any anticipated changes to the rate over time) and a population forecast.

With regard to the per capita generation rates (see Section 2.1.1), it was recommended, for the purposes
of characterisation report, that it be assumed that the per capita rates will remain constant over the 20-
year projection period. This recommendation was founded on the belief that ongoing waste diversion
education and promotion efforts, led by the GSWMA, will result in a stabilisation of the per capita rate. It
is acknowledged that in many jurisdictions throughout the world, due to a range of factors, per capita
rates have been on the increase. If future characterisation studies confirm that the rate has increased in
Grenada, alterations to the forecast presented below would be recommended. A full description of the
forecast assumptions, including those associated with population growth, is provided in the February
2003 report.




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Government of Grenada                                         Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                           April 2003


Founded on the per capita estimates from Section 2.1.1, 2001 Census data and assumed population
growth rates, Table 2-3 presents a 20-year municipal solid waste forecast for Grenada. Due to the
variability in the nature of waste projections, it is stressed that the forecast is for guidance only and should
not be used as a sole basis for contracting collection or other services.



2.3         Five Year Strategy Objectives
The Waste Management Act lays out a broad range of long-term service and performance objectives for
Grenada. However, when considering progress to date and the current state of waste management
activities in the country, a more limited selection of action is practical for the near (e.g., five year) term.
Section 3 presents a listing of suggested Implementation Program Action Items, including a development
rationale, for the five years covered by this initial NWMS. Founded on the content of the Act as well as
comments provided during stakeholder consultations, the primary five-year strategy objectives can be
summarised as follows:


   Need for further regulatory development and role clarification, with specific reference to the
    interaction between relevant national acts and key government ministries;
   Requirement for institutional strengthening and staff training;
   Need to implement formalised, sustainable waste diversion activity;
   Requirement to progress towards a fair, transparent user pay system for waste management services;
   Need to increase private sector interest and involvement in the provision of waste management
    services; and
   Need to establish a sound foundation for further waste management progress.



2.4         Waste Diversion Options
Waste diversion is defined as any environmentally-sustainable initiative that decreases the quantity of
waste that must be landfilled or incinerated. Within the context of municipal solid waste management,
diversion activities include the “3Rs” of reduction, reuse and recycling as well as composting. The fourth
“R”, recovery, refers to the collection of heat for electrical generation through the incineration of waste
(waste-to-energy). Due to its apparent conflict with the concept of environmental sustainability, recovery
is sometimes not included for consideration as a diversion activity.




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                       April 2003



Table 2-3        Grenada Population and Municipal Solid Waste Generation Projection - 2001 to 2021




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                           April 2003


During the late 1990’s, as part of a regional assessment, the OECS commissioned a comprehensive
evaluation of waste diversion opportunities for Grenada. The findings of the evaluation were presented in
a document prepared by Dillon Consulting entitled Final Project Report and Addendum, Regional Waste
Reduction, Recycling, Recovery and Reuse Strategy and Action Program, September 1999 (often referred
to as the “4Rs Report”). Similar assessments were also conducted for the other five independent member
states of the OECS.

The Addendum portion of the September 1999 documentation incorporated a prioritised listing of the
“Top Ten” waste diversion Action Plan Initiatives, extracted from a long list of 29 candidate actions. The
long list was developed in consultation with the PIU, the OECS and approximately 25 Grenadian
stakeholders over the course of the nine month project. For the purposes of the 1999 report, the 29 actions
were grouped under the following six categories:

1)      Core (Cr)                 -        initiatives supporting the 3Rs and composting;
2)      Reduction (Rd)            -        initiatives to decrease the quantity of solid waste generated;
3)      Reuse (Ru)                -        initiatives supporting the reutilisation of residual materials;
4)      Recycling (Rc)            -        initiatives involving the reprocessing of residuals to
                                           generate new products;
5)      Composting (Cp)           -        initiatives involving the controlled decomposition of
                                           organic materials; and
6)      Regional (Rg)             -        regionally coordinated efforts supporting national diversion
                                           initiatives.

Generally, the 1999 evaluation revealed that sustainable diversion opportunities involving off-island
processing of recyclable commodities were quite limited. At the time of the analysis, due to relatively
modest recyclable material quantities (related to small population), remote end-use markets, high shipping
costs and low recyclable commodity values, program recommendations focused on immediate, low-risk,
pragmatic, close to home waste diversion solutions with minimal connection to off-shore markets. For
this draft National Waste Management Strategy, noting that off-island opportunities for select recyclable
materials may be identified in the future, it is recommended that these considerations be carried forward.

Acknowledging this recommendation, the full, prioritised listing of recommended diversion initiatives
presented in the 1999 report is presented in Table 2-4, Prioritised Listing of Action Plan Initiatives from
Grenada 4Rs Final Report and Addendum. Items included in Table 2-4 were incorporated for discussion
in the strategy development stakeholder consultations conducted in Grenada during January 2003.
Direction provided during those discussions served as the basis for the recommendation of specific waste
diversion action items, presented in Section 3 and Annex C.


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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003



Table 2-4        Prioritised Listing of Action Plan Initiatives from Grenada “4Rs” Final Project Report and
                 Addendum




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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003



2.5         Environmental and Pollution Control Policies
The Waste Management Act requires that this strategy provide "an evaluation of national environmental
and pollution control policies that may impact upon the nature or volume of waste generated in Grenada."
The following are relevant in this context:

   St. George's Declaration of Principles for Environmental Sustainability in the OECS;
   Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act, 1995;
   Waste Management Act. 2001; and
   Environmental Levy Act, 1997 and amendments.

These documents have the following relevance to the volume and nature of waste generated in Grenada:


St. George's Declaration of Principles for Environmental Sustainability in the OECS

The Government of Grenada, together with all other OECS member states, signed this document in 2001
as a non-binding regional policy for environmental management. Implementation of the St. George's
Declaration is guided by the OECS Environmental Management Strategy, which was adopted by the
OECS Authority in 2002. Principle 10: Prevent and Control Pollution and Manage Waste of the St.
George's Declaration addresses waste management. This Principle speaks to the need to:

   Adequately manage waste;
   Prevent, reduce and control pollution; and
   Monitor and report on pollution levels.

Several other Principles are relevant to the ways in which waste should be managed:

   Principle 3: Improve of Legal and Institutional Frameworks identifies that the "polluter pays"
    principle should be embodied in laws and principles. "Polluter pay" is defined in the St. George's
    Declaration to mean "those who cause pollution are responsible for the costs of managing the
    pollution they cause";
   Principle 4: Ensure Meaningful Participation by Civil Society in Decision Making commits Member
    States include civil society in decision-making regarding environmental matters;
   Principle 5: Ensure Meaningful Participation by the Private Sector provides for Member States to
    engage the private sector in environmental management activities;




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


   Principle 6: Use Economic Instruments for Sustainable Environmental Management identifies that
    Member States will use economic instruments to provide incentives to encourage adoption of sound
    environmental practices and technologies; and
   Principle 7: Foster Broad-Based Environmental Education, Training and Awareness identifies that
    Member States will provide the public with information concerning the environment.

Although the St. George's Declaration is non-binding, it provides a basis for sound decision-making with
respect to waste management. The evolving legislative basis for waste management is generally
consistent with the St. George's Declaration.


Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act

The Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act provides for the establishment of the Grenada Solid
Waste Management Authority (GSWMA), reporting to the Minister for Health and the Environment, as
the entity with primary operational responsibility for waste management in the country. The Act provides
for GSWMA to develop solid waste management facilities and to improve the coverage and effectiveness
of solid waste storage, collection and disposal facilities. GSWMA is provided with wide powers to
undertake these activities, and may enter into agreements with other parties for the performance of waste
management services as well as manage its own internal affairs. Regulations may be made by the
GSWMA with the approval of the Minister and affirmative resolution of the House of Representatives.
The GSWMA is required to establish a reserve fund.

The Act provides for a high degree of flexibility in the operations that GSWMA may undertake to achieve
waste management objectives. The Act provides for GSWMA to operate independently from entities
responsible for policy and compliance, and allows GSWMA to determine which operations it will
undertake itself and which it will contract to others. Through its own operations and through requirements
it may place on contractors, the GSWMA has great ability to influence where and how wastes are
managed. Through regulatory and/or operational actions that the GSWMA is authorised to take, the
GSWMA may also play an important role in influencing the nature and volume of waste generated in the
country. For example, if GSWMA decides that certain wastes should not be allowed to enter a waste
management facility, it might either prohibit acceptance of these wastes at a landfill or might require
generators of those wastes to pay a premium to dispose of the wastes at the landfill; in either instance, this
would be a powerful incentive to a waste generator to not generate the waste (either by reusing, recycling
or composting the waste, or by selecting alternate products/materials that do not result in the generation of
the waste). This kind of action has been central to the ability of other jurisdictions to "impact upon the
nature or volume of waste generated". However, to be an effective waste management tool, these kinds of
action depend on:


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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


   Acceptance on the part of the waste generator that action to target specific wastes is part of a wider
    waste abatement strategy and not simply an arbitrary imposition;
   Availability of reasonable alternate choices for the waste generator; and
   Compliance actions sufficient to prevent illegal dumping of targeted wastes.

The Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act therefore provides the GSWMA with wide powers
to “impact upon the nature or volume of waste generated”.


Environmental Levy Act, 1997 and Amendments

This Act provides for the payment of an environmental levy by all those who are subject to the Act and
with respect to the goods and services specified in the Act. The Act is administered by the Minister of
Finance and provides that all proceeds from the levy will be paid over to the GSWMA within 30 days of
collection unless otherwise provided for by the Minister. All households that consume over 100 kilowatt
hours of electricity per month are subject to the levy. A levy of two percent and three percent respectively
is charged on the CIF value of vehicles and white goods, and of EC$0.25 on beverage containers. The Act
also provides for waste haulage and tipping fees charged by the GSWMA and for an environmental levy
to be paid by visitors.

To date, implementation of the Act has suffered from two key problems:

   Monies have not always been punctually forwarded to the GSWMA by the entity responsible for their
    collection; and
   The extent to which environmental levies might be used as a broader waste management tool as
    opposed to simply a funding mechanism for the GSWMA has not been adequately considered.

The first of these issues is administrative in nature and may best be dealt with in the context of ensuring
effective coordination between government agencies and the rule of law within government.

The second issue is of more relevance in terms of the extent to which the Act provides for “impact upon
the nature or volume of waste generated in Grenada”, although it is related to the first issue as described
below. To the extent that the levies charged under the Act provide revenues for GSWMA to implement
core waste collection and disposal systems that are generally considered in the country as superior to what
existed before, the environmental levies may be considered to be appropriately allocated and spent. As
discussed elsewhere in this document, however, waste management systems should move increasingly
away from reliance on disposal of waste (although some level of waste disposal will always be part of any
waste management system that can be conceived today) in favour of minimising wastes that are generated


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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


and extracting resources from wastes that are generated. As described in Section 3, environmental levies
on imported products may serve as a basis for financing broader activities that address waste management
objectives to reduce litter and build opportunities for recycling. Such actions would have important
economic and financial returns including the creation of employment, the prevention of litter and
conservation of landfill space. However, this requires that all environmental levies are turned over to the
GSWMA according to the requirements of the Act since GSWMA cannot be expected to achieve the
objectives of this strategy if the legal basis for its funding is not adhered to.

Currently, the Act is used as a component of the revenue necessary to provide for effective waste
collection and disposal services; these activities do not influence the volume and nature of waste
generated. However, the Act has significant potential to influence the volume and nature of waste
generated in Grenada and can be used as the basis for a range of economic incentives in support of
desired waste management investments and behaviours.


Waste Management Act

This Act provides a broad framework for the implementation of a long-term waste management program.
Although the Act is primarily concerned with defining the management structures, procedures, roles and
responsibilities necessary for effective waste management, it also contains provisions that provide for the
Act to be used as a key tool through which to impact the nature and volume of waste generated:

   The Act requires the LDCA to “have regard to the waste generation and waste management
    implications and to the requirements of [this] Strategy” of all development proposals it considers
    (except those for waste management facilities) and requires that the LDCA “not grant development
    approval unless it is satisfied on these matters” (Sec. 18.);
   Applicants to the LDCA for commercial development “must identify action that will be taken to
    minimise waste generation, and to maximise reuse, recycling and composting both during construction
    of the development and in the course of its operation when constructed” (Sec. 18);
   With highly limited exceptions, no waste may be imported into Grenada (Sec. 34);
   The Act makes specific provisions for the management of used oil; and
   The Minister of Health may implement regulations (Sec. 46) associated with any aspect of the Act,
    and in particular for: (i) the implementation of “any waste diversion or waste reduction policy
    contained in [this] Strategy”; (ii) “regulating or restricting for the purposes of the Act the import of
    used, second-hand, refurbished or reconditioned materials or goods”.




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                              April 2003


The Act provides the basis for significantly impacting the nature and volume of waste generated in
Grenada, and over time can become a principal tool in minimizing the amount of waste requiring disposal
in the country.

Taken together, the legal basis for waste management in Grenada provides an adequate framework for
impacting the nature and volume of waste generated in the country. Effective implementation of this
framework, however, will require that existing entities take their waste management roles and
responsibilities, as set out in legislation, seriously. In particular:

   Environmental levies should be transferred to GSWMA reliably and in a timely manner;
   LDCA should implement the waste management provisions of development planning contained in the
    Waste Management Act; and
   GSWMA should broaden the scope of its priorities to include measures that minimise the amount of
    waste requiring collection and, particularly, disposal at landfills or other waste disposal facilities and
    should advise the Minister over time of regulations that will facilitate this.

These considerations have been incorporated into the development of the initial five-year Implementation
Program as defined in Section 3.



2.6          Overview of Implementation Program
Section 3 presents an initial five-year Implementation Program, founded on the Strategy goals and
objectives identified in Sections 1 and 2. While the Strategy is meant to present the broader “long-term”
objectives of an effective waste management program in Grenada, the five-year Implementation Program
focuses on those initiatives deemed necessary and feasible for near term execution.

Items included in the Implementation Program incorporate efforts to be led by both the public and private
sectors. In some cases, a cooperative effort is the suggested approach. It is noted, however, that the
private sector will respond to waste management requirements as market conditions dictate, within the
boundaries of national legislation and in response to incentive programs.

Private sector diversion initiatives, created within their own institutions, have the potential to be variable,
based on a range of generator responses. These actions will be industry-driven and are unpredictable at
this stage. For this reason, with reference to responsibilities defined in the Waste Management Act, the
Implementation Program focuses on initiatives to be enacted by the public sector and on incentives and
other instruments that may influence the private sector.


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3.0         Implementation Program

3.1         Introduction

Founded on the objectives presented in Section 2, Section 3 presents an Implementation Program aimed
at achieving Grenada’s waste management goals targeted for an initial five-year period beginning in
October 2003. This Implementation Program start date is based on the assumption that Cabinet Approval
of the National Waste Management Strategy, following the completion of required consultation and
review activities specified in the Act, will be provided by September 2003.

Program requirements are grouped within three Program Category headings:

1.       Institutional Arrangements, Policy and Regulation Development (see Section 3.2)
Includes actions related to clarification of inter-government and private sector responsibilities,
institutional strengthening, refinement of cost recovery procedures and development of regulations and
policy documents.


2.       Management, Operations, Monitoring and Enforcement (see Section 3.3)
Includes actions associated primarily with “day-to-day” waste management activities, including
collection, processing, diversion and disposal, as well as operational monitoring and regulatory
enforcement.


3.      Public Education and Awareness (see Section 3.4)
Includes actions focused on sustaining improved residential, institutional and private sector understanding
and use of waste management services in Grenada.

Eighteen specific Implementation Program Action Items (see Annex C) are recommended within the
three Program Categories. The supporting rationale for grouping the Actions within the three Program
Categories are developed under the five headings below, with details provided in following sections:

   Category Definition;
   Long Term Objectives;
   Stakeholder Feedback;
   Analysis; and
   Five-Year Implementation Program Action Items.


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3.2         Institutional Arrangements, Policy and Regulation
            Development


3.2.1       Category Definition
Institutional Arrangements - These refer to the management structures through which effect is given to
this waste management strategy. The existing legal framework defines the basic institutional structures
through which the various functions identified in legislation will be implemented. Greater definition is
required through this Strategy, however, to give practical effect to these structures.

Policy - Policy is the expression by government of broad objectives and mechanisms for achieving
identified goals. Some policy is generally considered to be “sectoral” in nature. Policy of this type does
not particularly impact activities outside the scope of the policy; for example agricultural and tourism
policies may be considered sectoral because policy in one does not particularly impact policy in the other.
Other types of policy are considered "cross-cutting" in nature. Policy of this kind significantly impacts a
diverse range of activities; waste management policy is cross-cutting policy because the strategic
objectives and priorities identified in Section 1 can only be achieved through broad participation in waste
management initiatives by all sectors and members of society.

Regulation Development - For the purpose of this document, regulatory actions are defined to include the
range of actions through which formal agreements are made regarding waste management functions, roles
and responsibilities. These actions can include the preparation of regulations themselves, but might also
include amendments to an Act, preparation of guidelines and memorandums of understanding.


3.2.2       Long-Term Objectives
Long-term objectives extending beyond the immediate five-year implementation window, related to
institutional arrangements, policy and regulation development, can be identified in Grenada’s Waste
Management Act. Key objectives, serving as the basis for Implementation Plan development, include the
following:

   Implementation of the institutional framework for waste management as indicated by the content of
    the Act;
   Establishment of standards, procedures, policies and regulations for the management of all waste,
    including diversion, storage, disposal and facility siting;
   Establishment of requirements and procedures for the issue, monitoring and enforcement of facility
    licenses and operator permits;


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   Identification of financial and cost recovery mechanisms to ensure ongoing viability;
   Establishment of target dates for the reduction of solid waste; and
   Designation of authorised officers to enforce the provisions of the Act.


3.2.3        Stakeholder Feedback
With specific reference to near-term objectives, the key recommended actions identified during a waste
management strategy stakeholder workshop, held in St. George’s on January 20 and 21, 2003, are
summarised as follows:

   Clear guidance should be provided regarding how the Minister of Health and Environment and others
    with responsibilities in the Waste Management Act and Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority
    Act should discharge those responsibilities;
   Regulatory focus should be placed on regulations that facilitate compliance rather than on those that
    require significant enforcement to be effective;
   Environmental impact assessments should be required by the LDCA in support of waste disposal
    facilities;
   The relationship between the various Acts bearing on waste management should be clarified;
   A "Solid Waste Management" forum should be implemented through which cross-sectoral discussion
    of solid waste management issues can be undertaken;
   A ticketing system should be developed for addressing litter;
   Waste generators should pay for waste management services in proportion to the amount of waste
    generated;
   Monies available to the GSWMA, and the way those monies are used, should be transparent and
    available for public review;
   Commercial, institutional and industrial waste generators are responsible for making their own waste
    management arrangements and should be prevented from using the residential waste collection service
    paid for with public funds; and
   The penalty provisions of the Waste Management Act are considered excessively onerous and should
    be reviewed and alternate community based penalties should be considered as alternatives to
    traditional enforcement regimes.




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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                           April 2003


3.2.4        Analysis

A.       Institutional Arrangements

The primary legislation (i.e., the Waste Management Act and the Grenada Solid Waste Management
Authority Act) provide a clear basis for the delineation of institutional roles and responsibilities. The
Waste Management Act, in particular, requires that a range of functions be undertaken that are new to
Grenada. This in turn requires clarity as to how these functions should be implemented and who should
implement them. The analyses that follow therefore address:

    The mechanism through which the Minister of Health and the Environment should give effect to roles
     and responsibilities assigned in the Waste Management Act;
    Identification of the operational functions of GSWMA;
    The process through which EIAs in support of waste management facilities should be administered;
    The process through which waste management facility licenses should be administered; and
    The process through which waste haulage permits should be administered.


Identification of Mechanism through which the Minister of Health should Give Effect to Roles and
Responsibilities

The Waste Management Act assigns several roles and responsibilities to the Minister of Health; but is
silent on how the Minister should discharge those roles and responsibilities. Three options are available:

    Discharge roles and responsibilities through the Ministry of Health and the Environment;
    Discharge roles and responsibilities through GSWMA; and
    Create some other entity through which to discharge roles and responsibilities.

Ministry of Health and the Environment - The roles and responsibilities of the Minister of Health are
normally discharged through the Ministry of Health and the Environment. Typically, those relating to
environmental issues are discharged through the Environmental Health Department (EHD). However, a
recent report2 has characterised EHD as follows:

    Lack – even absence – of relevant training and skills associated with discharging the roles and
     responsibilities of waste management roles assigned to the Minister;

2
        “Proposals for Strengthening the Regulatory and Monitoring Capacities of the Environmental Health
Department of the Ministry of Health - Grenada, Carriacou, Petite Martinique with Respect to Solid Waste
Management”, R. Reid, W. Thomas, P. Carr, December 2002.

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   Lack of capacity: “In the present context, the Department does not have the capacity to exercise these
    functions” (i.e., those set out in the Waste Management Act); and
   Lack of a database covering its operations.

The same report identifies that a five-year training program will be required to bring an existing EHD
officer to a point that effective performance of waste management functions might be anticipated. Given
the background, existing workloads and organisational culture of EHD, as well as the uncertainty inherent
in such an approach, it is not clear that training an existing individual can be effective in developing the
required capacity, and in any event such capacity clearly cannot be developed in a timely manner.
However, the Terms of Reference for the quoted report appear to have focussed on analysis of
strengthening existing EHD staff in support of its waste management functions, and consequently other
options through which the Minister might discharge waste management roles and responsibilities were
not considered. One option in this regard is to create a new position of Waste Management Officer
(WMO) within the EHD structure and to implement the WMO function in collaboration with
Environmental Health Officers. This recognises the new and specialised skill sets necessary to undertake
the required functions - skill sets not currently available within the EHD, as set out in the report
referenced above.

Alternatively, the functions assigned to the Minister might be implemented through the Environmental
Coordination Unit. Although the Unit does not have a formal mandate, the job description of the Director
focuses on liaison and coordination; in the opinion of the report referenced above, the “mandate of the
young unit is much broader in scope” than this. However, the Unit has not taken on activities beyond
those of the Director, and that individual is at present the only staff member of the Unit.

The referenced report clearly articulates the need for a new environment vision within the Ministry of
Health and the Environment. Therefore, it may be opportune for the Ministry to consider the advantages
of recruiting a qualified individual with the capacity to discharge the roles and responsibilities assigned to
the Minister of Health in the Waste Management Act. The Ministry might consider where to locate such
an individual within the organisational structure of the Ministry, bearing in mind a future vision of the
Ministry. As an immediate step, the individual might appropriately be located within the Environmental
Coordination Unit given that the functions to be undertaken by the individual will bear greatly on
coordination and monitoring.

Discharge Roles And Responsibilities Through GSWMA - As identified above, this would generally
involve GSWMA in undertaking a variety of conflicting functions and is not recommended. However, it
would be appropriate for GSWMA to undertake, specifically the roles and responsibilities assigned to the



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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


Minister of Health and the Environment with respect to the preparation of a used oil management scheme
since this bears on operational planning.

Create Some Other Entity Through Which To Discharge Roles And Responsibilities - Although creation
of some other entity through which the Minister might deliver waste management responsibilities may be
feasible in the context of a new vision for EHD, it is premature to consider such an option at the present
time and in the absence of some other and broader reorganisation.

Based on this analysis, it is recommended that a new position of Waste Management Officer (WMO) be
created within the Ministry of Health and the Environment, reporting through the Chief Environmental
Health Officer. This individual should manage and coordinate the range of functions assigned in the
Waste Management Act to the Minister of Health (with the exception of the preparation of the used oil
management plan) and should coordinate the implementation of compliance/enforcement activities. The
WMO will be classified at a level equivalent to Senior Environmental Health Officer and will function in
a dedicated capacity with respect to solid waste management. The WMO will liase with Senior
Environmental Health Officers who, with Environmental Health Officers, will assist and facilitate the
work of the WMO throughout the country. Implementation of the position should be accompanied by a
meeting between the Permanent Secretary, the Chief Environmental Health Officer, Senior
Environmental Health Officers and the WMO for the purpose of explaining the role and function of the
WMO and the structure within which the WMO will work.

Figure 3-1 illustrates the institutional structure of the WMO position. A suggested description of WMO
responsibilities is included in Annex D.

Effective delivery of the functions assigned to the Minister of Health is essential to the credibility of the
waste management programme set out in the Waste Management Act. Accordingly, the WMO should be
hired through open competition with strict adherence to the minimum criteria identified in the
responsibility description included in Annex D. While the competition should be open to existing EHD
staff , it should be borne in mind that the report referenced above has identified that none of the existing
Senior Environmental Health Officers, nor the Environmental Health Officers, have the skill sets and
qualifications necessary for the position. The Government of Grenada should therefore consider the
advantages of hiring a new and suitably-qualified candidate to undertake the required tasks. While some
training will be required for the selected individual, this will be significantly less than would be required
if a current EHD staff person fills the position, as documented in the report referenced above.




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                                                     Figure 3-3
                            Ministry of Health And Environment Institutional Structure
                                       In Support of NWMS Implementation



                                                            Chief
                                                        Environmental
                                                        Health Officer




                          Waste Management                                             Senior
                               Officer                                              Environmental
                                                                                    Health Officer




                                                                                    Environmental
                                                                                    Health Officer


Note: Solid lines denote lines of devolved responsibility. Dashed lines denote communications.



                                         ______________________________


Monies are available from within the global waste management envelope in Grenada through which to
finance the WMO position.

Identification of Operational Functions of GSWMA

As indicated above, the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act gives wide powers to the
GSWMA. These include the power to determine which waste management operational services should be
delivered in Grenada and from among these which it wishes to deliver itself and which it wishes to deliver
through a third party.

The range of operational waste management services that might be delivered in Grenada includes:

   Waste receptacles and collection (i.e., the on-site storage and subsequent collection of wastes from
    those who generate wastes);
   Waste transfer (i.e., the transfer of wastes from one island to another or from small vehicles/containers
    to larger vehicles/containers);

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   Waste storage (i.e., the placement of waste - such as derelict vehicles, for example - in a facility from
    which it will be subsequently managed in some type of waste disposal, treatment, recycling or
    composting facility);
   Waste treatment (i.e., incineration or other methods of treating waste prior to disposing of it as waste);
   Recycling (i.e., creation of secondary resources from waste);
   Composting (i.e., creation of humus-like product from organic wastes);
   Waste disposal (i.e., landfilling);
   Litter (i.e., the abandonment wastes into the environment);
   Illegal dumping (i.e., the abandonment of quantities of waste into the environment); and
   Contingencies (i.e., failure of third parties to perform and emergencies).

The Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority Act provides that the GSWMA must address “solid”
waste management requirements in the country within the limits of its resources, so that the above
operational services may be provided by GSWMA with respect to any type of waste (for example, either
hazardous or non-hazardous waste) provided the waste is “solid”. The Act provides the GSWMA with
discretion to not only determine whether and when to provide an operational service, but also to
determine whether it wishes to deliver a service itself or through a third party. The following factors bear
on the decision of which waste management services the GSWMA might deliver itself and those that
might be delivered through a contracted party:

   Strategic importance of a waste management service;
   Available capacity within GSWMA and the private sector to deliver desired waste management
    services;
   Cost of service delivery; and
   Management and administrative burden associated with service delivery.

The principle of separation of functions suggests that GSWMA deliver services through a contracted
party since this provides a basis for GSWMA to monitor and enforce operational performance
requirements, something it will find easier to do if a contracted party is delivering a service than if the
GSWMA is delivering a service itself. However, the benefits of contracted service delivery are lost if:

   A waste management system component (e.g., a landfill) has a critical strategic importance to the
    country. In this instance, poor performance by a third party may threaten not simply the terms of a
    contract, but the waste management system itself together with the economic and social activities that
    depend on it;
   Service providers have inadequate capacity to deliver a desired service. In this instance, results desired
    will not be achieved;


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   Fees billed for a waste management service are out of proportion with the costs and reasonable profit
    levels associated with the service being delivered. This can arise when there is insufficient competition
    for a waste management service or if contracts are inadequately negotiated; and
   Reasonable management and administrative checks and balances become cumbersome to the point
    that revenues associated with provision of a service do not sufficiently offset management and
    administrative costs.

Table 3-1 identifies the operational services that GSWMA should provide itself and those that should be
provided through a third party, together with notes that identify the rationale for the perspective identified
in the table.
                                              Table 3-5
                     Waste Management Operational Service Delivery: Roles of Grenada
                             Solid Waste Management Authority (GSWMA)
      SERVICE                          ROLE OF GSWMA                                                 COMMENTS
Waste receptacles    (i) Delineate domestic waste collection zones;            (i) GSWMA should manage the operational
and collection       (ii) Establish types of, and provide for distribution/    function, but should not deliver services itself;
                     availability of, appropriate receptacles for the          waste collection services should be contracted to
                     discard of waste;                                         the private sector; and
                     (iii) Require use of, and achieve compliance              (ii) In addition to requirements that the GSWMA
                     concerning, appropriate receptacles for the discard       itself may have regarding contract performance,
                     of waste;                                                 contracts should also set out that waste haulers
                     (iv) Contract collection of domestic waste to             contracted by GSWMA must be in compliance
                     private sector on the basis of established collection     with all aspects of the Waste Management Act;
                     zones; and                                                failure to be in compliance should be grounds for
                     (v) Require industrial, commercial, agricultural          applying contract penalties or suspending a
                     and institutional waste generators to either haul         contract
                     their own wastes or to contract with the private
                     sector for waste haulage services.
Waste storage        (i) Establish waste storage needs (e.g., for              GSWMA should not provide waste storage itself,
                     recyclable materials, used oil); and                      but should work with other stakeholders to identify
                     (ii) Provide, as necessary, for waste generators and      and facilitate their provision of waste storage
                     private sector to take on waste storage                   requirements.
                     requirements.
Waste transfer       (i) Waste transfer on the island of Grenada may           (i) Transfer of waste has been evaluated and found
                     become economically advantageous over time;               not desirable currently; the economic
                     GSWMA should monitor this and construct                   attractiveness of waste transfer may change if
                     transfer facilities as appropriate; transfer              waste quantities grow, and transfer may become a
                     operations should be contracted to the private            primary means of controlling waste management
                     sector; and                                               costs; and
                     (ii) GSWMA should monitor transfer of waste               (ii) Transfer of waste across a land-sea interface
                     from Petite Martinique to Carriacou to ensure             can be a primary cause of marine debris if waste is
                     adequate containment of waste.                            allowed to escape from a container.




                                                                                                                          …cont’d
Waste treatment      (i) Waste treatment should generally be avoided           Two waste treatment technologies are currently
                     except for treatment of waste at landfill facilities to   available: incineration and bio-stabilisation.
                     facilitate waste disposal; and                            Incineration is highly expensive and technically


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         SERVICE                        ROLE OF GSWMA                                               COMMENTS
                     (ii) GSWMA should undertake waste treatment              complex and large tonnages are generally required
                     itself as part of its landfill operations.               to justify the costs; it does not remove need for
                                                                              landfills and residual ash and untreated emissions
                                                                              are defined as “hazardous waste” in Grenada
                                                                              Waste Management Act. Bio-stabilisation of
                                                                              wastes may be feasible; these approaches apply
                                                                              composing-type approaches to stabilize organic
                                                                              components of waste.
Recycling            (i) Establish, in consultation with stakeholders,        Recycling can be achieved through a mix of
                     recycling priorities and implementation plans; and       stakeholder actions, regulatory requirements and
                     (ii) Provide, as necessary, for waste generators,        fiscal incentives to have recyclable items separated
                     stakeholders and private sector to operationalise        from other wastes, stored, processed and shipped
                     recycling systems.                                       to market. GSWMA should establish its roles in
                                                                              accordance with implementation plans that it
                                                                              develops.
Composting           (i) Establish, in consultation with stakeholders,        Many generators should assume responsibility for
                     composting priorities and implementation plans.          composting their own organic wastes or otherwise
                     (ii) Provide, as necessary, for waste generators,        managing their own organic wastes; using basic
                     stakeholders (including government) and private          windrow techniques, GSWMA should compost
                     sector to operationalise composting systems.             significant loads of segregated, non-food organic
                     (iii) Compost organic wastes arriving at landfill.       waste arriving at its landfills.
Waste disposal       (i) GSWMA should operate landfills itself, and           Waste disposal sites are strategically important
                     hire appropriate expertise to advise on future           (see contingencies below) and operations should
                     landfill sites;                                          be retained by GSWMA. Measures to maximise
                     (ii) GSWMA should facilitate the siting of               the life of the existing landfill sites should receive
                     facilities for management of construction and            high priority at national, community and GSWMA
                     demolition (C&D) waste and the management of             levels. C&D waste need not be managed in landfill
                     these facilities by the private sector;                  facilities.
                     (iii) GSWMA operations should ensure that current
                     landfill site life is maximised; and
                     (iv) GSWMA should ensure that a minimum of
                     20% waste diversion is achieved by 2010; higher
                     levels are achievable.
Litter               (i) Establish, in consultation with stakeholders,        A litter prevention program supported by fiscal
                     litter prevention priorities and implementation          incentives should be developed by GSWMA.
                     plans.                                                   Subject to this Program, GSWMA should
                                                                              operationalise and manage this program.
Illegal dumping      Upon the advice of a member of the public, the           (i) Management of waste dumped illegally can be
                     Waste Management Officer or its own knowledge,           achieved more cost-effectively and on a more
                     GSWMA should collect illegally dumped wastes             timely basis by GSWMA than through the private
                     and transport them to an appropriate waste               sector;
                     management facility. Annual budgetary provision          (ii) Instances of illegal dumping should be
                     for this service should be provided.                     reported to the Ministry of Health/Environment;
                                                                              and
                                                                              (iii) Contractors found to dump illegally should be
                                                                              subject to financial penalty.




                                                                                                                      …cont’d
Contingency          (i) GSWMA should prepare a contingency plan              (i) Sec. 29 of the Act requires GSWMA to have a
                     setting out its operational and other responsibilities   contingency plan to address specified
                     consistent with Sec. 29 of Waste Management Act          circumstances;


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     SERVICE                          ROLE OF GSWMA                                          COMMENTS
                     (ii) Provide for mechanism to address temporary    (ii) GSWMA should have sufficient contingency
                     inability of contractor to meet collection         capacity to collect residential waste in the event of
                     requirements.                                      a temporary inability of a contractor to collect
                                                                        domestic wastes; and
                                                                        (iii) GSWMA should accept wastes normally
                                                                        managed at other facilities at its landfills on a
                                                                        contingency basis.


The delivery of waste management services is coordinated by GSWMA through its Operations Manager,
to whom report a Supervisor for Carriacou, a Landfill Manager and a Supervisor of Collection and Street
Cleaning. While this is considered adequate for the delivery of waste collection and disposal activities, a
strengthening of capacity to deliver waste diversion activities is required. As discussed below (Section
3.2 B - Policy), the achievement of an initial and substantive shift from reliance on waste disposal to
waste diversion supported by waste disposal is a central objective of the first five-year implementation
plan of this strategy. This will require a dedicated individual, and it is therefore recommended that
GSWMA retain, through open competition, a Waste Diversion Officer (WDO) at the earliest opportunity
and integrate this individual into the GSWMA structure as illustrated in Figure 3-2. A recommended
description of responsibilities for this position is included in Annex D.

The Finance and Personnel functions of the GSWMA are managed through a Finance Officer and a
Personnel Manager. No change to this structure is recommended.

Effective delivery of waste management services by GSWMA requires forward planning in order to
ensure that required technical, financial, human and other resources are available on a timely basis.
GSWMA should therefore develop and maintain an operational plan that projects requirements in coming
years and which identifies present day actions necessary to ensure that required future resources will be
available as they are needed.


Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs)

EIAs are to be conducted under the auspices of the LDCA. Figure 3-3 sets out the process for the conduct
of an EIA that is required under the Waste Management Act. Although there are many steps in the full
process set out by the Act, these fall into three groups of activity:

   Pre-evaluation - Before being allowed to establish or construct a waste management facility, a person
    who proposes to establish a waste management facility must apply to the LDCA for approval by
    submitting their application for a waste management facility (as defined under the Act) to the LDCA.
    The LDCA, in consultation with the Scheduled Agencies defined in Schedule 2 of the Act, determines
    whether an EIA is required before approval is given.

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    The LDCA should require EIAs for any proposal to site a landfill, hazardous waste management
    facility or incinerator. The LDCA should consider the need for an EIA in support of facilities for
    storing, transferring, recycling or composting waste materials; generally, an EIA should not be
    required for these types of facilities provided they are to be located in commercial or industrial areas,
    or if the amount of waste that will be at the site at any one time is small (i.e., less than 100 tons,
    equivalent to approximately one day of average waste generation in the country). On the other hand,
    if the LDCA considers that the nature of a proposed site or its operations are sufficiently significant,
    it may wish to require an EIA for these facilities as well.




                                                Figure 3-4
                     GSWMA Institutional Structure In Support of NWMS Implementation



                                                           General Manager




             Finance Officer                 Operations                      Administration      Public Relations
                                              Manager                          Manager              Manager




              Waste Diversion              Landfill Manager                     Zonal
                 Officer                                                      Supervisors



    Note: Lines denote lines of devolved responsibility.


                                         ______________________________




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Figure 3-5       Process for Obtaining Approval for Waste Management Facility From Minister of Planning




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    In determining whether an EIA is required, the LDCA should bear in mind that Schedule 3 of the Act
    references environmental and other standards for various types of waste management facilities that an
    applicant will be required to meet whether or not an EIA is required and regardless of conditions that
    the Minister may put on a facility that is approved to proceed.

    If no EIA is required by the LDCA, it must recommend that the Minister of Planning approve the
    proposal.

   Environmental Impact Assessment - If the LDCA requires an EIA, it must be conducted according to
    the requirements set out in Section 13 of the Act. The LDCA may approve or reject an EIA, or request
    more information before approving or rejecting the EIA.

    An EIA that is rejected by the LDCA means that the proposed facility cannot proceed. If the LDCA
    accepts an EIA report, it may recommend to the Minister that the proposed facility be allowed to
    proceed or that it not be allowed to proceed.

    The applicant is responsible for the conduct of an EIA and its costs.

   Minister's Decision - If no EIA is required by the LDCA, the LDCA must recommend to the Minister
    of Planning that the proposal proceed; the Minister may or may not accept the recommendation of the
    LDCA. If the LDCA accepts an EIA report, it may recommend to the Minister of Planning that a
    proposal either proceed or that it not proceed; the Minister may or may not accept the recommendation
    of the LDCA. In approving a proposal, the Minister of Planning may attach such conditions and
    monitoring requirements as are considered necessary; the Act requires (Sec 16) that if conditions or a
    monitoring program are attached to an approval the Minister must designate a person or entity to
    inspect that the conditions are adhered to.

    The Minister of Planning will not be asked to make a decision to approve or reject an proposal if an
    EIA report is rejected by the LDCA.

Waste Management Facility License

All waste management facilities are required under the Waste Management Act to have a waste
management license before the facility commences operations; the operator of a waste management
facility that was in operation at the commencement of the Act must apply for a waste management license
“as soon as possible” (Section 20).



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Figure 3-4 sets out the process through which waste management facility operators are required by the
Act to obtain a waste management license. After having received the approval of the Minister of
Planning, the applicant must submit an application for a waste management license to the Minister of
Health. The Act requires the Minister of Health to consult with the Scheduled Agencies and affected
landowners before determining whether to issue a waste management license, and to publish a notice
concerning receipt of the application in the Gazette and to consider all written comments submitted within
30 days of the notice.

The Act requires the Minister of Health to issue a waste management license unless s/he is satisfied that
one or more of the conditions prescribed in Section 22 of the Act - summarised in Figure 3-4 pertains. An
approval may have conditions attached to it, and if conditions are attached the Minster must designate a
person or body responsible for inspecting that the facility is operating in compliance with such conditions.


Waste Haulage Permits

Except as provided for in Section 25 of the Act, the Waste Management Act requires that operators of a
business involving the transportation of waste must obtain a waste haulage permit. The process identified
in Figure 3-5 is laid out in the Waste Management Act. Generally, a permit is required for the haulage of
all waste unless the transportation of waste is in a vehicle weighing less than half a ton by a person
carrying on a business if the waste is generated in the course of other activities of the business.

A waste hauler must apply to the Minister of Health for a waste haulage permit. The Minister must:

   Refer the application to the Scheduled Agencies;
   Publish a notice of receipt of the application in the Gazette and request written comments on a waste
    haulage permit application within 30 days of publication; and
   Consider within 30 days of publication any written comments made.

The Minister must then issue a waste haulage permit within 90 days of receiving the application unless
denial of the application is necessary to:

   Prevent pollution of the environment; or
   Prevent harm to human health or safety; or
   Prevent creation of a hazard on public highways or to traffic.




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Figure 3-6          Process for Obtaining A Waste Management Facility License


                    ACTION                                    RESPONSIBILITY               COMMENTS

                    Obtain Prior                              Applicant            Sec. 20. An applicant must obtain an
                    Approval of                                                    approval from the Minister of
                    Minister of                                                    Planning before applying for a waste
                     Planning                                                      management license.



                                                              Applicant            Sec. 21. An application must be
                  Apply for Waste                                                  accompanied by an environmental
                   Management                                                      protection plan, a waste management
                     License                                                       plan and a disaster preparedness
                                                                                   response plan and, if required by
                                                                                   regulation, the prescribed fee.




    Refer Application           Consider Written              Minister of Health   Sec. 21. The Minister of Health must
      to Scheduled               Submissions or                                    refer an application to the scheduled
        Agencies                Representations                                    agencies for written comments within
                                                                                   15 days of receipt. Written comments
                                                                                   from any individual or entity must be
                                                                                   submitted to the Minister within 30
                                                                                   days of publishing a notice in the
                                                                                   Gazette.


                  Publish Notice of            Consult With   Minister of Health   Sec. 22. The Act requires the Minister
                   Application in                Affected                          to issue a license unless rejection is
                      Gazette                  Landowners                          necessary to: (i) prevent pollution; (ii)
                                                                                   protect human health/safety; (iii)
                                                                                   prevent serious detriment to the
                                                                                   amenities of the relevant locality; (iv)
                                                                                   prevent an over supply of facilities; (v)
                                                                                   reserve landfill or incinerator
                    Determine                                                      operation for GSWMA. If the Minister
                  Whether to Issue                                                 approves a proposed facility, s/he may
                     License                                                       attach conditions to ensure
                                                                                   environmental or other issues are
                                                                                   addressed. If conditions are attached,
                                                                                   the Minister must identify a
                                                                                   person/body to inspect compliance
                                                                                   with the conditions.




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Figure 3-7           Process for Obtaining A Waste Haulage Permit


                                  ACTION                           RESPONSIBILITY               COMMENTS

                             Submission of                         Applicant            Sec. 25. No person may operate a
                             Waste Haulage                                              business involving the transportation
                              Application                                               of waste unless the person is the
                                                                                        holder of a waste haulage permit,
                                                                                        unless they are excepted by the Act.



                                                                   Minister of Health   Sec. 25. Written comments on an
       Refer                  Publish Notice          Consider                          application for a waste haulage permit
    Application to            of Application           Written                          must be made within 30 days of
     Scheduled                  in Gazette           Submissions                        publication of notice of application in
     Activities                                                                         the Gazette.



                                                                   Minister of Health   Sec. 25. Minister must decide whether
                            Determine Whether
                                                                                        to issue a waste haulage permit within
                                 to Issue                                               90 days of receiving a proper
                             Waste Haulage
                                                                                        application.
                                  Permit




                                                                   Minister of Health   Sec. 25. Ground for not issuing permit
           Issue Waste                         Reject Waste                             limited to creation of pollution, human
          Haulage Permit                         Haulage                                health, safety or highway hazards.
          With Conditions                         Permit                                Sec. 26. Conditions must be attached
                                               Application                              to a permit.



             Permit to be                                                               Sec. 26. Waste haulage permits can
              Reviewed                                                                  only be valid for a maximum of one
              Annually                                                                  year.




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Issuance of a permit by the Minister of Health must be accompanied by conditions pertaining to vehicle
maintenance, insurance sufficient to clean up spills or other polluting accidents, driver qualifications and
the training of drivers in management of accidents and disasters. The Act requires (Section 26) that waste
must be covered during transportation so that waste cannot be blown or fall from the vehicle. The
Minister may also attach other conditions, as deemed appropriate. Waste haulage permits must be
renewed annually.

B.        Policy

Two policy decisions were taken in the mid 1990's; the consequences of which have been to greatly
improve waste management services in Grenada:

    GSWMA was created; and
    Revenue generation and cost recovery frameworks were adopted that are both affordable and which
     provide GSWMA with the resources necessary to perform waste management functions.

The achievement of these policy decisions has resulted in:

    Reliable and effective waste collection;
    Siting and construction of landfills; and
    An institution capable of delivering effective waste management services.

The challenge for Grenada is now to build on these achievements and to transform waste management
from its present orientation of collection and disposal of waste to a new orientation that includes diverting
waste from disposal. The reasons for making this transition are clear:

    Landfill space is at a premium. Grenada knows from experience how difficult siting a landfill is from
     technical, economic and social perspectives. The existing landfills must be made to last as long as
     possible;
    Waste disposal is all about cost: cost to collect, cost to bury, cost to protect the environment. Diverting
     waste from disposal can be about investment in support of greater economic benefits associated with
     reducing the amount of waste requiring collection/disposal, and creation of resources through
     composting, reuse and recycling; and
    Reliance on different and presently unknown future disposal technologies to replace landfills when
     existing landfill capacity is exhausted is high risk. In spite of extensive research and development,
     there has not been a single fundamentally new solid waste disposal or treatment technology to have
     received widespread application in at least the past 50 years. All solid waste disposal or treatment


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     technologies in general use today represent innovations and improvements on technologies in
     widespread use for very many years. Among the technologies available today, the lowest cost are
     those that involve waste diversion and landfilling. Aggressive waste diversion can approach
     incineration in terms of impacting the amount of waste requiring disposal, and at lower cost and with
     higher levels of benefit associated with job creation, the creation of resources and the recycling of
     money within the economy.

Over the first five years of implementation of this Strategy, the policy goal for Grenada will be to have
clearly begun the transition from a waste disposal orientation to a waste diversion orientation supported
by waste disposal.

C.       Regulatory Development

Regulatory actions can be of two fundamentally different kinds:

    Facilitating. Regulatory actions of this kind formally clarify how waste management actions will be
     undertaken and provide guidance regarding their implementation; and
    Enforcement. Regulatory actions of this kind impose penalties for failure to undertake specified
     actions.

Regulatory action that takes the form of an Act, Regulation or Order have legal standing and force of law;
failure to comply with these types of regulatory instrument may trigger enforcement proceedings.
However, Regulations and Orders are more easily amended than Acts and to this extent are more flexible
than Acts.

Regulatory actions may also take the form of guidelines and Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs).
These types of instrument identify how an agency or entity expects others to comply with its requirements
(in the case of guidelines) and agreements between different entities regarding who will do what in order
to achieve a goal (in the case of MOUs). Neither have the force of law. However, if an agency issues a
guideline on how it expects something to be done by those who require its approval (for example, LCDA
with respect to the preparation of EIAs by waste management facility applicants) and the guideline is not
followed, the agency may well reject work that is not consistent with the guideline. Likewise, the failure
of a party to a MOU to live up to its responsibilities may result in the conversion of the MOU into a
regulation that then forces all parties to act under the terms of the MOU. Thus regulatory actions that do
not in themselves carry the force of law may nonetheless carry the force of law in practice and are
inherently highly flexible and can be adjusted to reflect changing circumstances.



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The threat of prosecution and conviction is important to the credibility of many regulations. However,
achieving prosecutions and court proceedings is not easily achieved in the Grenadian context.
Accordingly, regulations to provide for facilitating waste management actions are preferred over those
that require high levels of enforcement over the initial five-year period of implementation of this strategy.
At the same time, enforcement actions should be undertaken during the period if these are necessary to
achieve waste management goals; it is likely, however, that if these types of action are necessary during
the initial five year implementation period they will establish the credibility of the waste management
legal framework and a declining need for enforcement actions might therefore be anticipated.

Based on this analysis, it is recommended that regulatory development over the initial five year period of
implementation of this strategy focus primarily on clarifying and facilitating waste management actions,
but that regulatory enforcement be undertaken as necessary to establish the credibility of the legal
framework.


3.2.5       Five-Year Implementation Plan Actions
Founded on the findings presented in Section 3.2.4, the following six Implementation Program Action
Items are recommended:

1. Review Position Descriptions for all GSWMA Personnel in Light of Strategy Requirements
       Begin with senior level positions and expand to cover all staff.

2. Collect Additional Waste Characterisation Data
       Conduct a “dry/high tourist season” MSW characterisation program to complement data gathered
        in December 2002;
       Initiate a ongoing program of data collection associated with the monitoring of landfill
        operational performance (e.g., ground and surface water monitoring data); and
       Conduct additional assessments on other waste streams with limited existing data, including
        hazardous waste and wastewater.

3. Identify an Individual to Manage MoHE’s Obligations Under the Waste Management Act
       Minister of Health and the Environment to create a position through which to coordinate and give
        effect to the responsibilities vested on the Minister by the Waste Management Act; and
       Establish the new position of Waste Management Officer, reporting through the Environmental
        Health Department.




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4. Establish a National Waste Management Forum
       Include involvement of relevant stakeholders from the public, private and NGO/CBO sectors;
       Develop a formalized definition of the Forum mandate and a framework defining participation
        requirements; and
       Operation of the Forum should be a responsibility of the PS of the Ministry of Health and the
        Environment.

5. Prepare and Implement Waste Management Operations Plan
       GSWMA is to develop and maintain an Operations Plan and implement financing, cost recovery
        and revenue allocations consistent with the plan.

6. Prepare Waste Management Regulations
       Regulations are required to provide a basis to meet the objectives of the Act as well as to allow
        for effective enforcement;
       Acknowledging current support being provided to the Government of Grenada by PAHO, it is
        suggested that an initial group of regulations be prepared that address hauler permit and
        management facility licensing, review and amend tipping fee schedules to ensure consistent and
        transparent application of charges and to create incentives for generators of waste to
        separate/manage their wastes in ways desired by the GSWMA, the content of Environmental
        Protection Plans (EPPs), waste management services tendering procedures, national waste
        diversion targets, used oil program implementation, hazardous health-care (biomedical) waste
        management and a compliance framework; and
       Identify the need to repeal redundant Acts where necessary.

These Action Items are detailed in Annex C.



3.3         Management, Operations, Monitoring and Enforcement

3.3.1       Category Definition
Management, Operations, Monitoring and Enforcement includes those activities typically associated with
the day-to-day provision of waste management services including collection, the operation of associated
processing and disposal facilities and the enforcement of regulatory requirements.




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3.3.2       Long-Term Objectives
Long-term objectives extending beyond the immediate five-year implementation window, related to waste
management, operations, monitoring and enforcement, can be identified in Grenada’s Waste Management
Act. Key objectives, serving as the basis for Implementation Program development, include the
following:

   Establishment of standards, procedures, policies and regulations to support effective management of
    all waste materials, including municipal solid waste, biomedical waste, ship-generated waste and used
    oil;
   Implementation of cost recovery mechanisms to ensure system sustainability founded on the concepts
    of “polluter pays” and “user pays”;
   Provision of appropriate training for government personnel involved in waste management activities;
   Establishment of effective, ongoing public education and awareness programs;
   Implementation of specific actions to address the issues of littering, illegal dumping and derelict
    vehicles;
   Establishment of specific, measurable targets for the diversion of waste materials from disposal (e.g.,
    reduction, reuse, recycling and composting) based on an objective of 20% diversion by 2010 with a
    further reduction of 5% per decade thereafter;
   Implementation of improved, effective enforcement and monitoring mechanisms;
   Completion of environmental impact screenings/assessments for all new waste management facilities;
   Formal consideration of waste management requirements in the evaluation of all new development
    proposals; and
   Initiation of a program for waste hauler permitting and waste management facility permitting.


3.3.3       Stakeholder Feedback
With specific reference to near-term objectives, the key recommended actions identified during a waste
management strategy stakeholder workshop, held in St. George’s on January 20 and 21, 2003, are
summarised as follows:

   A derelict vehicles and salvageable metals management program, involving off-island processing of
    marketable materials, should be established;
   A tipping fee system, based on the concept of “those who waste more, pay more”, should be
    established. The current practice of discretionary application of the tip fee at the GSWMA disposal
    sites should be discontinued; the tipping fee system needs to be fully and fairly implemented;
   Differential tipping fees should be used to encourage the delivery of source-separated materials (e.g.,
    green waste, C&D debris) to processing locations to improve the efficiency of waste diversion
    activities;

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   Private sector involvement in the provision of waste management services should be encouraged;
   A recording system should be developed to confirm the appropriate disposal of wastes, with particular
    emphasis on C&D debris;
   A deposit/refund system, potentially modeled on the “half-back” system used in other jurisdictions,
    should be established to support the appropriate management of tyres, end-of-life vehicles, white
    goods, PET beverage containers and automobile batteries. Existing levies on PET containers and
    vehicles should be incorporated into program development;
   Import levies applied to new and imported used tyres should be equivalent;
   Appropriate management requirements for stale-dated pesticides should be defined; and
   Import levies on 4Rs equipment should be reduced or eliminated.


3.3.4       Analysis
With respect to issues related to management, operations, monitoring and enforcement, comments of
stakeholders were generally consistent with stipulations presented in the Waste Management Act.
Acknowledging that the broad range of potential action items laid out in the Act, the stakeholder
comments served to identify those items viewed as priorities for near-term (e.g., within the next five
years) implementation. General themes extracted from review of the legislation in the light of stakeholder
comments, are presented below.

Notably, the stakeholders, which included representatives from both the public and private sectors, placed
significant emphasis on the notion of fee for service; there appeared to be consensus on the need for full
application of tipping fees at Grenada’s two landfill sites. This is significant given that the initial
implementation of tipping fees is typically met with significant opposition. The fact that the majority of
those who attended the January 2003 stakeholder session accepted the necessity of an evenly applied,
transparent tipping fee program demonstrates an advanced understanding of waste management system
fundamentals.

The stakeholder group expressed a general concern with waste materials typically associated with littering
and illegal dumping, namely, PET beverage containers, tyres, white goods and end-of-life (derelict)
automobiles. The continued influx of low-cost reconditioned automobiles and used tyres into the
Caribbean region along with the increasing popularity of PET beverage containers was identified as a
major environmental concern. The use of a half-back deposit refund system (e.g., half of the original
deposit going to the individual who returns the item; the remainder paying for necessary management
programs) to support both the effective collection and subsequent processing of these problematic items
was generally embraced by the stakeholders. The Waste Management Act makes specific reference to the
establishment of fiscal incentives by the Minister of Finance to support implementation of the National
Waste Management Strategy. Further, the Act identifies requirements for the appropriate management of

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derelict vehicles, white goods and general litter. As a result, further development of a deposit/refund
system for Grenada is certainly worthy of more detailed consideration and analysis.

Given the range of economic challenges facing Grenada and other Eastern Caribbean nations, selection of
low risk, “close to home” waste diversion options appears to represent the most prudent course of action.
A regional analysis of waste diversion opportunities coordinated by the OECS in 1998-99 supported the
concept of community-based, sustainable “3Rs” activities centered around the premises of effective
education, financial incentives and low to mid technology on-island processing. Materials identified in
notable quantities at Perseverance Landfill, namely green (vegetative) waste, C&D debris and non-
recyclable glass were concluded as offering significant low-risk diversion benefits.

The issue of effective regulatory enforcement was discussed in some detail at the stakeholder workshop.
With reference to the new and expanded provisions of the Waste Management Act, it was agreed that
significant measures had to be taken to ensure that littering and related infractions were addressed by the
judiciary with the same seriousness as other, more traditional, legal violations. Concerns related to private
sector use of residential waste management services, particularly in urban areas, were also expressed.


3.3.5       Five-Year Implementation Program Action Items
Founded on the findings presented in Section 3.3.4, the following 10 Implementation Program Action
Items are recommended. Action item numbering (beginning at “7”) represents a continuation of the items
presented in Section 3.2.5:

7. Support Further Development and Implementation of National Special Waste Management Programs
    Acknowledge ongoing Used Oil and Biomedical Waste initiatives being coordinated by the

      Government of Grenada in association with the OECS. Implement the respective study
      recommendations, as defined in the finalised version of the forthcoming project reports;
    With regard to Biomedical Waste, specifically identify provisions to address materials generated

      at doctor’s offices; and
       In cooperation with Ports Authority representatives, strengthen and standardize efforts associated
        with the appropriate management of quarantine (international ship and aircraft generated) wastes.




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8. Establish a Tipping Fee System and Incoming Material Controls at Perseverance and Carriacou
   Landfills
    Implement a $/tonne tipping fee schedule, providing reduced rates for desirable materials (e.g.,

      green waste) delivered to the site in segregated loads. Apply elevated charges to mixed loads; and
    Conduct adequate up front public education, particularly for ICI generators, and institute adequate

      enforcement measures to address the potential of illegal dumping.

9. Implement a Litter Control Program
    Develop an overall program, engaging the private and NGO sectors through elements including

      adopt-a-highway initiatives and beach/ravine sweeps;
    Integrate with Public Education and Awareness efforts; and

    Ensure adequate provision and maintenance of litter receptacles, particularly in urban areas.



10. Implement Actions to Enhance Enforcement of the Waste Management Act
     Review penalty provisions of the Act, ensuring practicality. If deemed excessive or inadequate,

       make refinements/clarifications as new regulations are enacted; and
     Provide training as required to those tasked with an enforcement role under the Waste

       Management Act, including MoHE personnel, police and judicial officials.

11. Establish a Duty Relief Program for the Import of Waste Diversion and Approved Collection
    Equipment
     Reduce or remove import duties on a defined list of equipment utilised for waste diversion

       activities;
     Also consider duty relief opportunities for approved solid waste collection equipment; and

     To be developed and implemented in consultation with Customs representatives.



12. Establish a Waste Management Training Program
     Initially focus on government staff training needs associated with system management, deposit/

       refund system implementation/operation, product and sector stewardship, “3Rs” program
       development/operation and green procurement; and
     Seek funding assistance opportunities from regional funding agencies including the OECS, WB,

       CDB, PAHO and CIDA.

13. Establish a Regional Technical Assistance Program
     Develop the program as part of a cooperative, regional initiative with other OECS countries;

     Acknowledge potential ongoing coordination role of the OECS; and




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       Seek funding assistance opportunities from regional funding agencies including the OECS, WB,
        CDB, PAHO and CIDA.

14. Establish Landfill Processing/Diversion Operations for Green Waste, C&D Materials, Tyres and
    Glass
     Utilise windrow composting for segregated green waste, reuse, segregation and grinding for C&D

       debris, shredding or splitting of tyres and grinding of glass. Focus on simple reuse opportunities at
        the landfill; and
       Use a differential tip fee structure to promote the delivery of segregated loads.

15. Establish a “Half-Back” Deposit/Refund System for Select Materials
     Using half of the value of the original deposit, provide an incentive for the collection and return of

       problematic littering materials to designated management locations;
     Integrate system development with existing levy/tariff structure, streamlining and eliminating

       redundancy;
     Focus on addressing requirements associated with PET beverage containers, white goods, end-of-

       life vehicles, tyres and auto batteries; and
     Use the remaining half of the deposit revenue to cover the costs of appropriate management

       systems.

16. Establish a Multi-Island Salvageable Metals Collection and Processing Program
     Taking advantage of economies of scale, establish a multi-island management program in

       consultation with St. Vincent and the Grenadines and/or St. Lucia;
     Seek necessary processing and export services from reputable private sector firms; and

     Use a half-back deposit refund system (see Action 15) to expedite return of derelict vehicles and

       white goods to designated management centers and to cover system costs.

These Action Items are detailed in Annex C.



3.4         Public Education and Awareness

3.4.1       Category Definition
Public education and awareness in the waste management context refers to the suite of actions through
which individuals are informed and become sensitive to the relevance of waste management in their lives
and society generally, and how they should act in order to achieve waste management goals.



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3.4.2       Long-Term Objectives
Long-term objectives extending beyond the immediate five-year implementation window, related to
public education and awareness, can be identified in Grenada’s Waste Management Act. Key objectives,
serving as the basis for Implementation Program development, include the following:

   Implementation of measures to support effective training of waste management staff; and
   Implementation of measures to provide effective public education and awareness regarding waste
    management.


3.4.3       Stakeholder Feedback
National consultation in the development of this strategy provided the following guidance with regard to
public education and awareness initiatives to be undertaken during the first five years of the
implementation of this Strategy:

   Priority waste generating sectors/audiences should be identified and prioritised for sector-specific
    public education and awareness focus and for product stewardship initiatives; priority sectors might
    include the electronics, construction, government and tourism sectors;
   Backyard composting should be promoted by GSWMA, particularly in rural areas;
   Best village competitions, public place adoption, environmentally-responsible schools and the like
    should be considered within public education and awareness programs related to waste management;
   The substantive public education and awareness programs that GSWMA already undertakes should be
    reflected in public education and awareness recommendations of the Strategy;
   Assistance should be provided to local community groups that promote compliance with the waste
    management objectives of this Strategy;
   Different government ministries can participate in delivering a common waste management message;
   Newspapers, TV, radio, music/cultural festivals and sponsored clean-up days can all be used to deliver
    waste management public education and awareness messages;
   Public education and awareness messages should emphasize national pride and personal
    responsibility;
   A lead agency for ensuring public understanding of the Waste Management Act should be identified in
    the Strategy; and
   Public awareness and education plans should include performance objectives, benchmarks and
    milestones.




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3.4.4       Analysis
Public education and awareness activities provide essential context to broader waste management
activities by sensitizing people to why actions are necessary and encouraging people to adopt more
appropriate waste management behavior. At this level, public education and awareness has already played
an important role in Grenada in support of the activities of the GSWMA in particular, and other waste
management activities more generally. Public education and awareness can achieve much more than this,
however, and must achieve more if significant progress is to be made towards achieving the objectives
and targets set out in this Strategy.

Traditionally, public education and awareness programs in support of waste management explain general
waste management problems and encourage appropriate waste management behaviours from the
community generally. Actual change in behavior and attitude, however, typically comes about through
some other mechanism provided through an external stimulus; people may be aware of a waste
management need, but it does not follow that they will then act on their own initiative to change their
behaviours to meet that need. Widespread change typically requires an institutional response to a waste
management need that individuals can respond to and participate in. The public education and awareness
activities of, in particular, the GSWMA have played a valuable role in sensitizing and educating people to
waste management needs for which GSWMA, as an institution, has provided solutions in which people
have participated.

Achieving the goals of this Strategy, however, will require more substantive roles to be played by many
other institutions and entities, and this in turn implies a need for public education and awareness activities
to be extended in new ways to achieve new and more specific objectives. Sector-specific public education
and awareness offers a key opportunity in this regard.

Sector-specific waste management public education and awareness focuses on educating and raising
waste management awareness of people engaged in specific activities. This type of activity does not use
general messages; rather, it focuses on the waste generating and waste management practices that
characterise that sector and proposes actions specific to that sector. Likewise, sector specific public
education and awareness for waste management does not use general media - such as newspapers, TV and
radio - for disseminating messages; it works within the sector using media and opportunities that are
relevant to the sector such as sectoral newsletters and meetings/conventions.

To be fully effective, sector specific waste management public education and awareness initiatives engage
sectoral decision makers (e.g., business owners/managers, sector association managers) in, first, defining
waste management practices and challenges and, second, adopting measures that improve waste
management practices. A series of actions can be developed to be implemented over defined periods of

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time starting with simple actions and progressing to more complex actions. Successes in one context can
be transferred to another. Over time, the waste management performance of an entire sector can be
significantly enhanced.

Implementation of this type of initiative requires significant and sustained leadership. Sectors may
express resistance to change for a variety of reasons including costs, capacity, lack of time and other
factors. These concerns may be real in the mind of sector leaders and the challenge is to build a
partnership with a sector that recognizes legitimate constraints and works to overcome these. A common
concern is that action to improve waste management may incur costs that non-participants in the sector do
not incur. However, changed waste management practices frequently lower costs over the longer term. On
the other hand, if significant benefits from sector-wide action can occur, consideration should be given to
establishing product stewardship agreements that provide for all participants in a sector to undertake
agreed upon actions.

Within the Caribbean, a program of the Caribbean Hotel Association known as Caribbean Alliance for
Sustainable Tourism (CAST) has been particularly active in the hospitality sector with respect to waste
management. Effective liaison with CAST would provide a strong basis for learning how best to approach
the hospitality sector specifically to undertake sector-specific waste management public education and
awareness, and would provide valuable lessons in this regard concerning approaches to the private sector
generally.


3.4.5       Five-Year Implementation Plan Actions
Founded on the findings presented in Section 3.4.4, the following two Implementation Program Action
Items are recommended. Action item numbering (beginning at “17”) represents a continuation of items
presented in Section 3.3.5:

17. Implement a National Waste Management Public Awareness Program
     Include the identification of sectoral specific measures, including those directed at the

        construction industry, grocers/retailers, hotel and restaurant operators and beverage producers;
       Coordinate activities with existing efforts of NGOs/CBOs as well as other government agencies.
       Address specific awareness needs of the Police and Judiciary; and
       Establish benchmarks and targets to allow for the measurement of progress.

18. Implement Product Stewardship Agreements
     Focus on the development of a stewardship program to address significant influx of electronic

       items (including cellular telephones) into Grenada. Batteries associated with these devices present
       a specific concern;

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Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003


       Assess stewardship opportunities for other products with “end-of-life” management concerns,
        with a specific emphasis on the hospitality and construction sectors; and
       Acknowledge benefits/opportunities to establish agreements founded on regional cooperation.

These Action Items are detailed in Annex C.



3.5         Program Summary
With reference to the Sections 3.2 through 3.4 and the supporting Action Item descriptions in Appendix
C1, Figure 3-6 presents a suggested implementation schedule for the 18 NWMS implementation
initiatives. The figure acknowledges that Action Items typically have both an initial
establishment/initiation (E/I) phase (generally in the range of six to 12 months), followed by an ongoing,
recurring operation/maintenance (O/M) phase. Some select Action Items consist only of “E/I” activities.
The suggested schedule assumes that Cabinet approval of the finalized version of Grenada’s initial
NWMS will occur prior to October 2003. For convenience, the length of the NWMS implementation
period has been extended slightly beyond the five-year requirement to conclude in December 2008.




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Government of Grenada                                    Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                      April 2003



Figure 3-8       Suggested NWMS Implementation Schedule (Oct. 2003-Dec. 2008)




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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003



4.0         Social, Environmental And Economic Impacts Of
            The National Waste Management Strategy

[Note: The Waste Management Act requires that “The Minister must undertake an evaluation of the
social, environmental and economic impacts of the Strategy, and the findings of such an evaluation must
be submitted to Cabinet for approval” (Sec. 4). This section is therefore prepared in draft and may require
adjustment, as appropriate, at the time the Minister is ready to submit the Draft Strategy to Cabinet].


4.1         Social Impacts
The implementation of this Strategy is expected to have strongly positive social impacts as a result of:

   Providing for the long-term management of solid waste - Implementation of this Strategy will sustain
    a well regulated and well operated solid waste management program. A central priority of this
    program will be to provide for the safe and effective removal and management of waste. This will aid
    public health initiatives and improve quality of life for all Grenadians; and
   Poverty reduction - Jobs will be created as a result of implementation of this Strategy. Employment in
    the existing waste collection and disposal system will be maintained. As new initiatives are
    implemented consistent with this Strategy, new jobs will be created.



4.2         Environmental Impacts
The implementation of this Strategy is expected to have strongly positive environmental impacts as a
result of:

   Protection of the environment - Implementation of this Strategy will provide for waste to be managed
    in dedicated waste management facilities and with specialised equipment designed to protect the
    environment from the impacts of waste. The Strategy will also ensure that the financial resources
    necessary to replace facilities and equipment will be available as they are needed. Effective
    implementation of this Strategy will result in significant decrease in litter polluting urban areas,
    ravines and coastal zones.

   Waste reduction and productive use of wastes - Implementation of this Strategy will see Grenada
    embark on a path that reduces the pressure of waste on the environment through reducing waste
    generation and creating resources (through recycling and composting). Referring to Table C2-2, it is

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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003


    projected that depending on the level of success achieved in the implementation of the 18 NWMS
    Action Plan initiatives, a waste diversion percentage of up to 21% could be reached by 2006.



4.3          Economic Impacts
The implementation of this strategy is expected to have strongly positive economic impacts as a result of

   Affordability - Implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy is affordable to the
    Government of Grenada and to the Grenadian economy. GSWMA has established a 2003 budget of
    EC$11.0 million, representing approximately EC$111 per capita and approximately 1.1 percent of per
    capita gross national income (GNI); this is within the range of per capita GNI that is generally
    considered affordable at the national level and capable of supporting an effective waste management
    program. The GSWMA 2003 budget includes an amount of EC$3.1 million for capital expenditure
    associated with restoration of a landfill, a cost that will not be required in future years. On the other
    hand, contributions to the reserve fund (refer to Tables C1-1 and C3-1) of approximately
    EC$1,050,000 per year will be required to sustain waste management capital replacement
    requirements,      and       additional    costs     (approximately       EC$1,001,000       to     cover
    establishment/implementation costs and EC$883,800 per year for ongoing operational costs) will be
    incurred as a result of the implementation of this Strategy. Based on the recommended implementation
    schedule provided in Section 3.5, Table C3-2 presents a potential expenditure schedule over the five-
    year period addressed by this initial NWMS. Founded on the concept of a half back deposit/refund
    system on select items (see Item No. 15), Table C3-3 presents an illustrative example of an approach
    to both generate revenue to fund NWMS initiatives and to address Grenada’s litter management
    concerns. In summary, long term annual requirements for waste management financing from
    government sources should not need to exceed about 1 percent of per capita GNP, or about EC$10
    million in 2003 dollars;

   Creation of jobs - As indicated above, implementation of the Strategy will sustain existing
    employment in the waste management sector and will create new jobs as a result of investments and
    activities in new initiatives;

   Creation of resources - Implementation of this Strategy will create new resources through which
    Grenada's economy will be supported. Compost generated from organic waste can assist the
    agricultural sector. Recyclable materials can find application in the Grenadian economy, or may be
    exported under an appropriate regime of fiscal incentives and supports to generate new sources of
    foreign exchange earnings;


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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003




   Support of tourism and foreign direct investment - Implementation of this Strategy will support the
    tourism sector. Tourists will simply not come to a country they perceive as “dirty”; implementation of
    the National Waste Management Strategy will ensure that internationally acceptable levels of
    cleanliness are maintained. Likewise, foreign direct investment - much of it related to tourism - will be
    strengthened through maintenance of a clean environment that will be achieved through
    implementation of this Strategy.

Implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy represents a “win-win-win” circumstance; it
is affordable and has the potential to bring social, environmental and economic benefits to the country.




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Government of Grenada                                      Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                        April 2003



5.0         Public Consultation
The Minister is required under Part II, Section 6 of the Waste Management Act to submit the draft of the
Strategy for public review and comment and must for this purpose advise the public:

   by notice in the Gazette;
   by notice in two consecutive weeks in at least one newspaper published regularly in Grenada;
   by broadcast on at least three occasions on at least one radio station whose signals are received in
    Grenada, as to:
     o where copies of the draft Strategy can be obtained for review;
     o the address to which any comments on the draft Strategy should be submitted; and
     o the closing date for making any submission.

The Minister must allow a period of 30-45 days for public comment.

Following this process, it is recommended that the Minister insert brief text into this section, verifying
compliance with these requirements, highlighting the main points of the public consultations and
identifying the ways in which the Draft National Waste Management Strategy (e.g., the version submitted
for Cabinet review) that is presented to Cabinet for approval addresses these stakeholder concerns.




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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003



6.0         Finalisation of the Strategy
Following the completion of the formal public consultations described in Section 5, the Minister is
obliged to make changes to the Draft National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) deemed as
desirable. Following these revisions, the Draft NWMS is then to be reviewed by Cabinet. Following their
review, Cabinet may then either:

   Approve the Draft as the NWMS with or without revisions/amendments; or
   Send the Draft back to the Minister with a recommendation to correct identified deficiencies.

If sent back to the Minister, the Strategy development process must recommence at the stage specified by
Cabinet. Once approved by Cabinet, the Waste Management Act states that “every person or authority
discharging any function under this Act must comply with the requirements of the Strategy”.

For the purposes of the development of this First Draft of the NWMS, it has been assumed that final
Cabinet approval will occur by September 2003.




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Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003



7.0         Strategic Review and Update
The Waste Management Act tasks the Minister of Planning with the responsibility of maintaining an
ongoing review of the Strategy as well as the completion of a comprehensive review of the document
every five years.

Both the ongoing and five year reviews are to ensure that the Strategy continues to acknowledge
Grenada’s international and regional obligations, is responsive to the country’s waste management and
environmental requirements and not beyond the country’s fiscal, technical or social capabilities.

It is anticipated that the regular five year Strategy review will incorporate many of the tasks utilised in the
preparation of this initial document, including:

   Updating of the National Waste Inventory;
   Stakeholder consultation; and
   Cabinet review.

It is expected that, depending on progress made to date and current national priorities, that future
Strategies will be prepared based on particular “themes” or focus areas. For example, should significant
advances be made in the area of municipal solid waste management prior to the next five year milestone
(e.g., successful implementation of the 18 items presented in Annex C), the 2008 – 2013 Strategy may
have a focus on hazardous waste, regulatory enforcement or some other pertinent issue.




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                    Annex A
                 Noted Attendees
    1) Stakeholder Workshop - January 20-21, 2003
2) NWMS First Draft Review Workshop – April 2, 2003
                 Annex B
    Grenada Waste Characterisation
 Program Project Report and Procedures
Manual, Executive Summary, February 2003
Government of Grenada                                        Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States                                                          April 2003



                                     Executive Summary
In November 2002, Dillon Consulting Limited (Dillon) was retained by the Organisation of Eastern
Caribbean States - Environment and Sustainable Development Unit (OECS-ESDU) to develop and
implement a municipal solid waste (MSW) characterisation program for Grenada. The characterisation
effort was completed as part of Dillon’s broader assignment to prepare a draft National Waste
Management Strategy for Grenada.

The project had three primary objectives; 1) establish an estimate of the quantity and quality of the
municipal solid waste stream generated in Grenada, 2) utilise a previously developed characterisation
protocol prepared in 2001 by Dillon for the OECS as the basis for a sorting assignment in Antigua, and 3)
provide adequate in-field training, complete with a procedures manual, to allow Grenada Solid Waste
Management Authority (GSWMA) personnel to conduct future characterisation programs.

To support the development of an estimate of waste stream quality, sorting of MSW at the Perseverance
Disposal Site occurred over five days, beginning December 10, 2002. Incoming waste quantity data was
gathered by GSWMA scale house personnel for the week that the characterisation study was undertaken.
Consistent with requirements detailed in Grenada’s Waste Management Act (2001), four generation
sectors were considered; 1) Residential (rural), 2) Residential (urban), 3) Industrial, Commercial,
Institutional (ICI) - Non-Tourism/Hospitality, and 4) Industrial, Commercial, Institutional –
Tourism/Hospitality Only.

Conclusions reached through the completion of this project are as follows:

   The Residential Rural, Residential Urban and ICI Non-Tourism/Hospitality and ICI Tourism/
    Hospitality characterisations presented in this report are representative of the loads that were sampled;
    namely, mixed garbage typically collected at curb-side and using skips. As result, the characterisations
    do not account for quantities of construction and demolition materials, scrap metal, landscaping debris
    and other materials that arrive in segregated loads. This data was acquired by scale house personnel as
    the segregated loads arrived at the site;

   Organic materials represented the single largest component of all four waste streams, with percentages
    (by weight) ranging between approximately 30 and 49%. Food waste was the largest component of the
    organics material type, ranging from approximately 21% to 43% by weight;

   Paper materials were the second most common group of materials identified in the residential and ICI
    waste streams. As is typical, paper materials were more plentiful in ICI generated loads

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Government of Grenada                                       Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States                                                         April 2003


    (approximately 22% for non-tourism and 23% for tourism) than in residential sorts (between 14 and
    17% by weight);

   Plastics represented the third most plentiful material group identified during the sorting program. For
    the residential sector, values of approximately 12% for both rural and urban were identified. The
    calculated ICI values were slightly higher at 14% and 15%;

   Using the data collected from the scale house for the week of the study, an estimate of per capita waste
    generation rates was determined. Use of preliminary 2001 census data resulted in an estimated
    residential generation rate of 0.51 kg/capita/day and an ICI rate of 0.34 kg/capita/day, resulting in a
    cumulative rate of 0.85 kg/capita/day. It is noted that this value varies significantly from rates
    developed in other Caribbean jurisdictions. It does, however, compare rather favourably to a rate
    recently established for St. Vincent (0.80 kg/person/day). These discrepancies point to the need for
    further characterisation programs as well as the collective assessment of the results by SWMEs
    throughout the OECS.

   During the seven-day data collection period, the Perseverance Disposal Site received, on average,
    approximately 162 tonnes of waste per day. The average number of vehicles arriving at the site during
    the same period was 42 per day;

   Assuming stable per capita waste generation rates, and a modest population growth, the quantity of
    solid waste arriving at the Perseverance site will increase from about 29,955 tonnes in 2002 to
    approximately 38,499 tonnes by 2021;

Recommendations for further action are summarised below:

   A “dry season” characterisation program, led by the GSWMA, should be conducted during 2003. The
    information resulting from the 2003 program can be combined with the “wet season” information
    presented in this report to provide an “annual average” waste stream characterisation. The Procedures
    Manual, included as Annex A to this report, should be used to guide future characterisation programs.




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            Annex C
Five-Year Implementation Program
   October 2003-December 2008
      APPENDIX C1
IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM
ACTION ITEM DESCRIPTIONS
            APPENDIX C2
MSW DIVERSION TONNAGE ESTIMATE DATA
     APPENDIX C3
COST AND REVENUE DATA
       Annex D
Position Descriptions
                                                ANNEX D

                                       Waste Management Officer
                                        Draft Job Description

General

The Waste Management Officer (WMO) is responsible for undertaking the range of activities necessary
to support the Minister of Health in discharging his/her responsibilities as these are set out in the Waste
Management Act, and generally to manage and coordinate the functions established for the Ministry of
Health and the Environment in the National Waste Management Strategy for Grenada.

Duties and Responsibilities

The WMO will undertake the following duties and responsibilities:

         As necessary, develop waste management policy and guidelines for the approval of the Minister
         Manage and coordinate the review/update of the National Waste Management Strategy within 5
          years of its adoption by Cabinet
         Develop and implement a system for issuance by the Minister of Waste Management Facility
          Permits, as set out in the Waste Management Act.
         Develop and implement a system for issuance by the Minister of Waste Haulage Licenses, as set
          out in the Waste Management Act.
         Inspect and monitor compliance with Waste Management Facility Permits and Waste Haulage
          Licenses.
         Recommend to the Minister through the Ministry of Health and Environment actions that should
          be taken to correct any infractions with Waste Management Facility Permits or Waste Haulage
          Licenses.
         Coordinate management of international waste.
         Maintain a Register of Licenses and Permits as provide for in the Waste Management Act.
         Undertake and support compliance and enforcement as provided for in the Waste Management
          Act.
         Undertake such other duties as may be requied from time to time in accordance with the Waste
          Management Act to facilitate the implementation and purposes of the Act.

The WMO will report through the Chief Environmental Health Officer. The WMO will liaise with, and
work in close association with, Senior Environmental Health Officers and Environmental Officers who
will assist and facilitate the work of the WMO.

Qualifications

Candidates for the position of WMO must have a degree from a recognised university at the Bachelor
level in environmental science or environmental studies, science, engineering or similar. Two years of
experience working in the private sector and experience in waste management will be preferred.




Grenada                                           Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy - Page D1
                                            Waste Diversion Officer
                                            Draft Job Description


General

The Waste Diversion Officer (WDO) is responsible for undertaking the range of activities necessary to
support the Grenada Solid Waste Management Authority in discharging its responsibilities and achieving
its goals regarding waste diversion as these are set out in the National Waste Management Strategy for
Grenada.

Duties and Responsibilities

Consistent with the National Waste Management Strategy for Grenada, the WDO will undertake the
following duties and responsibilities:

         Identify components of solid waste that can be diverted from disposal and develop actions to
          divert those components from disposal. In particular, support composting of organic wastes, local
          use of glass wastes, and diversion/local use of construction and demolition wastes.
         Identify: (i) key waste generating sectors and sectors whose products contribute to solid waste
          when they are discarded, and; (ii) the actions these sectors can take to divert wastes they generate
          from disposal. In particular, work with importers of electronics products regarding the
          management of e-waste and the hospitality, construction and government sectors regarding
          management of the wastes they generate with a view to establishing with each sector a Waste
          Management Code of Conduct through which each sector commits its members to undertaking
          specific actions to divert waste from disposal through waste reduction, reuse, recycling and/or
          composting initiatives.
         Monitor sector performance under Waste Management Codes of Conduct as they are developed
          and take action, as appropriate, to enhance waste management performed under these Codes.
         Maintain technical knowledge within GSWMA regarding actions taken in other jurisdictions to
          divert waste from disposal and propose, as appropriate, ways in which successful initiatives taken
          elsewhere can be applied in Grenada.
         Through the General Manager, identify regulations and policies that should be undertaken by the
          Government of Grenada to facilitate waste diversion and achieve the waste diversion goals of the
          National Waste Management Strategy for Grenada.
         As necessary, participate in the preparation and implementation of a used oil management plan for
          Grenada.
         Recommend to the Manager - Solid Waste Management Unit controls for the purpose of
          facilitating waste diversion that should be placed on wastes entering landfill facilities.
         Liaise with government Ministries, as necessary, to advise on fiscal incentives for the import of
          waste diversion equipment into Grenada.
         Work with the Government of Grenada and appropriate stakeholders to design and implement a
          deposit/refund system for the recovery of used beverage containers, derelict vehicles, white goods,
          lead acid batteries, and used tyres.
         Work with stakeholders in Grenada and elsewhere in the eastern Caribbean to develop and
          implement systems for the management of scrap metal, including derelict vehicles and white
          goods.

In designing and implementing the above, particular consideration will be given to the opportunity to
engage the private sector to undertake the services and operations necessary to implement the waste



Grenada                                            Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy - Page D2
diversion initiatives necessary for the GSWMA to achieve the waste diversion objectives of the National
Waste Management Strategy for Grenada.

Qualifications

Candidates for the position of WDO must have a degree from a recognised university at the Bachelor level
in environmental science or environmental studies, science, engineering or similar. Two years of
experience working in the private sector and experience in waste management, including some level of
experience in waste reduction, reuse, recycling or composting, will be preferred.




Grenada                                         Final Draft - National Waste Management Strategy - Page D3

								
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