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					                                                       ALiVe Christian Clothing   1


Running Head: ALIVE CHRISTIAN CLOTHING




                 ALiVe: Creating a Christian Clothing Company

                                 Brittany Clone

          Lake Superior State University Honors Program Senior Thesis

       Professors Valerie Filek and Carl B. Smalls, Senior Project Advisors

                                 April 15, 2009
                                                       ALiVe Christian Clothing   2


                                   Table of Contents

Executive Summary                                                    3

Industry, Company, and Products                                      4

       The Industry                                                  4

       Company and Concept                                           4

       Product Line                                                  7

       Entry and Growth Strategy                                     9

Market Research and Analysis                                         11

       Customers                                                     11

       Competition and Competitive Advantages                        11

Marketing Plan                                                       14

       Price                                                         14

       Promotion                                                     15

       Product                                                       15

       Distribution                                                  15

Financial Considerations                                             16

Works Cited                                                          21
                                                             ALiVe Christian Clothing        3


                                    Executive Summary

ALiVe Christian Clothing will seek to fill a void in the Christian Clothing market by

offering clothing that is first trendy and high-quality but secondly Christian. By reversing

this philosophy that is prevalent among Christian clothing companies, ALiVe will appear

to new Christians and non-Christians alike. The business will focus on its target market

by first selling at Christian music festivals and later expanding with a web presence and

store. Items sold by ALiVe will range in price from $15-50, operating in a price range

that is affordable for teens and young adults alike. Items available will be produced in

small quantities in order to emphasize the exclusivity of the brand. In addition, styles will

be trendy in order to fulfill ALiVe‟s mission of being in the world, but not of the world.

Initial financing required is small, with an investment of $17,000 that will establish the

brand and keep it operational for the first three years. ALiVe is a small investment that is

worth making.
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                             Industry, Company, and Products

The Industry

       The retail industry is seen by many as the backbone of the American economy.

Retail spending amounted to 75% of the gross domestic product in the United States in

2006, amounting to nearly $10 trillion (Vault, 2009). As with any vast industry, retail has

many subcategories. Apparel is just one of these subcategories, which can be further

subdivided. Christian clothing is one of these segments, which is where ALiVe will

operate.

       The Christian clothing industry is fragmented, with no clear industry leader.

Looking at various websites, it is interesting to note that most have very similar, or even

identical, products. There is only one company I found during my internet research that

had a significant web and store presence, C28 Clothing.

       Although Christian clothing is a specific part of the retail industry, it is a large

market. 76% of respondents in the American Religious Identification Survey identified

themselves as Christian, amounting to approximately 173.4 million people. Although the

percentage of individuals identifying themselves as Christian has declined in recent years,

this is still a very large population segment waiting to be targeted.

       A current retail industry trend involves moving towards more ecologically

friendly products and manufacturing processes. This is a trend that will be capitalized on

as part of my business concept.

Company and Concept

       ALiVe will be a line of Christian apparel available for teens and young adults

from 12-30 years old. Appropriate for school, church, and everything in between, ALiVe
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will offer clothing similar to what is available at American Eagle or Aéropostale.

However, ALiVe will be focused on clothing that subtly yet powerfully carries a positive

Christian message of love, hope, and acceptance. As expansion occurs, this philosophy

will be lived in every possible way so that ALiVe not only stands for an ideal, but lives

for one.

       The Christian clothing industry primarily consists of various vendors selling the

same t-shirts. There is only one company found during research that has several stores, so

the industry is well-suited for a strong brand. ALiVe will stand out because it not only

sells more than the typical Christian t-shirt, but also because it will offer great clothing

with a Christian influence. All other brands offer Christian clothing as a form of ministry.

Switching this philosophy around allows ALiVe clothing to appeal to a broader audience

that would not typically purchase Christian-oriented apparel.

       Since ALiVe is a Christian company, a guiding passage, instead of a traditional

mission statement, can be used to reveal the heart and motivations of the company. The

guiding verses for ALiVe are found in John 17:15-18. It reads: “My prayer is not that you

take them out of the world but that you protect them from the evil one. They are not of

the world, even as I am not of it. Sanctify them by the truth; your word is truth. As you

sent me into the world, I have sent them into the world” (NIV). My interpretation of this

is to serve all, Christian or not, and to use ALiVe clothing to bring faith to people through

the way we live our lives everyday. Believing in God is more than just preaching to

people or simply attending church, and ALiVe will reflect this by first being quality,

affordable clothing and secondly having a Christian message and design. By doing this, I

hope to reflect the concept of being in the world, but not of the world. I will know this
                                                                ALiVe Christian Clothing      6


mission is fulfilled when teens buy ALiVe apparel because it is cool without knowing

that it is Christian-based.

         Products offered will include shirts, pants, and sweaters for men and women in

various styles and designs and will reflect a subtle Christian influence. These items will

initially be sold at several Christian music festivals, with later expansions including a

website and retail store.

         ALiVe will initially be run as a sole proprietorship until a store location is

established. At that point in time the business will be incorporated as a limited liability

corporation (LLC) with the launch of the sister brand, B*LeeV. The B*LeeV line will be

established when ALiVe is profitable and self-sufficient and the first ALiVe store will

feature B*LeeV merchandise as well.

         The B*LeeV line will be more expensive and upscale as compared to ALiVe.

With an average price of $100 per item, this line will be more comparable to Tommy

Hilfiger or Ralph Lauren. The B*LeeV brand will continue to keep quality and design as

its top priorities. The B*LeeV concept will be developed further at a later time.

         BC will be a men‟s line comparable to the offerings of B*LeeV. It will be the

third line established once B*LeeV is self-sufficient.

         These three brands will fit into different sections of the retail industry and the

overall fit will again be developed at a later time. B*LeeV will seek to fill a void in the

fashion industry of high quality and design at an affordable price. One special aspect of

this line will be the custom sizing and alterations available at no extra charge. Custom

design work may also be implemented as part of this quality and customer-centered

brand.
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       As the men‟s version of B*LeeV, BC will fill a similar role for men. Offering

high quality apparel at reasonable prices, BC will offer similar services to B*LeeV and

be part of the same lifestyle branding.

       ALiVe will be operational beginning summer 2010. Graduating college, moving

to another state, and further learning about and researching the industry are major reasons

for this. In the next year, I will volunteer at a Christian music festival and gain more

industry knowledge and work experience before beginning this venture.

Product Line

       Due to the nature of the retail clothing industry, trends and designs change

frequently. Thus, it is difficult to detail exact product offerings for next summer. They

will certainly vary according to the trends of the season.

       However, ALiVe clothing will remain consistent in design with the latest

offerings from secular competitors. As a Christian company, it is important to note that

the designs and offerings from these competitors will not be copied. Instead, the trends

will serve as inspiration shaped by the current offerings at these establishments.

       It is also important to mention that most Christian clothing is simply t-shirts and

hooded sweatshirts. ALiVe will break out of this mold, and this is significant simply

because of the different product offering. New believers may be more willing to purchase

apparel that is not overtly Christian, and may therefore be more willing to purchase

ALiVe merchandise.

       Customer needs fulfilled with ALiVe include helping money to go further. As the

brand grows and expands, more proceeds will support charitable organizations and
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causes, until the brand is run as a non-profit. Customers will then not only be buying

clothing, but supporting organizations as well.

       In addition of donating to various causes, ALiVe will use eco-friendly materials

and processes wherever possible. Green initiatives are popular among companies today as

more and more individuals recognize the importance of protecting the environment.

Although a challenging endeavor, this is worthwhile because by fulfilling this consumer

need, ALiVe will be supporting the environment and public desire. Drawbacks to this

may include a slightly higher cost of goods sold and the risk that consumers may move

away from the green initiative. However, the chances of this trend reversing in the next

year are rather slim, and therefore consumer interest in the environment will have to be

evaluated from time to time.

       ALiVe will also further its mission by enacting its philosophy of love, hope, and

acceptance however possible. This can be achieved by not only using environmentally-

friendly processes and materials, but also being sure that workers are properly paid and

that decisions made are responsible and reflect Christian beliefs. All efforts will be made

to use means of production that are fair and ethical. By only using manufacturers that

have been inspected and approved this standard can be enforced.

       The product line is in the very early stages of development, requiring more

research and initial funds to establish more concrete product concepts. One advantage of

waiting to begin this process is that I will be able to gain more insight to the Christian

clothing industry by volunteering at events and talking with other vendors.

       Expansion of the line is very possible. My initial target market is teens and young

adults 15-30. However, the line could be expanded to appeal to children and pre-teens,
                                                               ALiVe Christian Clothing     9


along with older adults. These expansions will be evaluated based on product sales and

test marketing results.

Entry and Growth Strategy

         I will enter the Christian clothing market by selling merchandise at several

Christian music festivals throughout the Midwest. Currently there are four events located

being in the Midwest region I will initially be based out of that I have researched as

possible venues. Dates listed are for summer 2009, and may vary slightly from year to

year.

         Ichthus Christian Music Festival has been held since 1969 in Wilmore, Kentucky.

It is the oldest Christian music festival, and 2009 dates are June 10-13. Located outside of

Lexington, Kentucky, Ichthus draws Christians around from all over the Midwest,

including Northern Michigan. I plan on volunteering at Ichthus this summer to gain

additional insight on the festival, operations, and possibilities. In addition, I will be

moving to Wilmore after graduation. Vender fees at Ichthus are a flat fee of $750, with an

extra $50 charge for an outlet. Another vendor requirement is liability insurance in the

minimum amount of $1 million, naming Ichthus Ministries, Inc. as an additional insured

party.

         AtlantaFest is held from June 17-20 in Stone Mountain Park, Georgia. This

festival has been held since 1986, and lasts for 3 full days and one evening. The booth fee

is $825, and electricity is $25. Information indicates an additional commission for

vendors selling merchandise for musicians, but this would not apply to me.
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        Alive Festival is held on the same dates, from June 17-20. This event is held in

Canal Fulton, Ohio, and has existed since 1988. Vendor fees are $650 plus a 10%

commission on total gross sales tallied daily. Electrical outlets are an additional $75.

        Cornerstone Festival is held from June 29-July 4 in Marietta, Illinois. Held since

1982, it has grown into one of the largest Christian music festivals. Vendor fees for this

festival include a $575 booth fee, a $50 refundable cleaning fee, and 25% commission on

gross sales over $1500. Cornerstone is also the longest festival being considered, held for

a total of four and a half days.

        Revenues will come exclusively from sales at Christian music festivals during the

first year of operation. Once a website is established, sales will come from both the

website and Christian music festivals. A retail establishment will be opened once web

sales can financially support overhead expenses. Subsequent stores will be established in

areas with strong sales as determined by zip codes, at which point the benefits of selling

at festivals may be re-evaluated.

        The website will be established in year two of operations, with a store opening in

year four to five. Subsequent store openings will be based strictly on sales volume in

those areas.

        The product line can be easily expanded, as adding new designs, sizes, and styles

will be consistent with the industry. Sales of apparel are influenced by the season and

current trends. Therefore, adding products will be an essential aspect of typical business

operations and growth through product line extensions will be undertaken as needed.
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                               Market Research and Analysis

        As previously mentioned, 76% of Americans identify themselves as Christians

(Keysar and Kosmin, 2008). This potential market of over 170 million people represents

a very large opportunity.

Customers

        Although the number of Christians is very large, ALiVe apparel will be

specifically targeted towards Christian teens and young adults, ages 15-30. This age

group captures the majority of individuals attending Christian music festivals, accounting

for both youth and chaperones. As this is a rather specific market, reaching these

potential customers will best be achieved through the growth strategy outlined above.

Christian teens and young adults are the most likely to attend Christian music festivals,

and are web-savvy. Therefore a website will serve as an effective means of reaching this

market.

Competition and Competitive Edges

        ALiVe clothing will begin at Christian music festivals. Because vendors are

typically local, small, and can vary significantly from location to location, it is difficult to

know who competitors may be at each location, and determining exact strengths and

weaknesses is challenging. I hope to gain more insight on this as I volunteer at Ichthus

this summer. However, there are general comments and analysis that can be made based

on personal experience.

        I have personally only attended one small Christian music festival. At this event,

much of the apparel being sold was by specific bands or organizations. The benefit to this

is that it promotes the band or organization, but there was little sold in terms of general
                                                             ALiVe Christian Clothing        12


Christian clothing. This is a void that ALiVe will aim to fill. Selling general Christian

apparel that is similar to popular secular clothing will be a simple yet significant

distinction. However, the festival I attended was very small (about 4,000 people), so this

observation may not apply to larger festivals.

       There are many small Christian clothing companies, but most of them focus on

selling t-shirts and other casual clothing. Most of the other styles offered cater towards

the more edgy Christian teens, towards a style that is stereotypically known as „skater‟ or

„punk‟. ALiVe clothing will fit into neither category – it will instead be a Christian

alternative to clothing that could be found at American Eagle or Aéropostale and thus

caters towards the more stereotypical „prep‟. As previously mentioned in the mission

statement, the ALiVe brand will aim to be „of the world, but not in the world‟.

       There are many small websites that sell Christian clothing online, but in

comparing them most offer similar and often the same clothing for sale. In my internet

research there was one company that stood out above the rest, and this company, C28

clothing, would be my main competitor.

       C28 is a brand based out of Corona, California. They operate 10 retail stores, 9 in

California and one in Virginia. They are the most prominent Christian retail brand, and

sell the most similar clothing to what ALiVe will consist of. They have an established

online presence and sponsor events and bands. Although C28 would be my main

competition, they are primarily based on the West Coast. This allows ALiVe to expand

within the Mid-West without major competition. Although this brand is strong, their lack

of presence in the area ALiVe will be primarily based will allow both brands to co-exist.
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       ALiVe will be set apart from competitors, including C28, primarily through its

product offering. By keeping up with current fashion trends and customer desires, ALiVe

clothing will lead in the Christian clothing industry. Most Christian brands focus first on

the ministry of the brand and secondly on the clothing. By switching that focus and

primarily offering apparel of high quality that is affordable and cool, ALiVe will be able

to fill a void within the industry. In addition, ALiVe clothing will be manufactured in

small quantities, so every item will be part of a limited production. This will allow me to

have a larger product offering and variety while reducing the likelihood of having excess

stock. In addition to these inventory benefits, having limited numbers of designs will

encourage customers to buy items quickly. This should reduce the amount of

merchandise sold on sale, improving my overall profit margin.

       A brand cannot be built on quality, exclusivity, and trendiness alone. ALiVe‟s

initial competitive strategy will include giving product discounts to bands, speakers, and

event volunteers. By doing so I hope to encourage purchases and increase visibility in an

inexpensive way. Unique niche trends appear at Christian events. Attendees will often

buy apparel that they might not consider outside of the event, simply because it is cool to

have while there. By providing volunteers, speakers, and bands discounts on merchandise

I hope that ALiVe products will become a popular event item. By encouraging these

initial purchases, ALiVe apparel will quickly have a following. Whether repeat purchases

will result from having a popular item at an event will still need to be determined.

       Another possible strategy would include partnering with events, bands, or

ministries to create exclusive apparel. This may be pursued once the brand becomes more

established.
                                                            ALiVe Christian Clothing         14


        Long-term competitive strategies include pursuing sponsorship of Christian

events, offering special discounts to bands and other public Christian figures. Hiring a

spokesperson for the brand is another possible way to remain ahead of competitors. In

addition to the continuous marketing efforts, I personally have a passion for reading

biographies of successful individuals, especially in business. By continuing to educate

myself by researching these successful individuals and companies, I will gain additional

ideas for competitive strategies that will be implemented by ALiVe.

                                      Marketing Plan

        As previously mentioned, the initial marketing strategy will be to offer discounted

merchandise to event volunteers, bands, and speakers in order to create a visible brand

following among visible Christian figures. As events are a relatively low-cost way to

generate a significant volume of sales, they will serve as a test market, providing the

opportunity to refine designs and product quality. By test-marketing in several different

areas the website launch may be more successful.

        Once the website is launched, Christian websites, communities, and bloggers will

be contacted in order to enhance brand awareness and visibility. The website will be a

sponsored search result on the major search engines, and repeated event appearances will

increase event visibility.

Price

        ALiVe merchandise will retail between $15 and $50, depending on the item and

merchandise costs. Shirts will retail from $15-30; jackets, sweatshirts, and light jackets

from $35-50; and pants from $35-50 as well. These prices may be adjusted based on

vendor pricing at events, merchandise costs, and other factors. However, all attempts will
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be made to stay under the maximum prices listed above. These ranges will allow ALiVe

to be affordable to teens and young adults while reflecting the quality of merchandise in

the price as well. In addition, both American Eagle and Aéropostale both operate within

the same price range.

Promotion

        Promotional activities will follow ideas already discussed in the marketing

strategy. These will consist of offering discounts to event staff, volunteers, and

performers as a way to encourage prominent figures to wear ALiVe merchandise. A

conscious effort will be made to improve the visibility of ALiVe merchandise, with the

goal of launching an event trend with ALiVe apparel. Other promotional activities will

include the website once launched and possible event sponsorship.

Product

        ALiVe merchandise will reflect a Christian design and overall theme. Although

the company will serve as a Christian ministry, clothing will first be high quality and

trendy. As a Christian version of American Eagle and Aéropostale, the line will consist of

more than just t-shirts and hooded sweatshirts. Jeans, khaki pants, sweaters, and polo

shirts are just a few items that will be offered that no other Christian line carries.

Distribution

        Distribution will consist solely of a booth at several Christian events until a

website is established, which will be after the first year of operation. Clothing will then

be available for purchase on-line. A retail store will be established in the Lexington, KY

area once sales volume through the website is sufficient to support the associated store
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expenses. Additional store locations will be determined by total purchases by zip code,

with stores being located in the areas that have the highest sales volume.

                                  Financial Considerations

       As with most business ventures, ALiVe will require outside funding in order to

begin operations. Needed money is primarily for beginning inventory, as seen below, but

funding is also needed for festival expenses.

                                             Start-Up

    Requirements                                 Funding
    Start-Up Expenses                            Investment
    Event Fees                      $3,000       Personal Investment               $6,000
    Insurance                       $1,000       Other                                 $0
    Total Start-Up Expenses         $4,000       Total Investment                  $6,000

    Start-Up Assets Needed                       Current Liabilities
    Cash Balance                    $1,000       Accounts Payable                      $0
    Inventory                      $16,000       Current Borrowing                     $0
    Supplies and Equipment          $2,000       Other Current Liabilities             $0
    Other Current Assets                $0       Current Liabilities                   $0
    Total Current Assets           $19,000
                                                 Long-Term Liabilities            $17,000
    Long-Term Assets                    $0       Total Liabilities                $17,000
    Total Assets                   $19,000
    Total Requirements             $23,000       Loss at start-up                 ($4,000)
                                                 Total Capital                   ($13,000)
                                                 Total Capital and Liabilities      $4,000
                              Table 1, ALiVe Start-Up Expenses

       The $23,000 required to begin operations is broken down first into festival fees

and $1,000 for liability insurance required for one venue. Supplies and Equipment needs

include a cash register and credit card machine, along with display materials for the

space. Funding will come from $6,000 invested personally and the remainder will be

financed as necessary. This leads to an initial loss at start-up of $4,000 and a negative

capital investment of $13,000 due to the needed financing. The $16,000 needed for

inventory was assumed to include the entire cost of goods sold for the first year of
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operations. All four events being considered are held within three weeks, so inventory

levels will be high before the events and substantially less following them.

         Sales forecasts for the first year of operations were based on a goal of selling 100

items per day at each event. Promotional sales were estimated at 50 items in the first year

of operation. Sales forecasts for the second and third year of operation include website

sales, along with increased event and promotional sales.

                                        Sales Forecast

Sales                                    FY 2010            FY 2011            FY 2012
Music Festivals                                $27,500            $32,000             $40,000
Promotional                                  1,000              1,500              2,000
Online                                                          7,200             12,000
Total Sales                                    $28,500            $40,700             $54,000

Number of Items Sold                     FY 2010            FY 2011            FY 2012
Music Festivals                              1,375              1,600              2,000
Promotional                                     50                 75                100
Online                                                -           360                600
Total Items                                  1,425              2,035              2,700
                               Table 2, ALiVE Sales Forecasts

         Number of items sold was based on an average price of $20 per item. Internet

sales calculated in year two were based on 360 items sold over a year (30 per month),

with an increase to 50 items per month, or 600 yearly, during year three. Promotional and

event sales would also be expected to increase as more individuals become aware of the

brand.

         Especially in today‟s economic environment, profitability is just as, or even more

important than sales. In a retail company, goods must be sold in order to make a profit,

but profits need to be possible. The break-even analysis below shows that ALiVe will be

profitable after selling over 400 items, which should be accomplished after the first event.

Even if sales are less than the level described above, ALiVe should still be able to take
                                                             ALiVe Christian Clothing      18


care of financial obligations. With forecasted sales $20,000 above the break-even point,

ALiVe should be able to survive even the worst economic circumstances.

                                        Break-Even Analysis

                    Monthly Units Break-Even                        37
                    Monthly Revenue Break-Even                  $740.00
                    Break-Even Units                               444
                    Break-Even Revenue                         $8,880.00

                    Assumptions:
                    Average Per-Unit Revenue                      $20.00
                    Average Per-Unit Variable Cost                $13.15
                    Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost                 $247.92
                           Table 3, ALiVe Break-Even Analysis

       The Profit and Loss evaluation indicates that ALiVe would operate at an eleven

percent profit margin during its first year of operation. In addition, a net profit would be

seen after the first year. Profit margins decline during the second year of operations due

to the establishment of the retail website. The web sales in this year do not cover the

added expense for establishment, but the investment already begins to payoff during the

third year of operations, as seen in the table below.

       Festival fees as calculated below are the basic booth fee plus the extra amount for

an electrical outlet. These differ from event to event, as previously explained. Two of the

festivals, Alive Festival and Cornerstone, charge a commission on gross sales. The

commission for fiscal year 2010 was calculated based upon estimated sales at these two

events, but the subsequent years were calculated based on the percentage of sales that

went to additional commissions during the first year of operation.

       Cost of goods sold was figured based on U.S. Census figures for the clothing

industry of 55% across the industry.
                                                                  ALiVe Christian Clothing     19

                                      Pro Forma Profit and Loss

                                                      FY 2010           FY 2011        FY 2012
 Sales                                                   $28,500           $40,700        $54,000
 Cost of Goods Sold                                      $15,675           $22,385        $29,700
 Gross Margin                                            $12,825           $18,315        $24,300
 Gross Margin %                                             45%               45%            45%

 Expenses:
  Festival Fees                                           $2,975            $3,200            $3,400
  Festival Commissions                                    $2,950            $4,213            $5,589
  Insurance                                               $1,000            $1,000            $1,000
 Website                                                                    $4,000            $2,000
  Other
 Total Operating Expenses                                 $6,925           $12,413           $11,989
 Profit Before Interest and Taxes                         $5,900            $5,902           $12,311
  Interest Expense                                        $1,020            $1,020            $1,020
  Sales Taxes                                             $1,628            $2,324            $3,084
 Net Profit                                               $3,253            $2,558            $8,207
 Net Protit / Sales                                         11%                6%               15%
                                  Table 4, ALiVe Income Statements

           Despite the impact on net income, cash flow is still positive during the second

   year of operation, as the investment for the website pays off as increased net cash flow.

   This statement of cash flows serves as a record for what was done with the cash received

   from sales. Although accounts payable increased significantly as a result of increased

   inventory, this accounts for the vast majority of the increase in cash spent in operations.

                                       Pro Forma Cash Flows

Cash Received                                         FY 2010           FY 2011         FY 2012
Cash from Operations:
Cash Sales                                                $21,375           $25,125           $31,500
Cash from Receivables                                      $7,125           $15,575           $22,500
Subtotal Cash Received                                    $28,500           $40,700           $54,000

Expenditures                                          FY 2010           FY 2011         FY 2012
Expenditures from Operations:
Cash Spending                                              $9,553            $9,737           $12,073
Payment of Accounts Payable                               $17,000           $24,000           $31,000
Subtotal Spent on Operations                              $26,553           $33,737           $43,073

Additional Cash Spent
Long-term Liabilities Repayment                            $1,020            $1,020            $1,020
Subtotal Cash Spent                                       $27,573           $34,757           $44,093
                                                              ALiVe Christian Clothing      20



Net Cash Flow                                              $928            $5,943           $9,907
Cash Balance                                              $1,928           $7,871          $17,777
                            Table 5, ALiVe Statement of Cash Flows

          Cash sales were calculated as 75% of event and promotional sales for all three

   years. Cash from receivables represents the remainder of sales for all three years.

   Payment of accounts payable reflects payments for inventory, insurance, and website

   establishment and maintenance. Long-term liabilities repayment is estimated at 6%

   interest on the initial $17,000 financed.
                                                           ALiVe Christian Clothing    21


                                       References

Alive Christian Music Festival. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from

       http://www.alive.org/vendors.aspx

Atlanta Fest Christian Music Festival. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from

       http://www.atlantafest.com/

Cornerstone Festival 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from

       http://www.cornerstonefestival.com/content.php?p=32

Ichthus Festival. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.ichthusfestival.org/vendors/

Keysar, A., & Kosmin, B. A. (2009). American Religious Identification Survey Summary

       Report. The Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. Retrieved

       April 14, 2009 from http://www.americanreligionsurvey-

       aris.org/reports/ARIS_Report_2008.pdf

United States Census Bureau. (n.d.) Estimated Annual Gross Margin as a Percentage of

       Sales of U.S. Retail Firms by Kind of Business: 1993 Through 2007. Retrieved

       April 15, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/svsd/retlann/pdf/gmper.pdf

Vault (2009). Retail. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www.vault.com

				
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