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CPTED Past_ Present_ and Future

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					April 2000                                                             Volume 3, Issue 7

  "To create safer environments and improve the quality of life through the use of CPTED principles and strategies."

Register Now!
                      CPTED: Past, Present, and Future
                                                  th
                      Opening Comments at the 4 Annual ICA Confer- urban design training, such as Patricia Branting-
The International     ence, Mississauga, Canada, Sept 20, 1999     ham, Sherry Carter, Gregory Saville, Richard
CPTED Associ-                                                              Gardiner, and Paul von Soomeren with aca-
                      Professor C. Ray Jeffery                             demic connections to ecology and urban design.
ation 2000 Con-
ference   is     in   These brief comments will introduce my analy-        A CPTED model would be based on ecology,
                      sis of CPTED as it developed, as it is currently     including biological ecology, social ecology, ur-
Oakland, Cali-        viewed, and as it may develop in the future. It is   ban geography, psychological learning theory,
fornia this De-       my opinion that a coherent theoretical model of      urban planning, and criminology. It would be
                      CPTED never existed. When I published the            based on an Individual-Brain-Environmental
cember         6-9.   book Crime Prevention Through Environmental          model where individuals interact with the physi-
Check     inside      Design in 1971 it was a plea to study crime in       cal environment by means of the brain. The brain
                      terms of the science of ecology and a call for       is the organ of behavior; all behavior is controlled
this edition for      interdisciplinary research. Immediately after        by the brain, and the brain is created by the
the Call for Pa-      publication of this book other versions of crime     interaction of the individual with the environment.
                      prevention emerged. Newman’s Defensible              We cannot study the individual separate from
pers and regis-       Space was published in 1972, based on archi-         the environment, or the environment separate
tration informa-      tecture and without criminology, ecology, or         from the individual. All crime prevention currently
                      urban planning. The major concepts in New-           being carried out limits the problem of crime
tion.                 man’s approach were territoriality, surveillance,    prevention to the physical environment.
                      image, and safe zones.
                                                                                                Continued on next page . . .
                      These ideas were picked up in the 1970’s by
                      the U.S. federal government, private corpora-
                      tions such as the Westinghouse Corporation,
                                                                             Bring the ICA International
                      and by academics. However, these efforts at              Conference to your city!
                      crime prevention were based upon Newman’s
                      concepts and not mine. Basic concepts of             The deadline for conference submissions
                      territoriality, surveillance, and access control
                      came from Newman. There is no CPTED in the
                                                                            for 2001 is May 1, 2000. If you wish to
                      federal programs, in the training programs es-        highlight CPTED in your area act quickly!
                      tablished by the National Institute for Crime
                      Prevention, or in the efforts to prevent crime       Send submissions by email to ica@cpted.net or to
                      through environmental design. The exceptions                  the ICA international Office.
                      are the few individuals who have emerged with


                      Inside this Edition
                      A Review of “Creating Defensible Space” by Oscar Newman                                 3
                      2000 Conference Information                                                             5
                      CPTED and Hotel Security in the U.S.A.                                                  6
                      Notes From The Chair                                                                    7
                                                             1
                                                         Newsletter

                    CPTED: Past, Present, and Future       cal care in places of high infant mortality and
                                             . . continued child abuse. Greg Saville has described to me
  Have you                                                               what he considers to be an excellent example of
                    Behavior is the focus of crime prevention. What
 sent in your       is needed is a basic theory of behavior as           such positive reinforcement in the work of Gerry
                    found in psychological learning theory. Be-          Cleveland, principal with the Toronto School
   dues for                                                                        Board. Cleveland’s work combines the
                    cause all behavior involves the brain
    2000?           and is a product of genetic and envi-                          physical aspects of CPTED in troubled
                    ronment interaction, input from the                            schools, with what he calls the
                    environment changes the structure of                           “affective” (emotional) environment, or
Send them in to-                                                                   how students with delinquency prob-
                    the brain which in turn controls behav-
day to    ensure    ior. Basic learning theory, called clas-                       lems think about themselves, and how
                    sical and operant conditioning, in-                            they interact with others. He even has
you do not miss
                    volves the association of a stimulus                           them talking to the police about the
valuable infor-     (environment) with a response                                  causes of why they relate so poorly to
mation!             (behavior). The two controlling princi-                        the police, and why the police relate
                    ples are pleasure and pain, or reinforcement                   so poorly to them. In this way positive
                    and punishment as they are identified in learn-      reinforcement can be obtained and pro-social
Please ensure       ing theory. A child learns that food or warmth       behaviors can be created.
that your name      are pleasurable, and that a spanking or falling
                    on one’s head is painful. The basic message of       Urban planning must eliminate urban sprawl,
or membership                                                            poor housing, and crowded slum areas. This
                    learning theory is that pleasure shapes and
number is in-       controls behavior, whereas punishment does           does not mean that the basic ideas now found in
                    not.                                                 crime prevention cannot be applied, such as
cluded with the                                                          surveillance or access control – but they must be
payment       so    A person will respond to gain pleasure, and          done within the framework of total urban planning.
credit is applied   behavior can be shaped in this way, whereas          It does little good to target harden a convenience
                    punishment creates escape and avoidance              store located in a major urban area, while ignor-
to the proper ac-                                                        ing the development of a major highway a block
                    responses, aggressive responses, and learned
count.              helplessness. A person who is punished will          away, or a large low cost housing development
                    become aggressive or will not learn new adap-        several blocks from the store. We must be aware
                    tive responses to the environment. Punishment        of the role of the automobile in urban develop-
                    must be immediate and certain. In the criminal       ment, and the changes in ecological patterns
                    justice system it is neither swift nor certain,      from the pre-automobile city to the modern city
                    and less than 10% of the crimes are punished.        dominated by major highways linking the central
                                                                         city to sprawling suburbs. Ideas like the new
                    Most of the principles of crime prevention are       urbanism must be used to plan urban growth in a
                    based on the punitive-revenge-deterrence ap-         more ecological way, and to guide urban policy
                    proach found in the criminal law. We use             for the future, including crime as a major urban
                    surveillance to deter criminals since they have      problem, something now neglected by urban
                    a fear of punishment; we use territoriality to       planners.
                    say this property is defended and is defensible
                    space. We put out signs such as “protected           [C. Ray Jeffery is professor emeritus in criminology
                                                                         at Florida State University. He is the founder of the
                    by a Sentry System”, or “protected by a .44”.
                                                                         term CPTED and has served as president of the
                    We are not reinforcing a lawful response, but a
                                                                         American Society of Criminology. He has published
                    punishing an illegal one. Punishment does not
                                                                         extensively and lectured around the world. He can
                    work, even a rat can learn to avoid a shock and      be contacted at the School of Criminology & Crimi-
                    to gain food (look at the picture of Azrin’s rat!)   nal Justice, Florida State University, Tallahassee,
                                                                         FL, 32306]
                    As planners for crime prevention we must
                    reinforce desirable behavior rather than punish-
                    ing undesirable behavior. We must create envi-
                    ronments that are healthy for the development
                    of the infant, that stimulate brain growth, that
                    provide a healthy diet and not toxic poisoning
                    or stress, and that provide opportunities for
                    education, family support, and adequate medi-
                                                           2
                                                               Newsletter


A Review of Creating Defensible Space
(Creating Defensible Space, Oscar Newman, U.S. Dept of
                                                                                                                   “In theory,
                                                                 You Can Host The 2001 ICA
Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC, 1996)
                                                                  International Conference!                        there is no
A book reviewed by:                                                                                                difference
Gregory Saville, Henry C. Lee Institue of Forensic          Submit your proposal to the ICA office and
Science, University of New Haven,                           become internationally know for your support            between
                                                            of CPTED principals and bring the spotlight
Wendy Sarkissian, Sarkissian Associates Plan-
ners, Brisbane, Australia                                   to your home city!                                     theory and
Reprinted with permission from the Journal of Planning       Conference submissions and proposals must
                                                                                                                    practise.
Education and Research, (1998), 17-4: 361-363.
(copyrighted) Association of Collegiate Schools of Plan-
                                                              be received at the ICA office no later than            But, in
                                                                             May 1, 2000.
ning.
                                                             Email or mail your proposal today!                     practise,
Reading Oscar Newman is an exercise in tolerance                       ica@cpted.net                                there is.”
– one must tolerate his individualistic approach
and writing style to reach his substance. However,         11. enhancing streetscaping, such as decorative         Jan L.A. van de
for those unfamiliar with his original 1972 book               lighting fixtures and benches, in semipublic          Snepscheut
Defensible Space, this latest book is an excellent             areas of row housing to introduce a positive
summary of the principles and tactics of an idea he            milieu;
created 24 years ago. Newman provides three en-            12. reassigning public grounds in public housing
gaging examples of how he has applied the con-                 to adjacent single-family properties to encour-
cept in the field… From this perspective, Creating             age residents to maintain these areas, and;
Defensible Space is a necessary addition to any            13. scattering 200 public housing units over seven
planning and development library.                              sites, rather than concentrating them together.

Newman uses the following 13 specific design               Without question, all of these approaches are help-
strategies on three projects to create the                 ful for the designer or planner wishing to create
“defensible space” described in this                           defensible space. There is nothing particularly
book:                                                           new about these strategies. Most have become
                                                                commonplace in jurisdictions where Crime Pre-
1.  designing out nebulous public                               vention Through Environmental Design
    grounds so that gangs cannot congre-                        (CPTED) is incorporated into the planning pro-
    gate;                                                          cess, such as in Florida, British Columbia,
2. defining semiprivate property by                                 Canada, and the Netherlands. However,
    means of territorial markings, garden                           CPTED is still not an accepted part of plan-
    areas, and landscaping;                                ning in many places. Thus, Newman’s book pro-
3. carefully selecting and training residents in           vides a good introduction to the defensible space
    public housing;                                        component of the CPTED model (actually, Newman
4. ensuring that older people and children sel-            considers CPTED to be a component of the defensi-
    dom mix in public housing sites;                       ble space model, but one gets the impression that
5. properly maintaining all public areas;                  this is merely semantics).
6. creating areas to reduce conflicts among dif-
    ferent user groups (e.g., by dividing urban            Newman, however, falls into many of the same traps
    parks into sections for older people, children,        that he did in his original work – physical determin-
    and adolescents);                                      ism, working in isolation from criminological re-
7. closing streets to create hammerhead cul-de-            search, and occasionally working in isolation from
    sacs;                                                  the community residents living the conditions he is
8. clustering buildings into mini-neighborhoods;           attempting to improve. His latest work reads as
9. establishing a minimum of 40 percent of perma-          though he has never even glimpsed at some of the
    nent homeowners in a neighborhood to en-               latest research in the very field he helped create,
    hance local ownership of territory;                    although he claims he has. Thus, the early sections
10. providing quality schools and local institu-           of the book appear to be more of a response to his
    tions in mini neighborhoods;                           critics than the articulation of anything really new.
                                                                      3
                                               Newsletter

             He claims “many social science professionals are     …Further, Newman does not clarify what he
             quick to label my ideas physical determinism         means by “crime”, other than broad statements
             without having taken the time to think the matter    about “robbery rates” and “felony crimes”. There
  “We        through or to familiarize themselves with the ori-   is now a vast body of research about the impact
             gin of the term...I am troubled by my failure to     of different types of crime on physical opportuni-
             communicate my ideas clearly.”                                   ties for them (Brantingham and Brant-
make a                                                                        ingham 1991; Clarke and Mayhew
             The consequence of this fail-                                    1980; Clarke and Hope 1984; Clarke
             ure, he argues, has been that
living by    “a whole cult has sprung up
                                                                                 1992). All of this research is di-
                                                                                     rectly related to contemporary
             around these misunderstand-                                             defensible space, none of which
what we      ings,with its own pseudo-                                              is cited by Newman. Perhaps
             language, misbegotten con-                                            they are part of Newman’s “cult”?
             cepts, and rituals”. The
get, but     reader is left wondering who                                         Instead, Newman provides three
             constitutes this “cult” and                                       case studies of his work: the Five
we make      what these rituals are all
             about. One suspects he is referring to those
                                                                              Oaks community project on a two-
                                                                  family home subdivision in Dayton, Ohio (in
             (other than Newman himself) who have actu-           1991); the Clason Point, New York project on
a life by    ally practiced and researched contemporary           public row housing in the South Bronx (in the
             CPTED over the past decade. This leads to            early 1970s); and the Yonkers, New York pro-
             some vexing problems.                                ject on a dispersed, high-density public housing
what we                                                           project (late 1980s). Each project used a unique
             It is undoubtedly true some critics have mis-        set of design tactics to create defensible space.
 give.”      understood defensible space. But Newman
             doesn’t make it easy for himself. He continu-
                                                                  Together they do, in fact, provide some com-
                                                                  pelling evidence supporting the defensible space
             ally asserts that defensible space concerns          strategy…
             simply reassigning space so it is clearly
  Winston
             demarcated as belonging to legitimate users.         All three projects saw reductions in crime and
 Churchill   Here he lapses into determinism. For exam-           social problems, although it wasn’t entirely clear
             ple, he claims that “…the influence of building      what the long-term effects were. Newman’s
             height and number of units per en-                   “evaluation” of the Yonkers project (101-107)
             try…predict[ed the] crime rate. Regardless of        amounts to a discussion with the police chief
             the social characteristics of inhabitants, the       and the housing director. Even in the outdated
             physical form of housing was shown to play           Clason Point example, more recent data were
             an important role in reducing crimes and             not included. This makes the reader wonder
             assisting residents in controlling behavior.”        whether Newman bothers at all with post-
                                                                  occupancy evaluations, as suggested by Mar-
             This statement raises two issues. First, cur-        cus and Sarkissian (1986).
             rent research demonstrates that the influence
             of building height and units per entry does not      Compounding these issues are questions re-
             always predict the crime rate. In some cases,        garding implementation problems emerging in
             such as in Vancouver, research in building           some of these projects…Newman reports that
             size and crime (Bernard-Butcher, 1991) found         during public meetings in the Yonkers project,
             the opposite to be true. Second, if the physi-       his recommendations were so controversial that
             cal form of housing does play an important           “the vociferous elements in the city made it a
             role, then this is a form of physical determin-      practice to come and disrupt every such com-
             ism. Which brings us back to two interesting         munity meeting. In some instances, the police
             questions about Newman himself. Why does             had to escort me out for my own protection. I
             he not include alternative perspectives from         stopped holding them (88).” As most planners
             the field? And why is he loathe to call his          are aware,adversarial groups frequently emerge
             work deterministic if, in fact, that is precisely    in large planning projects. But a wide range of
             what it is?                                          participatory planning and design strategies has
                                                                  emerged to help. Newman discusses none of



                                                  4
                                                                Newsletter

                        Creating Defensible Space Review continued                       structive workshops as we all continue to struggle
 Register today by                                                                       with the challenge of creating and maintaining safer
                        these strategies, such as search conferences
                                                                                         environments. While no one prevention alternative
 calling the City of    (Emery 1993, 1997; Emery and Purser 1996).
                                                                                         could have stopped the horrible school and work-
                        Community building has much more to it than
 Oakland at (510)                                                                        place shootings and violence that have plagued our
                        physical design modifications. This has long
                                                                                         recent past in North America, organizations con-
238-3301. To sub-       been documented in the planning literature on
                                                                                         tinue to grasp for new ideas and strategies that can
                        action research. Other practitioners have had
 mit workshop pa-                                                                        prevent such tragedies. CPTED concepts and prin-
                        great success with these strategies
                                                                                         ciples should certainly play a role in this interna-
  pers and ideas,       (Sarkissian and Walsh 1994; Sarkissian,
                                                                                         tional discussion and this year’s conference will
                        Cook, and Walsh 1997; Sarkissian and
please contact San-                                                                      undoubtedly bring attention to the issue.
                        Perlgu 1994; Saville 1995). Unfortunately,
dra Sanders-West        Newman does not city any of this literature. It
                                                                                         In the interest of planning ahead for travel, the
                        is perhaps not surprising that Newman him-
         at                                                                              conference schedule is shaping up to look like this:
                        self became a potential target for the very
  (510) 238-2922.       violence he was attempting to prevent.
                                                                                         Wednesday, December 6
                                                                                         Registration/Check-in
                        Creating Defensible Space is a restatement
 Want to Present?       of Newman’s 1972 book with three case
                                                                                         Thursday, December 7
                        studies. It is well written, at time very interest-
                                                                                         Morning - Local Site Visits
                        ing, but sadly outdated. It stands alone as a
                                                                                         Afternoon - Opening Session & Workshops
Fill out the attached   summary of Newman’s personal work and
                                                                                         Evening - Welcome Reception
                        should be read as such. That it stands alone
speakers form and       is unfortunate. Despite his calls for resident
                                                                                         Friday, December 8
 return it to the ad-   cooperation and collaboration, Newman fails
                                                                                         Workshops
                        to practice what he preaches. His book is a
 dress listed. Get                                                                       Evening - Optional Trip to New Science Center &
                        product more of his highly individualistic style
                                                                                         Observatory
your in early to en-    than of substance or research.

 sure your involve-     References:                                                      Saturday, December 9
                        Bernard-Butcher, Diane. 1991. Crime in the third Dimension: A    Workshops & Closing Session
       ment!            study of Burglary Patterns in a High Density Residential Area.   Conference concludes at 12:00 noon
                        Masters Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British
                        Columbia.
                        Brantingham, P.L and Brantingham, P.J. 1991. Environmental       The conference will take place at the Oakland Mar-
                        Criminology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.                             riott City Center from December 6 through Decem-
                        Clarke, R. ed. 1992. Situational Crime Prevention: Successful    ber 9, 2000. Oakland is located in the heart of the
                        Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow.                                East Bay slightly east of San Francisco and sits at
                        Clarke, R. 1994. Displacement: An old problem in new perspec-    the northern tip of the Silicon Valley. When you are
                        tive. In Crime Problems: Community Solutions. Ed. Gregory
                                                                                         not conferencing, you can sneak away for quick
                        Saville, Port Moody, BC: AAG Publications.
                                                                                         trips to the renowned Napa and Sonoma wine coun-
                        Emery, Merrelyn, and R. Purser. 1996. The Search Conference.
                        San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.                                  try, first class shopping in San Francisco, as well as
                                                                                         enjoy art and science destinations in Oakland – all
                                                                                         the makings of a great opportunity to bring your
                        ICA CONFERENCE 2000                                              significant other along! The typical average day-
                                                                                         time temperature in December doesn’t get below 60
                        Creating Safer Communities for our                               degrees and seldom dips below 40 in the evening.
                        Youth . . . for our Future!
                                                                                         The host hotel has guaranteed a special rate of $129
                        ICA members will head west to the beautiful Bay                  per night for conference attendees. Arrangements
                        Area of Northern California in December for the                  are most easily made by calling Marriott reserva-
                        annual conference. This will mark the first time in              tions at (800) 228-9290. When making your reserva-
                        ICA’s history that the conference will be hosted                 tion, please reference ICA/CPTED 2000 to secure
                        on the West Coast.                                               the special rate. Conference brochures will be
                                                                                         mailed out in April. For general conference informa-
                        The theme for this year’s conference, Creating                   tion, contact the City of Oakland at (510) 238-3301.
                        Safer Communities for our Youth . . . for our Future,            To submit workshop papers and ideas, please con-
                        promises to offer engaging speakers and con-                     tact Sandra Sanders-West at (510) 238-2922.

                                                                           5
                                                    Newsletter


                 CPTED and Hotel Security in the                                       Publications
Do you have
                 U.S.A.                                                 A Better Place to Live, Phillip Langdon, 1994,
                                                                                                                     rd
an interesting                                                          HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53
                 By Ray Wood,
                                                                        Street, New York, NY
project or pa-   ICA director
                                                                        10022.
per involving    One of the commercial building areas that is
                                                                        Charter of the New Urban-
                 routinely overlooked for safety by architects is
CPTED strate-                                                           ism, Congress for the New
                 the medium income hotel property. While some
                                                                        Urbanism,     McGraw-Hill,
gies and prin-   corporations such as Marriott, Baymount, and
                                                                        2000
                 Holiday Inn look on the property with an eye
cipals? Share    toward crime prevention we find others who are
                                                                        Crime Prevention Through Environmental De-
                 not concerned about safety but the aesthetics of
 you experi-                                                            sign, Timothy D. Crowe, 1991, Butterworth-
                 a property. Perhaps that is why properties de-
                                                                        Heinemann, 80 Monivale Avenue, Stoneham,
  ence with      signed for weekly stays in the low and medium
                                                                        MA 02180.
                 markets still place doors to rooms accessible
your colleges!   from parking lots and in at least one
                                                                        “Crime Prevention Through Environmental De-
                 company still use hard steel keys
 Send a copy                                                            sign,” Main Street News , Sherry Plaster,
                 instead of plastic computerized
                                                                        1992. National Trust for Historic Preservation,
                 entries.
in electronic                                                           National Main Street Center, 1785 Mas-
                                                                        sachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
  format by      Hotels have a duty to protect
                                                                        20036, (202) 588-6219. $ 4.00 plus shipping &
                 their guests. The design of a
  email the                                                             handling. (Website mainst.org)
                 property will go a long way in deter-
                 ring the average thief when confronted by a hotel
ica@cpted.net                                                           The Death and Life of Great American Cities ,
                 that has the best interest of the guests in mind.
                                                                        Jane Jacobs, 1961, Random House, Inc. New
 and we will     These include interior hall entrances with one-
                                                                        York, NY and Random House of Canada, Ltd.,
                 way entry after darkness. These entryways
                                                                        Toronto, Ontario, Canada.     (Website ja-
post it in the   should be visible to the front desk and other in
                                                                        cob97.com)
                 house employees. Today's market demands
  members        that employees are trained in crime prevention
                                                                        Designing Safer Communities, National Crime
   section.      and at least a passing acquaintance with
                                                                        Prevention Council, 1700 K Street, NW, Sec-
                 CPTED should be required (someone has to
                                                                        ond Floor, Washington, D.C. 20006-3817. $
                 report that lights are out).
                                                                        19.95 per copy + shipping and handling.
                                                                        (Website ncpc.org)
                 Card keys should be the norm and not the
                 exception. The idea of this being too expensive
                                                                        Disorder and Decline, Wesley G. Skogan,
                 is laughable in today’s marketplace. The liability
                                                                        1990, University of California Press, Berkeley,
                 of hotels that do not have card key systems in
                                                                        CA 94720.
                 the United States is indeed well known but
                 some owners just don't 'get it" and are the first
                                                                        Fixing Broken Windows, George L. Kelling &
                 to complain loudly and officiously when civil
                                                                        Catherine M. Coles, 1996, Touchstone, Rock-
                 liability rears its ugly head after a guest or
                                                                        efeller Center, 1230 Avenue of the Americas,
                 employee is the victim of their negligence.
                                                                        New York, NY 10020.
                 Three points must be remembered in regards to
                                                                        Fortress America, Gated Communities in the
                 hotel security. First, security is a part of design
                                                                        United States, Edward J. Blakely and Mary
                 and must be viewed by all the stakeholders.
                                                                        Gail Snyder, 1997, The Brookings Institution,
                 Second, training is paramount for employees for
                                                                        1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washing-
                 their protection as well as their guests. The third
                                                                        ton, D.C. 20036 and Lincoln Institute of Land
                 is to pay attention to the obvious and profitability
                                                                        Policy, 113 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA
                 will result from guest satisfaction and security.
                                                                        02138.




                                                         6
                                                   Newsletter

                   Notes from the Chair                                   also have an ugly side. Some of the
Do you have a                                                             recent school violence in the U.S. and
                   The cyber revolution and CPTED                         Canada may well have been influenced by
project that is                                                           violent media images, much of which
                   by Greg Saville, ICA International Chair
causing you to                                                            emanates from the internet.
                   In daily life, it is easy to gloss over the importance
 lose sleep, or    of the new cyber reality of the internet. This is Is it possible that we can bring a little
 worse yet . . .   especially true for activities in the ICA.             order to the chaos on the internet the
                                                                          same way we try to in the physical world
  overtime?        When we created the ICA 5 years ago most of the of CPTED - through territoriality and own-
                   planning had already occurred on email long before ership? Healthy CPTED is that which not
                   many of us ever met in person at the 1st Calgary only helps reinforce the defensible space
  Send your        conference. Today this tradition continues. The and territoriality of a physical area, but
question to the    board of the ICA has begun a series of netmeetings, also provides incentives and opportunities
                   there is a healthy and vigorous debate about for people to work together to prevent
ICA office and     CPTED accreditation on our website, and ICA mem- crime (without which, of course, there is
we will forward    ber Josh Brown has agreed to survey a CPTED no territoriality). It is no different on the
                   panel on an internet listserve about whether stan- internet. Web communities and chat
 it to the ICA     dards can be established for training or accredita- neighborhoods can offer a similar kind of
membership for     tion.                                                  ownership over emerging problems in a
                                                                                         cyber environment. Some
  feedback.        At our most recent netmeeting, we wel-                                of the tools to allow this to
                   comed Rick Draper, from the newly formed                              happen already exist; fire-
                   Asia/Pacific chapter of the ICA onto the                              walls, passwords, and
Utilize some of    board as an observer representative. Rick                             hostbot monitors. Rules of
  the worlds       has already agreed to work with our execu-                            civility can be applied there
                   tive director on enhancing the look and feel                          as they can in physical
 finest CPTED      of a new ICA website. As well, the board                              neighborhoods. And there
professionals to   discussed putting all upcoming newsletters                            are many other possibili-
                   into electronic form for cyber-mailout rather                         ties.
help you shine     than regular mail, except for one issue of a
  through the      compiled annual ICA "journal/magazine" which will The upcoming ICA conference in Oakland
                   be professionally printed.                             offer us the chance to discuss some of
 tough ones!                                                              these possibilities. This years conference
                   Indeed, the internet has expanded our capacity to has been shaping up to be a fascinating
                   do many things. In my own work, for example, we event. So set aside a few days in Decem-
                   have been developing on-line certificates and univer- ber to join us in the beautiful bay area in
                   sity degree courses in areas such as CPTED. California to discuss this issue, and many
                   Clearly the internet has changed many things about others.
                   how we do business!
                                                                          Brochures will be available from ICA head-
                   But the truth of CPTED is that it begins as an quarters, and the ICA website also has
                   activity of the physical world, not the cyber world information. Get the word out. See you in
                   (though I have heard conversations recently how the December.
                   two might be brought together to help prevent
                   crime). It is unclear how the new cyber reality
                   affects crime, and thereby our activities in preven-
                   tion. It has been said the internet is a place of
                   chaos. Thank goodness for that! Personally, I be-
                   lieve that a little bit of chaos can be a healthy and
                   creative thing. It's like what makes a bohemian
                   neighborhood so interesting as Jane Jacobs de-
                   scribed in New York's Greenwich Village, or what
                   Vancouver's Commercial Drive is today. But such
                   chaos can also have an ugly side. Some of the
                   recent school violence in the U.S. and Canada may

                                                        7
                                                                Newsletter

                               Planning for Prevention: Sarasota, Florida’s Ap-    nesses and Crime Prevention in Homes/Small
                               proach to Crime Prevention Through Environ-         Business, City of Los Angeles Department of
                               mental Design, Florida Criminal Justice Execu-      City Planning, Central Publications Unit, 221 N.
                               tive Training Institute, P.O. Box 1489, Tallahas-   Figueroa Street, Room 1650 A, Los Angeles,
                               see, Florida 32302. $2.25 per copy shipping         CA 90012-2601, 213-580-5249.
                               and handling.
                                                                                   Florida CPTED Video, Florida Attorney Gen-
                               Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods, Keating,          eral’s Office, The Capitol, Tallahassee, Florida
     International             Krumholz & Star, 1996, University of Kansas         32399-1050, Margaret Booth or Rick Nuss, 904-
     Headquarters              Press, Lawrence, Kansas 66049.                      487-3717, cost of copy & tape.
 439 Queen Alexandra Way
Calgary, Alberta Canada, T2J
             3P2               Safer Cities, Gerda R. Wekerle and Carol
       (403) 225-3595
                               Whitzman, 1995, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115
       ica@cpted.net            th
                               5 Avenue, New York, NY 10003.                           Did You know . . .
    www.cpted.net                                                                         ⇒ The ICA website receives an
                               Safer Communities Edition, Planning Commis-                     average of 125 visits per week.
                               sioners Journal, Timothy Crowe, Sherry and
         Crime                 Stan Carter, Otis White and Anne Lust, Fall                ⇒ Today the ICA has over 300
                               1994 edition. ($10 per copy via website plan-                   members in more than 30 coun-
      Prevention
                               nersweb.com)
                                                                                               tries!
       Through
                               “More Than Merely Cops and Robbers,” Special
   Environmental                                                                          ⇒ The ICA Board holds on-line
                               Report, Engineering News-Record, May 1,
                                                                                               board meetings.
                               1995, Nadine Post. McGraw-Hill Construction
         Design
                               Weekly.    (On-line purchase via website,
     (pronounced               enr.com search word “defensible space” or                  ⇒ The ICA headquarters oper-
                               “CPTED”)                                                        ates on a budget of less than $
      sep-ted) is                                                                              1500 per year. This covers the
  based on a the-                         Design Guidelines                                    cost of our website, postage,
                                                                                               supplies, phones, etc.
      ory that the             A Working Guide for Planning and Designing
    proper design              Safer Urban Environments, Safe City Commit-                ⇒ The office receives in excess
                               tee, City of Toronto Planning and Development                   of 50 emails per week. (This
     and effective             Department, 20th Floor, East Tower, City Hall,                  explains why some of you get
                               Toronto, M5H 2N2. Approx $ 20 per copy                          responses at 2 am)
   use of the built
                               shipping and handling.
     environment                                                                          ⇒ Of the original 63 members
                               Design for Public Safety - Saint Paul, City of
    can lead to a                                                                              that originally joined the ICA
                               Saint Paul Planning and Economic Develop-
                                                                                               in 1996, more than 45 are still
  reduction in the             ment Department, 1400 City Hall Annex, ST.
                                                                                               involved.
                               Paul, Minnesota 55102, Margot Fehrenbacher,
    incidence and              Chief of Design, 612-266-6660.
                                                                                          ⇒ 100% of articles or letters
     fear of crime
                               Safescape, Dean Brennan, AICP and Al                            sent in for publication in the
      and an im-               Zelinka, AICP, APA Planners Press, due out                      newsletter are used. (Maybe
                               April, 2000. (Website safescape.net)                            you should send in yours!?)
    provement in
     the quality of                              VIDEOS                                   ⇒ This year’s conference in Oak-
                                                                                               land will also see a number of
           life.
                               Back From the Brink, The American Architec-                     new directors and a new In-
                               tural Foundation, 1735 New York Avenue NW,                      ternational Chairperson being
                               Washington, D.C. 20006-5292, 202-626-7514,                      elected.
                               approx. $30.




                                                                     8
                                    Speakers Form*
Return by mail no later than May 26, 2000 to:


Sandra Sanders-West
Oakland Police Department
455 7th Street
Oakland, California, 94607


Speaker Names & Titles:               __________________________________________

                                      __________________________________________

                                      __________________________________________


Session or Presentation Title: __________________________________________

Subject Matter:                       __________________________________________


Summary of Session (50-60 words):




Biographical Sketch of Each Speaker (150-175 words):




                                                 9
Speakers Form (Cont.)
Learning Objectives:

1.

2.

3.

Description of Presention (200-300 words).
(Please attach)

Audio/Visual Equipment Request

Each room will have a minimum of (1) screen, (1) lavaliere microphone (1) table microphone and (1)
head table. Rooms will be theatre-style (rows of chairs facing the front of the room).


Check additional equipment needed:

____35 mm slide projector(s)

____Overheard projector

____Additional screen

____LCD Panel

____VCR Monitor

____Other ________________________________

           ________________________________

           ________________________________

Name of Speaker:     ___________________________________

Return with Speakers Form to:

Sandra Sanders-West
Oakland Police Department
455 7th Street

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