EF COTE D’IV UNICE er, Hygiene a VOIRE, Wate and Sanitati ion 1, October 20 Issue 1 009 W Water and Sanitation News er N slett SP UE PECIAL ISSU AND HA NG IN INVESTIN Y THE D DAY WE DO WHAT W W WASHIN NG DAAY T Thousands of ch hildren WATSAN Much has been achieved in UNICEF priority A look into U mobilized on Oc ctober 15 to giene and the water, hyg actions in Waater, Hygiene promote hand w washing as sanitation but more funds on during the and Sanitatio t ve strategy the cost‐effectiv o increase are required to past two yeaars in Cote t deaths. to reduce child d ity services. access to quali d’Ivoire. and wa Ha ashing mobilized g Day m ommun co to reduce infant nities t eaths in Cote de oire e d’Ivo e day heightened The d commu pport ag unity sup gainst A Flu H1N1 and wat ted disea ter‐relat ases Hand wwashing day wa as marked by aa series UNNICEF trained a ved in the all actors involv special proggrammes broad dcast on vities organized of activ try of d by the Minist ed ducation and ca s in addition atering sectors community radios. The telephone Health and Public Hyg giene with the to communicatio on professionals to company M MTN supported the hand support of UNICEF. reinforce their knnowledge on the relation washing cam mpaign by sendding SMS etween hand w be washing and wa ater‐related messages on hand washin o ng and A flue to This year were mobili ized more thann 20 dis seases and A fl et caterers lu H1 N1. Stree half a million subscribers. UNICEF helpedd thousand children to master the we y targeted beca ere particularly ause they in organizing a public exhibition on handd ques involved in hand washin techniq ng with sell food to child dren around sch hools washing tec chniques and oon new o prevent illnes soap to sses and deathhs due wh or children here there are no facilities fo technological devices for hhand washing to wate ffective er‐related diseases in cost‐ef to wash their hands with soap. . Hand with soap. way. Thhe Public Hygie e of the ene directorate waashing Day messages includin ng on A flu ry of Health wit Ministr th the supportt of prevention were e disseminated through UNICEF COTE D’IVOIRE, Water, Hygiene and Sanitation Issue 1, October 2009 Motivating for change of hand washing practices More than twenty thousand children who mastered the techniques of hand washing with soap are now replicating the life saving practice in their communities thus preventing more children from dying before they reach the age of five. UNICEF Representative and Minister of Health during Hand Washing Day. The Minister of Health set the tone for the In Cote d’Ivoire More than eight million Maarit Hirvonen called upon children to celebration this year noting that children, people – 43 percent of the population – become “powerful change agents at home while they are facilitating “vectors” of lack appropriate sanitation facilities.Over in schools and in communities to diseases such as A flu H1N1 and four million people use unsafe drinking encourage people to wash their hands waterborne diseases they are also water sources, especially in rural with soap.” tremendous health social mobilizers who areas.The Water and Sanitation sector in can properly spread the right prevention Côte d’Ivoire faces two major problems: messages to their communities and (i) The difficulty for many communities to among peers. access safe drinking water in sufficient However children need help to follow quantities and (ii) the limited access to recommended hygiene practices. Major sewage infrastructures and latrines, and constraints hold back the regular practice difficulties in discharging household of hand washing with soap in Cote refuse in urban centres. d’Ivoire. “ The Government must The “3.5 million children in eliminate these constraints, said Minister the world who die before the of Health, and Public Hygiene. We should age of five could be prevented devise a rehabilitation plan for the if all children practiced hand creation of water points in all of Cote washing with soap”said d’Ivoire’s schools for this scheme were UNICEF Representative, putting in place becomes a reality Maarit Hirvonen. The method throughout the country.” is cheap and can also stop the “When children take up this habit when spread of A flu H1N1 when they are still toddlers we can save more combined with good coughing practices with the proper use lives than any individual vaccine or of a handkerchief”, she added. medical intervention, added the minister” 2. Children at the center of the hand washing campaign More than 20 thousand children mastered the techniques of hand washing with soap are now replicating the life saving practice into their communities and prevent more children from dying before they reach the age of five. Many techniques were demonstrated But while there is water in the school, wash hands in the same bucket”. He said during the day to help children some children, when they go to the toilet that he observed the same attitude in the understand the proper way of washing they forget to wash hands.” restaurants, where water is poured into hands. one bucket and all guests who come to As for Abdoul Dezousa, his strategy when eat at the restaurant wash their hands in Colombe is a student who goes to primary there is no water in the school is to go to the same bucket. I hope we will change school at the Cocody East, where the a house in the neighborhood next to the our habits, ”he added hand washing Day launching ceremony school.” There is a woman who lives right took place. She is very familiar with the next door. She has soap, so before we eat hand washing techniques used and knows we go and wash our hands. I take the why it is important to practice this simple soap and I wash my hands.” behavior. “Today is hand washing Day. They talk to us about hand washing Nevertheless “while hand washing is a because otherwise we can have many simple practice, it is still not widely kinds of diseases like cholera, typhoid and practiced and not always easy to fever ”, she said. promote,”said UNICEF Representative. Colombe lives in the Cocody East The Minister of Education representative neighborhood since she was two years old at the Hand washing day said “schools are she said that “on Fridays at the end of the the ideal place to promote behavior day the teacher sometimes asks us to change because of the students’ young remove the garbage and after which we age “ and added that he hoped that adults are given water to wash our hands.” would learn from children.” Adults should remember for example, during funerals, Clarisse Serebe from the same school in not to wash hands in the same bucket. Cocody, explained “it is important to wash “We can be hundred people, when we hands before eating and after defecating. come back from the cemetery and we all 3. UNICEF COTE D’IVOIRE, Water, Hygiene and Sanitation Issue 1, October 2009 More investments are needed to improve the availability of water, sanitation and hygiene services in Cote d’Ivoire Over the last twenty years investments in water and networks have been extended to new sanitation in Cote d’Ivoire have not followed the neighborhoods in Abidjan where water shortages increasing trend of the population. Existing water are more and more frequent. Most water and sanitation infrastructure is inadequate to installations and equipments are old and lack respond to the needs in drinkable water and maintenance. sanitation of just over 20 million Ivoirians. No In the poor neighborhoods with no water supply system, water is Out of 15 thousand hand‐pumps, only 10 thousand are much more expensive as people buy water by bucket. 50 buckets functional. There is a need to build eight thousand new water the equivalent of 1 cubic meter, cost 1 500 CFA Francs, while the points to increase access to potable water in the rural areas. same amount of tap water costs 300 CFA francs. This is too expensive for the majority of Cote d’Ivoire’s population of whom To guarantee access to safe dinking water and increasethe access 48 percent live with less than one dollar a day. At the end of the to a potable drinking source from 61 percent in 2008 to 82.5 percent in 2015, the Government hasto invest more than 645 day people return to contaminated water sources including billion of CFA francs (1 billion 430 USD) in: (i) securing sources for unprotected wells and ponds because they cannot afford it. potable water; (2) reinforcing the current distribution of potable water and extension of water supply services in urban areas; (3) Tap water is not widespread either. Only 39 percent of Ivorians reinforcing the current distribution of potable water and have tap water with the large majority of users living in Abidjan. extension of water supply services in rural areas and undertake (5)Reform. Government allocations for water supply are not equally distributed between the North and the South. Investments in water and sanitation represent less than percent 0,1 percent of the national GDP. 4. Below is a recap of progress being madein hygiene practices ACTIONS 2008‐2009 UNICEF IN ACTION Open defecation 1. Not much progress has been made The UNICEF Water and Sanitation programme contributes to in this area, as the number of the Millennium Development Goal for water and sanitation: to halve, latrines constructed does not follow by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe the population growth. Cultural values such as inability to share water and basic sanitation. The programme focuses on the supply of toilets with women or children water and the promotion of hygiene and sanitation in communities, contribute to open defecation. schools and health centres and in peri‐urban environment, and the epidemiological surveillance to prevent water‐related diseases. Improved sanitation facilities Access to Drinking 612 water supply points were built or rehabilitated 2. In rural areas the population mostly water (improved wells and hand pumps); 717 Water uses unimproved sanitation facilities Management Committees (WMC) were revitalized; 407 economic interest groups were identified to financially such as open pits. support the maintenance of water points. 40 water storage reservoirs are constructed in 40 rural health centers. Urban versus rural areas 3. 34 percent of the population from 1, 084 SANPLAT family latrines and other sanitation Access to Sanitation the rural areas (57 percent) practice Facilities facilities were built; 336 masons were trained in open defecation. construction of latrines using slabs and provided with tools; Community‐led Total Sanitation (CLTS) experimented in 40 localities in the Departments of Tiassale, selected as the pilot Department for the Water collection implementation of the MDGs. 4. Women, in general are still the ones who collect water in communities. Prevention of Water‐ 2089 IEC/BCC sensitization sessions were organized and and Hygiene‐Related 1,843 posters were distributed; 8, 805 sensitization Diseases sessions reached 115,000 individuals in precarious neighborhoods; Community and school mobilization for hand washing with soap; Distribution of hand washing devices for the promotion of hygiene practices. Hygiene and Sanitation 145 improved latrines (VIP) and 305 hand washing Education in Schools facilities were built in 101 schools; 25 counselors were trained in hand washing with soap and in turn trained 10,000 students during World Hand Washing Day; Students from 61 schools were sensitized during Hand Washing Days. 5. EF COTE D’IV UNICE er, Hygiene a VOIRE, Wate and Sanitati ion 1, October 20 Issue 1 009 The lac T water po ck of w oints and latrrines underm u minech ’s healt hildren’ th in Co voire. ote d’Iv Children are victim ms of one to siix malaria attacks per year with ann ave erage of one at ree ttack every thr moonths. Maalaria prevalenc ted ce is exacerbat by poor sanitation both in urban and . rural areas. Openn drainage channnels cities flooded w in c with waste are proone to the deveelopment of moosquito breedin ng sites. gh chronic maln Hig nutrition rates are o exacerbated by repeated also episodes of diarrh hea that can phy entally stunt ysically and me children. Improvemen nts in water, Diarrrhea is a major child and infa ant hygiene and sanitation a h are killer disease in Co ote d’Ivoire Since December 2 2008 poliomye elitis caus sed by microbe es which sprea ad resurfaced in Cote d’Ivoire with h the contributing to the c water, food, on hands, on eating in w dettection of two cases in the So outh decreasing trend in infan d nt and drinking utens sils, by flies and d the country. In of t n 2009, 25 case es of d deaths in Cote d’Ivoire. T The dirt under the finggernails. 88 polio have been r reported leadin ng to number of ch n hildren dying perccent of diarrheeal diseases are e e organization o the of mass before the ag b as ge of five ha due to unsafe water supply, nchronized imm syn munization inaddequate sanitat tion and hygiene. cammpaigns in Cote d’Ivoire and other d decreased fr rom 150 dea aths In Co arrheakills ote d’Ivoire dia cou West and Centr untries in the W ral per 1,000 livebirths in 19 p 990 arouund 87 thousan nd children Africa region. Poliomyelitis ente ers to 127 death t hs per 1,000 under five years ea ach year. These the e water through the faeces of f livebirths in 2008. This deat ths can be reduuced by 40 ected individua infe re als. Children ar translates int t to more than perccent by ensurin ng children wash ected by drinki infe ing or eating their hands with so oap at most conntaminated wa ater or food. 2 20,000 death hs of children cal events duri critic ing the day. under five av u verted each year in Cote d’Ivo . oire rrhea increases Diar es s mortality rate ontact: For more information co from m other opport tunistic disease es OTE D’IVOIRE UNICEF CO Poor access to safe drinking w P water such malnutrition and h as malaria, m COMMUN NICATION UNIT T h hygiene and sanitation increaases atory Infections). ARI (Acute Respira 5 21 21 18 50 Tel.+225 0 children’s expo c osure to diseases such as diarrhe s n, ea, malnutrition aria is the main reason for Mala m malaria and even HIV. sultations and hospitalization cons n in Cote e d’Ivoire. CREDITS PHOTO C and 6: Riccardo Gangale Pages 4 a e. ages Yvette B Other Pa Bivigou . 6.