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					SONAR
 Process New Audio
                                              CHECKLIST
  1 Turn off Record Button


  2 Set all Inputs to NONE

  3 Remove DC Offset
           EDIT>SELECT>ALL or          Ctrl+A
           PROCESS>AUDIO>REMOVE DC OFFSET
           To have SONAR automatically detect and remove DC Offset in audio data leave
           the DC Offset Threshold parameter deactivated.
           AUDITION
           OK

  4 Volume Adjust
            Select Audio Data
            PROCESS>AUDIO>GAIN
            Adjust how muck original audio data to the processed audio data. If hollow
            sounding try activating Invert Left Channel Phase
            AUDITION
            OK

  5 Normalize
            Select Audio Data
            PROCESS>AUDIO>NORMALIZE
            If you going to do add ional editing or processing to data Set the Normalize level
            parameter to a lower level than 100% more like 50% [-6dB]
            AUDITION
            OK

  6 Remove Silence
           Select Audio Data
           PROCESS>AUDIO>REMOVE SILENCE
           Reserch Settings ad add here

  7 Save As Bundle

  8 Copy to CD using WINDOWS WIZARD
                                                   SONAR
                                                    Notes
SONAR
 EQ
   EQ

             The EQ plug-in included with Cakewalk software products has several presets.
             Low Shelf – functions like a bass control knob on a stereo. Low Shelf EQ‟s adjust the
             level of signal at the set frequency and all frequencies below it.

             High Shelf – functions like a treble control knob on a stereo. High Shelf EQ‟s adjust the
             level of signal at the set frequency and all frequencies above it.

             Peak – Adjusts the level of signal at the set frequency, and some surrounding
             frequencies. The Q setting determines how many surrounding frequencies are affected.
             Q – Also called Resonance or Bandwidth. Sets the amount of surrounding frequencies
             that will be affected. The width of the Q is usually expressed in terms of octaves. Here
             is a useful reference chart:
      Q
   Setting                                            Width
      0.7                                           2 Octaves
        1                                         1 1/3 Octaves
      1.4                                            1 Octave
      2.8                                           ½ Octave
             General Guidelines:
             Don‟t boost when you can cut instead! It sounds more natural when you reduce
             unwanted sounds, rather than boosting the desired frequencies.
             EQ can be used to enhance a recording, but it cannot fix a poor recording. Sometimes
             it‟s best to rerecord using different microphone placement or using another microphone
             with different tonal characteristics.
             Human hearing is most sensitive to midrange and upper midrange frequencies. Because
             of this sensitivity, large boosts in this range can make your project sound harsh or
             shrill.


             Harmonics

             Boosting an instrument‟s harmonic frequencies will add what many engineers call
             presence, clarity or brightness. Here are some specific settings we‟ve gathered. Use
             these as a starting point and adjust accordingly. Use the lower frequency for punch or
             presence; use the higher frequency to accentuate clarity or brightness.


                                                Lower Harmonic                                            Upper
                                                                                                         Harmonic

    Bass                                              400 Hz                                              1500 Hz
   Guitar                                             3 kHz                                                5 kHz
    Kick                                              400 Hz                                               5 kHz
   Drum
   Snare                                              7 kHz                                               100 kHz
   Drum
   Vocals                                             5 kHz                                                10 kHz


             Example:
             Because many instruments use overlapping frequency ranges, experiment with
             complimentary EQ settings. Try this little trick: Use a –4 db cut between 3 kHz and 5
             kHz on backing vocals. Add a 4 db boost at the same frequency to your lead vocal to fill
             in the sonic space.
             Remember that the numbers above are general guidelines that should give you a head
             start. The only way to know what works for your project is to experiment with gradual
             EQ changes, and let your ears be the judge.




                                                         23                                             4/12/20101:36 AM
                                                  SONAR
                                                   Notes


VOCALS
 STEREO

          "a super nice, stereo effect for vocals."


          1. Record your first vocal track.
          2. Then record the vocalist singing the same line on another track.
          3. Take that second track and copy it to a third track. You should now have three tracks
          of vocals.
          4. Keep Vocal Track 1 panned to the center (Pan=64).
          5. Pan vocal track 2 all the way left (Pan=0).
          6. Pan track 3 all the way to the right (Pan=127).
          7. Select vocal track 2 and side it back, 1 or 2 ticks by selecting the clip, and then
          choosing Edit | Slide.
          8. Select track 3. Slide it forward 1 tick by following the instruction above.



          By doing this you should get a wide vocal sound. Experiment with the time amounts on
          vocal phrases for which you‟d like to make the sound especially HUGE. Slide these parts
          forward and backward by 3 or 4 ticks. it can "really make the hook super-wide."
 EQ
          To add clarity or brighten a vocal part use a moderate boost at 10 kHz. Try +2 db, or
          possibly +4 db boost.
 EQ

          Boosting frequencies between 200-300 Hz will make almost any vocal thicker.
          Delay
          A short delay of up to 50 ms (milliseconds) can boost the "size" of your lead vocals and
          make them sound a bit "fatter."




 COMP
 Controls The parameters:

          Compressors have five basic controls -



          1) Attack – represents how long it takes for the effect to reach its maximum level.

          This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A fast attack is useful for catching
          percussive peaks, to tame them so the overall track level can be increased, useful for
          adding punch to a track.

          2) Release – represents after the effect is activated, how long it takes to let go of a
          signal after it has gone below the specified threshold. This control is measured in
          milliseconds (ms). A long release is useful for adding sustain to a signal, good for guitar
          solos.

          3) Threshold – this is the point at which the level is set for the compressor to begin
          working. This control is measured in decibels (db).


          4) Ratio – this control governs the amount of compression applied to a signal once the
          threshold has been exceeded. This control is measured in decibels (db). In simple
          terms, for example a 4:1 ratio means for every 4 decibel of input that exceed the
          threshold, 1 decibel of output will be passed. If we set a 10:1 ratio, 10 decibels above
          out threshold would only out put 1 decibel in level.


                                                        23                                           4/12/20101:36 AM
                                      SONAR
                                       Notes
5) Output – This governs the overall output level of the effect. This can be useful to
„make-up‟ the output level that will be reduced from applying compression to a signal.
This control is measured in decibels (db).




                                            23                                           4/12/20101:36 AM
                                                     SONAR
                                                      Notes
SONAR
   COMP
   Controls The parameters:

            Compressors have five basic controls -



            1) Attack – represents how long it takes for the effect to reach its maximum level.

            This control is measured in milliseconds (ms). A fast attack is useful for catching
            percussive peaks, to tame them so the overall track level can be increased, useful for
            adding punch to a track.

            2) Release – represents after the effect is activated, how long it takes to let go of a
            signal after it has gone below the specified threshold. This control is measured in
            milliseconds (ms). A long release is useful for adding sustain to a signal, good for guitar
            solos.

            3) Threshold – this is the point at which the level is set for the compressor to begin
            working. This control is measured in decibels (db).


            4) Ratio – this control governs the amount of compression applied to a signal once the
            threshold has been exceeded. This control is measured in decibels (db). In simple
            terms, for example a 4:1 ratio means for every 4 decibel of input that exceed the
            threshold, 1 decibel of output will be passed. If we set a 10:1 ratio, 10 decibels above
            out threshold would only out put 1 decibel in level.

            5) Output – This governs the overall output level of the effect. This can be useful to
            „make-up‟ the output level that will be reduced from applying compression to a signal.
            This control is measured in decibels (db).


            Usage:


            The above waveform depicts a typical waveform 1 and ½ measures long, or six beats. If
            we normalized the above item, only the 2, 4, and 6th beat would be maximized, but the
            overall level would not change much. But if we applied compression, assuming the
            peaks were at zero db (maximum volume), and we were to set a threshold of –10 db,
            with say a ratio of 10:1 and increase the output level to +5 - 10 db, we would reduce
            the peaks and bring the overall average volume level up to make that track more
            present or louder in the mix.


            Let's use some real examples.


            Ex.1



            In Sonar, bring up a track with a drum loop or beat. Insert the Cakewalk FX
            Compressor plug in into that track. Select preset “Radio Compression”, set the attack
            time to 0.1 and the output to 3.4. This will increase the punchyness and overall level or
            your track. This preset works well for bass as well.


            Ex.2




                                                         23                                             4/12/20101:36 AM
                                                 SONAR
                                                  Notes
        Let's bring up a track with a guitar solo on it and insert the Cakewalk FX Compressor
        plug in into that track. If you have a clean guitar track (without distortion on it), you
        may insert the “Cakewalk Amp Sim” plug in after the compressor to add distortion to
        your signal. Select compressor preset “Guitar Sustain”, set the release parameter to
        3000.0, adjust the Compressor threshold and out level to taste, and you should find a
        substantial increase in sustain to your signal.


        Ex.3


        For the final example, bring up a vocal track, insert the Cakewalk FX Compressor plug
        in, and select the “Light Vocal Compression” preset. Start by using a fast attack time,
        adjust the threshold and ratio as the track plays back to affect more or less of the track
        as desired. You can finally adjust the output level to get an acceptable volume level.
        You should find that this will help balance the difference between loud and soft passages
        within a track and give a „balanced‟ sound to the track.



        Compressors are important not only on individual tracks, but also in sub-mixes and final
        mixes, try inserting a compressor in a main output and compressing an entire mix to
        give it a more polished sound, before burning it onto a CD.


DELAY
        Many professional musicians use delay to synchronize echoes with their music. For
        instance, you can have the echoes play in time with each quarter note, eighth note,
        sixteenth note, and so on. All that's required for this cool trick is a little simple math.
        Begin by figuring the Delay Time needed to synchronize the echoes to each quarter
        note. To do so, just divide 60,000 (the number of milliseconds in one minute) by the
        current Tempo (measured in beats per minute) of your project. So for a Tempo of 120
        bpm, you get 500 milliseconds. If you set the delay time to 500, the resulting echoes
        will sound with a quarter note pulse.

        To figure out the Delay Time for other note values, you just need to divide or multiply.
        Because an eighth note is half the value of a quarter note, you simply divide 500 by two
        to get 250 milliseconds. A sixteenth note is half the value of an eighth note, so 250
        divided by 2 is 125. See how that works? If you want to find out larger note values,
        just multiply by two. Because a half note is twice as long as a quarter note, you multiply
        500 by 2 to get 1000 milliseconds, and so on.



TAPE SIM
                                     Processor Focus: Tape Sim

        Sonar includes several plug-ins which, while not the most spectacular in the
        world, are generally quite usable. One of my favourites, though — and certainly
        one of the most underrated — is Tape Sim . You can find this effect by right-
        clicking on an audio track's FX field and browsing through the Cakewalk Audio
        Effects. Here are a few tips on using this beast.
        It may seem like tape simulation is something you'd want to use only for final
        mixes, so that the master has a 'crunched' tape sound, but I find it eminently
        suited to individual tracks. Kick drums can become really punchy, drum loops
        gain level by a sort of 'hard' compression, and effete basses can become
        aggressive and rude.




                                                      23                                              4/12/20101:36 AM
                                              SONAR
                                               Notes
         I find that it's best to keep the output gain low as you tweak your sound. The key
         control is Rec Level, which sets the level and 'hardness', while the Warmth
         control adds the 'crunch'. For a really crunchy sound, set Rec Level and Warmth
         to maximum, and pull back Input Gain until the degree of nastiness is just right.
         Finally, adjust the Output Gain to avoid clipping the track.

         Experiment with the Tape Speed and EQ Curve controls; they affect the overall
         tonality. One of the best uses of the Tape Sim is with a kick-drum track, and the
         LF Boost switch is Cakewalk's gift to dance-music kick drums. Dial up the right
         amount of distortion, then add LF Boost. The end result is a kick drum that can
         move mountains. Click the bypass switch from time to time to get a dose of
         reality. You might be shocked at how much you can raise the overall level without
         hearing objectionable levels of clipping.

                              Sonar 's Secret White Noise Generator


         Before we get off the topic of tape simulation entirely, here's one last trick. It's
         time to unlock Sonar 's secret white noise generator. Select an audio track for the
         white noise, and call up Tape Sim in the FX field. Sonar won't let you process an
         empty track, so place some audio on the track. I usually copy a little piece of
         audio from another track, then paste it after the end of the song so it's out of the
         way. You generally don't want to hear anything playing while the noise is going.

         Now press Play. On the Tape Sim , turn up the Hiss and Output Gain controls.
         Note that you will not hear hiss if Tape Speed is set to flat; I prefer the 7.5ips
         setting, but that's a matter of taste. Try 15 and 30 as well. You should now hear
         the hiss. I like to follow the noise with something like FXpansion's Autopole , and
         play with the LFOs and amplitude controls to create cool effects. Enable the track
         being 'processed' for recording, go into record, and you'll record the results.
         Amazingly enough, with a little filtering and reverb, you can generate some very
         useful sounds.


Render                      Successful Bouncing/Rendering To WAV


         Here's something I've seen on bulletin boards: someone complains that when
         they're playing back a tune, everything sounds great. But when they then 'render'
         the tracks to a single track using Edit / Bounce to Track(s) or render to a WAV file
         on hard disk with the Edit / Export Audio function and play back the mixed track,
         the sound is too soft (or in some cases, so loud that it distorts). There are many
         reason why this could be happening, but here's a likely scenario that also reviews
         the basics of successful bouncing in Sonar .




                                                   23                                         4/12/20101:36 AM
                                                SONAR
                                                 Notes
        When you bounce tracks down to, say, the A buss, all track Out assignments are
        to that buss. Unless the tracks were cut or mixed at fairly low levels, adding them
        all together will probably overload the output buss. Whenever you're in the mix
        phase, periodically check the output buss meter and make sure that clipping
        hasn't occurred (as indicated by a lit clip indicator to the right of the buss meter).
        You have to do this while the tune is playing, because hitting Stop resets the clip
        indicator.


        Ideally, you want the buss output level to be as hot as possible, short of clipping.
        Although you can just adjust the level on a trial-and-error basis until it seems
        right, there's a much more reliable method. This involves setting the buss meters
        to their highest resolution, and using the peak hold/lock feature. To do th is, click
        on the Meter Options arrow (to the right of the Show/Hide All Meters icon) and
        select Output Bus Meter Options. Make sure the following are checked: Peak,
        Post Fader, -12dB, Show Labels, Hold Peaks and Lock Peaks. When you play
        the song through, you should notice that output buss peaks 'push' light green
        vertical marks on the meter further to the right, where they hold their position.
        This position indicates the value of the highest peak, as shown on the meter
        scale. Using the -12dB setting gives the highest resolution.

        Play through the entire song, and before pressing Stop (which resets the peak
        hold markers), note the peak values. For example, if the peak values for both
        channels fall somewhere between 2 and 4 dB, you know that you are not taking
        advantage of at least 2dB of headroom, and can increase the output buss level
        control by +2dB. If it had been set at -5.0dB, for example, change it to -3.0dB.
        Play the song through once more to verify that clipping doesn't occur in the output
        buss, and now that you have the highest possible level, you can go ahead and
        bounce or render to disk.

        At this point, another complaint often arises: when I bounce to a track, it still plays
        back more quietly than the original mix! This is something that can happen when
        premixing a bunch of tracks down to a single track: as mentioned above, when
        bouncing down multiple tracks, you want the hottest level possible. But summing
        all those tracks together may overload the output buss, so you bring its level
        down until it peaks as close to 0 as possible without going over. Then you
        bounce.

        At that point, you solo the bounced track, and find that it's softer than the sum of
        the original tracks. This is because the bounced track hits close to 0 without going
        over, as it should -- but the output buss it's feeding still has its level set as if it was
        being fed by multiple tracks! Set the buss level to 0.0 with the bounced track still
        soloed, and it will play back at the same level as it did when you were premixing
        the individual tracks.

OPTIMIZING
       Low Latency 2 or 4 ms Recording
       High Latency 20ms for Mixing




                                                     23                                           4/12/20101:36 AM
                                           SONAR
                                            Notes
       This article is an excerpt from the following book: Sonar 5 Power! - The
       Comprehensive Guide


V-VOCAL AUTO ADUJUST VOCAL PITICH

       V-Vocal is a vocal processing effect that adjusts the pitch, timing,
       loudness, and timbre of monophonic vocal audio recordings.

       Automatically Adjusting Vocal Pitch
       When adjusting the pitch of a vocal part, the first thing you'll want to
       do is let V-Vocal try to make the corrections automatically. The results
       can be very accurate if the vocal part isn't too far off pitch to begin
       with. Here are the steps for using V-Vocal's automatic pitch correction
       features:

       1. With the V-Vocal clip created and the window open, click the Pitch
       Edit Mode button.

       2. To have the audio waveform shown under the V-Vocal waveform
       markings, right-click the Waveform display and choose View >
       Waveform from the pop-up menu. This will give you a better idea of
       the vocal part section you are editing.


       3. Make sure that the Pitch Follow parameter in the Forman Control
       section is set to 0. This ensures that the timbral characteristics of your
       vocal will not change when you change the pitch. If you set the Pitch
       Follow parameter above zero, it will give you a munchkin-sounding
       type of vocal. If you set the Pitch Follow parameter below zero, it will
       give you a strange low-voice type of vocal.

       4. To only correct the pitch of one section of the clip, choose the Arrow
       tool and make a data selection. Otherwise, V-Vocal will pitch correct
       the entire clip.




                                                23                                4/12/20101:36 AM
                                SONAR
                                 Notes
5. In the Pitch Correction section, adjust the Note, Vibrato, and Sense
parameters. The Note parameter controls how close the notes in your
audio will be moved to the correct pitches. You would think you'd want
them moved all the way, but depending on how far off your notes are
to begin with, moving them too much can cause artifacts to be
introduced into the audio. I've found the best setting for the Note
parameter is between 70 and 90, but if your original audio isn't too far
off, a setting of 100 could work. The Vibrato parameter controls how
much of the original vibrato you want to keep. Most of the time, I keep
this set to 100 because when I start lowering it too much to try to
remove vibrato, the vocal ends up sounding artificial. The Sense
parameter controls the amount of pitch correction applied. The higher
the value, the closer your audio is changed to fit an exact pitch. I've
found the default value of 30 to work nicely most of the time. If you
set the Sense parameter too high, it will make the vocal sound very
artificial.

6. Click the Correct button to apply the pitch correction. If you don't
like the results, undo them and try again.

TIP: Artificial Vocals Effect

Remember that Cher song called 'Believe' where you she had those
strange-sounding vocals? Well, you can get the same effect with V-
Vocal. Just set the Note parameter to 100, the Vibrato parameter to 0,
and the Sense parameter to 100. Click the Correct button. Voila!
Instant artificial vocals. Isn't technology fun?


7. V-Vocal can also automatically conform your audio to a musical
scale. Click the Scale button to activate the Scale feature. Choose
either Maj or Min option to choose a major or minor musical scale.
Then click a key on the tiny keyboard display to choose the root note
for the scale. If you want to define your own scale, you can click the
notes to include (blue color), exclude (gray color), or bypass them (red
color). Click the Correct button. To set the scale feature back to its
default values, double-click the Maj or Min option.

TIP: Note Selection

Click the note names in the Pitch Correction Key (shown on the left of
the Waveform display) to include, exclude, or bypass notes.

8. Close the V-Vocal window when you're finished.

For more information:
* Sonar 5 Power! - The Comprehensive Guide
* Other Sonar Power! Books




                                     23                                   4/12/20101:36 AM
                                   SONAR
                                    Notes

                                   Better Vocals
Here's a quick tip for thickening/doubling vocals: Select the vocal track you
oose Track / Clone. Tick the Events, Properties, and FX (if the track uses any effects) boxes, but do

Now, right-click on the copied track's FX field, and choose Audio Effects / Cakewalk / Pitch Shifter. Set

Pitch Shift: -0.24
Dry Mix: 0
Wet Mix: 100
Feedback Mix: 0
Delay Time: 2.61
Mod Depth: 12.16




                                       23                                        4/12/20101:36 AM
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  23     4/12/20101:36 AM
                            SONAR
                             Notes


ffects) boxes, but do

walk / Pitch Shifter. Set




                              23     4/12/20101:36 AM
SONAR
 WEBSITES:
   CAKEWALK




   MAGAZINE WEBSITES




    http://homerecording.about.com/


    HOME RECORDI NG EUIPMENT FORUMS
    http://www.homerecording.com/bbs/


    GOOGLE GROUPS
    http://groups.google.com/group/recordingstudio?lnk=gschg&hl=en


    GOOGLE GROUPS - CAKEWALK
    http://groups.google.com/groups?q=cakewalk


    THE RECORDING WEBSITE
    http://recordingwebsite.com/
SOUND ON SOUND RECORDING MAGAZINE search
http://www.soundonsound.com/search?PageSize=80&page=1&section=/&Keyword=sonar%20notes



http://www.soundonsound.com/index.php?section=%2F&url=%2Fsearch&Keyword=sonar


HOME
http://www.soundonsound.com/


COMPUTER MUSIC MAGAZINE
http://www.computermusic.co.uk/tutorial/features.asp


HOME
http://www.computermusic.co.uk/issue/issue.asp


ELECTRONIC MUSCIAN
http://emusician.com/


HIT SQUAD MUSICIAN NETWORK
http://www.sharewaremusicmachine.com/


DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus
http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/


DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus articles
http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/articles.asp


VST PLUGINS
http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player


MADTRACKER.ORG
http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player


SOUND EFFECTS ON THE WEB
ONAR
WEBSITES:
  CAKEWALK
   Products
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Products/default.asp


   SEARCH
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Search/default.asp


   Desktop Music Handbook
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Tips/Desktop.asp


   Open Audio Hardware Guide
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Tips/audiohw.asp


   Tips Archive - New Tips
   http://www.cakewalk.com/tips/


   SONAR 3 - Owner's Page
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Owners/SONAR3/


   SONAR 5 - Owner's Page
   http://www.cakewalk.com/Owners/SONAR5/


  MAGAZINE WEBSITES
   RECORDING MAGAZINE
   http://www.recordingmag.com/


   HOME RECORDI NG
   http://homerecording.about.com/


   HOME RECORDI NG EUIPMENT FORUMS
   http://www.homerecording.com/bbs/


   GOOGLE GROUPS
   http://groups.google.com/group/recordingstudio?lnk=gschg&hl=en


   GOOGLE GROUPS - CAKEWALK
   http://groups.google.com/groups?q=cakewalk


   THE RECORDING WEBSITE
   http://recordingwebsite.com/
SOUND ON SOUND RECORDING MAGAZINE search
http://www.soundonsound.com/search?PageSize=80&page=1&section=/&Keyword=sonar%20notes


SOUND ON SOUND RECORDING MAGAZINE search
http://www.soundonsound.com/index.php?section=%2F&url=%2Fsearch&Keyword=sonar


HOME
http://www.soundonsound.com/


COMPUTER MUSIC MAGAZINE
http://www.computermusic.co.uk/tutorial/features.asp


HOME
http://www.computermusic.co.uk/issue/issue.asp


ELECTRONIC MUSCIAN
http://emusician.com/


HIT SQUAD MUSICIAN NETWORK
http://www.sharewaremusicmachine.com/


DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus
http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/


DIGI FREQ NEWSLETTER Scott Garrigus articles
http://www.digifreq.com/digifreq/articles.asp


VST PLUGINS
http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player


MADTRACKER.ORG
http://www.madtracker.org/plugins.php?category=Instrument&subcategory=Sample+player


SOUND EFFECTS ON THE WEB
FREE SOUNDS - FREE WAVs
http://www.thefreesite.com/Free_Sounds/Free_WAVs/


WAVSOURCE.COM
http://www.wavsource.com/sfx/sfx2.htm


FREE SOUND EFFECTS - GOOGLE
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=free+sound+effects
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