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Dodson Village A Flint Ridge Habitation Site

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					                   Dodson "Village": A Flint Ridge Habitation Site 

         James L. Murphy 
                                        James F. Morton 

   Ohio State          Libraries 
                                Columbus, Ohio 

          Columbus, Ohio 


 Introduction                                 Broken pottery, animal bones of many          bead, one small bone awl, and a[n]
    In a survey of Middle Woodland sites      kinds, and other general indications          unfinished knife handle. from the large
 in Licking County, Ohio, Bernhardt           show a more or less permanent habita­               of the deer antler.
 (1976) has reviewed the little that is       tion."                                           "This village site has been known for
 known regarding the Dodson "village"                                                       years as one of the greatest core fields
 site, a small site that was excavated on     Excayation History                            in the state. As there have been thou­
 Flint        by John and Paul Loughman          On April 19, 1932, A. T. Wehrle, of        sands of cores picked up on this village
 in the spring of 1932. Bernhardt con­ is the heart of the
                                              Newark, Ohio, purchased of Charles            site. The core which
 siders the site to               brief, inter­ tochip flake knifes
                                              Dodson "the right and                  of ex- flint. which was used
 mittent occupation related to procure­                   for and                  and all          which they prob[ab]ly used for
 ment of Flint Ridge (Vanport) flint and       Indian           etc.,        on       small working wood and bone.
 fits the site rather neatly into a settle­ work on May 3rd,
                                              tract 175 feet by 300 feet as now stated,        "We finished our
ment/subsistence model                        said tract being known as the Indian          1932."
 identical with that of Struever              Village site." The purchase price was
 Houart's (1         Hopewell Interaction     $75.00. John and Paul loughman                Ohio Historical            Collection
Sphere.                                       worked a total of 133 and 125 hours,             Except for the fragments of         all
    Although essentially in agreement         respectively, in               the site from  of the material excavated by the lough­
with Bernhardt's interpretation of the na­Dodson Site appears
                                              April 19 through May 3, 1932, John            man brothers at the
 ture of the Dodson Site itself, we think     loughman receiving 40¢ an hour. Paul          to be in the Ohio Historical
that his application of the Hopewellian       Loughman 20¢, for a total of $53.20 and       collections, where we have
 Interaction Sphere construct is a bit too    $25.00,                   The Loughman's      the material              the courtesy of
 elegant. Quite possibly flint from the       brief report to Wehrle is Quoted in its       Martha Potter Otto and with the aid of
 Dodson Site did eventually find its way      entirety below. The original, as well as a    Brad Baker. Unfortunately, individual
 in Middle or late Woodland times to          copy of Wehrle's agreement with Dod­          items cannot be related to either of the
           and some may also have trav­       son and his financial accounts with the       Loughman's "fire pots" and it cannot be
eUed to New York, New Jersey, or the          loughmans, is in the Licking County file      ascertained that all of their lithic mate­
 Delmarva Peninsula in Early Woodland         at the                  Archaeology, Ohio     rial was actually excavated, as some of it
times. We would emphasize that the            Historical                                    may have been surface collected at the
 Dodson Site was probably multi-com­             "Started exploring the Dodson village      site.
ponent, and rather than elaborate             site April 19, 1932, which is located on         Of the ceramics in the Loughman
an Adena "kula-like" Interaction ;-..nngr·..  Flint Ridge, two miles and a half north of    collection. eleven sherds are believed
we will here simply provide a closer de­ separate vessels
                                              Brownsville, in Hopewell Township,            to represent three
scription and analysis of the available       Licking         State of Ohio. This village   assigned to Adena Plain. These include
 Dodson Site material.                        site covered proxxmently [sic] one acre       the rim sherd and flat-bottomed basal
Site location                                 and a half of ground.                         sherd illustrated in Figure 1. Thickness
    Bernhardt (1976:44) criticizes the           "This village site was only a temperray    of the basal sherds ranges from 6.3 to
loughmans, as well as W.C. Mills, for         [sic] village site. As we found no proof      6.8 mm. The rim sherd and four body
         so        in describing site loca­   that this had been a permennent [sic]         sherds are very smooth, almost bur­
tions that                       "are so gen­ thick. Foursherds
                                              site. It looked as though it had been         nished, 6.1 to 7.4 mm
eral as to be of little value in <>tt<.rnr,ti used as a summer                              assigned to a third Adena Plain vessel
to rediscover the sites in                       "Probley [sic] the           came to the   vary from 8.0 to 10.8 mm thick. All three
course, fifty and Sixty years ago every       ridge during the summer mounths quar­         vessels have a fine to coarse granitic
collector who visited "the Ridge" knew        ried their flint for arrowheads, spears,      temper. Six additional plain body sherds
the location of Clark's blacksmith            and other flint objects. which                from 6.0 to 7.6 mm thick (mean, 6.8 mm)
as well as the loughman,                                 out on this site. As there were    with crushed igneous rock temper could
Graham farms. Deed records at the             thousands of Flintchips, ofthe best Flint     be Early, Middle. or Late Woodland plain
licking County Probate Court (Vol.                     material. The average depth of       ware.
p. 487) clearly locate the Charles C.         this village site was nine inches. In            Three cordmarked, limestone-temp­
Dodson farm, a 70 acre tract in lot 9,        exploring this village site we found          ered (leached) body sherds 6.2 to 8.6
Hopewell Twp .. purchased from Thomas         bones of the deer, wild turkey, and           mm thick and a rim sherd with flat lip
B. Iden, and immediately adjoining the        wolf, also broken pottery of                               a late Woodland (Watson/
J. R. Graham farm, 90 acres in the east­vesseldifferent            we also found cores,                                             2,
ern half of lot9, approximately one mile      leaf shaped spears, and arrow heads.          center).
south of the Flint Ridge Museum at "the       We also found two fire pots. No. 1 fire          More finely tempered (crushed igne­
Crossroads."             to locate the Dod­ may represent at
                                              pot contained one bone               broken   ous rock) body sherds
son Site more                 is due less to  pottery, bone of deer and wild turkey.        least two distinct vessels of Late Wood­
the inadequacy of the Loughman de­            six feet south of B.5, fifty two feet east of land or late Prehistoric ware. In one
scription than to the fact that the site is   C.5. Depth two feet seven inches, di­         assortment of sherds. thickness ranges
on private property.                          amenter three and one half feet. Fire         from 3.9to 8.6 mm, with mean of 6.0 mm,
    The Dodson Site is believed to be         Pot No.2 contained only broken                approximately one-third of the sherds
identical with the Graham Site, de·           of            Twenty Five feet south of       having the cord marking smoothed,
scribed by Mills (1921 :21 as a work­ exhibit an S-twist
                                              B.5.         nine feet west of A.6. Depth     though one sherd does
shop- "practically the only place on the      two feet. Diameter three feet. We found       in the cord marking. A single rim sherd
'Ridge' showing a continual habitation.       fragraments [sic] of mica, also one bone      (Figure 2.        4.9 mm thick displays

                                         23
vertical smoothed-over cordm arking .         Ridge. Licking Co.. 0 ., explored by        Irom the large amount 0 1 workshop
The neck sherd illuslraled in Figure 2        OSM . 1919. 1929. 1937 ." but none of      material associated w ith Quarrying and
(rig ht), 7.2-9.3 mm th ick, along with three this can be identified as havi ng come     prelim inary preparation 01 Fl int Ridge
                                              from the Dodson Site proper.
body sherds 5.2-7.4 mm Ihick, repre­ Site cannot be de­                                  flint. the Dodson
sents another Late Woodland or Late              Th e only other stone artifacts def i­  scr ibed as a " r ich site " (Bernhardt
Prehisto ri c vessel , clearly w ith cord ­   nitelya part of Ihe Lough man collection    1976:44). It seems likely that the "Iire
marked body and a smoothed neck area .        from the Dodson Site are the lIat , round  pots " excava ted by John and Paul
   The most unusual sherd is the incised      river pebble and rectangular bar of sid­    Loughman were Early and Middle/ Late
rim shown in Figure 3. Thin, 4. '-5.6 mm      erite (clay ironstonel shown in Figure 8   Woodland features associated with flint
thick . with a lIat. incised lip and crude.   Function 01 these two objects is specu­    procurement activities, probably during
scallop-like incised rim motil. this grit­    lative at best .                           the summer, though the launal assem­
tempered sherd might be Midd le Wood­            Faun al remains are also sparse ,       blage is too meagre to be definitive on
land in age, though it could be even          though it remains problematic whe ther     this score. Thallhey were directly asso­
Late Preh istoric. The decoration bears a     all of the excava ted materia l is st ill  ciated with a d iscrete yet far-flung trad­
crude resemblance 10 Ihat of clJzue/a         e xtant. There are three aniler tine frag ­ing network such as that envisioned in
bowls recovered from the Lenoir NO. 2         ments, as well as the large antler " han­  Struever and Houarf"s Hopewellian In­
and Cltico Mounds in Tennessee (Grillin       die" (more likely a flint knapping 1000,   teraction Sphere remains more dubious.
1943: pI. 129, 13 1), though no direct        the proximal end 01 a deer melacarpal
relationsh ip is likely.                      (right). fragments of the right and leH
   A variety of chipped llint bilaces are     scaputa of a deer. a deer phalanx (111).
available from the Loughman excava­           and a deer bone splinter awl. A dog
                                                                                                             References
tion s at the Dodson Si te . Triangu lar      mandible (right) probably represents the
blades are shown in Figures 4 and 5. All      Loughman 's "gray wo" " and there are      Bernhardt, Jack E
of th ese are of Flint Ridge llint and        also three loose canine teeth from dogs,      1976 	 A prell minllry survey 01 Middle
d isplay a considerable range in both         as well as a fragmen t of a raccoon max­               Woodland prehis tory i n Licking
                                              illa. a turkey radius awl, a fragment of               County. Ohio. Pennsylvania Archa&­
length / width ratio and basal configura­ 46. nos. 1-2. pp 39-54                                     oI00ist, Vol
tio n. Even more variable are the mod­        box turtle shell . and 2 1 fragmenls of
                                              un identifiable mammal bone. One shell     Bush. Deborah E
ified blades shown in Figures 6 and 7 .                                                     \ 9 75 	 A ceram ic ana lysis 01 Ihe late
Most of these are of Flint Ridge flint.       bead and one bone bead (F igure 9 )                    Adena Buckmeyer Sile, Perry Co .
though a few, including the Archaic point     complete the list of artifacts.                        Ohio 1na M Ich igan ArchaeologIst,
 in the upper lell 01 Figure 6 , are of Upper    If the Loughmans excavated all of the               Vol 21 , no l . pp. 9-23
 Mercer flinl. At least one typica l Adena    site ( 175 by 3OOleet) and assuming that   Grill in. James B
 Stemmed blade (m iddle 01 upper row.         this is all 01 the faunal material recov­     1943 The Fort Anc.ent Aspect: ,ts cuI/ural
 Figure 6) was recovered. The majority        ered. which is entirely possible, then                 and chlOnological POSItIon in M,S'
of the notched blades repr esent Middle       the Dodson occupation musl have been                   sIsslppi Valley archaeology. Un!­
or Late Woodland forms, but, surpris­ MIChigan Press
                                              very ephemeral indeed                                  ver.uty 01
 ingly. only one Hopewe1lian lIake knife                                                 loughman. John and Paul
occurs (lower right. Figure 71.               Conclusions                                   nd       Unpublished field noles on file al
    In May, 1927 , Dodson Village was            It is believed that the Dodson "village             Depl. 01Archaeology. The Ohio HIS­
 explored by one 0 1 the Loughmans ,          site " represents very short lerm occu­                10rlcal Society
 Robert Goshn. and Emerson Greenman.          pation over a long period of lime by       Mills. Wiliiam C
 The site was again vislted by Greenman       comparatively small groups 01 people          1921 Flinl Ridge Ohio State Arc haOOl­
                                                                                                     001ClJ1and Historical Quar/erl y. Vol
 in 1929. Included In this material are       i ntent upon procuring Fl int Ridge flint.
                                                                                                     30. pp 90-16"
 several hammerstones. two late Adena         The most intensive (or most frequent)
                                                                                         Struever, Sluan and Gail HOU8n
 blades , an Archaic bevel, and a SI.         use of the site appears to have been          1972 An analYSIS 01 the Hopewell Inler­
 Albans point. aswell as numerous Hope­       during Early. Midd le. and Late Wood land              action Sphere. In SOCIal Exc/lang e
 well ian cores. It Is presumed that this     times, and comparison may be made                      and Int eract ion. edited by E N
 materia l was su rla ce collected . There is wilh the ta te Adena Buckmeyer Site in                 Wi lmsen . Anthropological Papers.
                                              northeastern Perry County, a l ew miles
 also a large collection at th e Ohio His­ 01 Michigan . Museum 01                                   University
 torical Society si mply labelled " Flint     sou th 01 the Ridge (Bush 1975). Aside                 Anthropology. No 19.




 Fig 1 (M"01Ii1v - /tI ortoll) Ad.!"" PhllOr cur     ..",;cs fro", th e   Fry 2 (M"'1}Jry - MurIO'J) G nl· (IIItI 1""r.~IO ".:-I('m"rri!l1 nmsl,,..·tls
 Dod.soo, S,tr {Jru'sc(lle ('q llall; alit. ".t cll.                      (md grit· t~ ",f}d red, co ri/ marAw l IIcd 1I 1,~rd. D<xb.ort 5;1.'

                                                                          24
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fijI}   4 (M"rphy - M orloll ) Tnullqll/ar bl!r.t:t b/o(/cs




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ft~""
e"      ,                 .,' ,              "
                              25 

                                      Fig 6 (M rlrplry - Mo ~to") MOtI,/,ed h,/acral blad;:s. r"c/ur/mg fl "drme. A dena.
                                      m,d "',ddldUlle Woodlalld bludes.




                                      P'g. 7 (Mu rph!l - Morlorrj M,ddle and LAlle WOQlllund IIIJ1ched /J,/act!!l an d
                                      M,dllle Woodland bladd t l




1'19 8 (M u'Ph!l - Mo ~I()") AlIIla /lml ·t!'Orkwg 1 uIIII slone arll/ucls
                                                   00/                                I'; g 9 (A 'IJlrpl,y - Morton) DOlle awls. $hell and hone In!ads /ro.n
fro m Dod!lon Sit;: /l!ul lff'l!S                                                     D Ot/son SI/;: /eultln:s




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