Mooney Pilot March 07

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T he

        The Official Publication of       Members Only Issue
         the Mooney Owners of America

                                            March 2007

 Upgrading Older Mooneys
 The Mooney Wing: Hell for Stout…
Ageing AircrAft Woes
Aren’t going AWAy

When It
Comes To Mooneys,
How Old Is Old?
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                                                                                                      Volume 80

                             Feature Articles
                            8      When it coMes to Mooneys
                                   hoW old is old?
                                   Is a 40 year old M20 still as structurally strong and safe as
                                   one that came down the line last year? Well, that depends…

                            11    KroMer's Korner
                                  Bob Kromer
                                  Q&A About Full Power Climbs, Emergency Landings,
                                  And Common Sense Avionics Suggestions

                            8      Ageing AircrAft Woes
                                   Aren’t going AWAy…
                                   The NTSB Cautions The FAA (Again) About The Lack Of
                                   Regulations And/Or Maintenance Procedures Concerning
                                   Older Aircraft
                                   NTSB Report on Page 36

                            27     stAte of the Art vs stAte of the cheAp
                                   Mark Alexander
                                   One Intrepid Mooniac Agrees That GPS and Live Wx
                                   And Terrain Avoidance Is A Godsend, But Finds Yoke
                                   Mounted GPS Units Fit His Budget And Needs

                            28     hoW WAAs WorKs
                                   The Origins and Functionality of WAAS.

                            38     MoA MAintenAnce
                                   A MoA staff research report
March 2007

                                   About The Practice Of Not Logging Anything.
                                   “Un-Attractive” Or Worse….
                                   What Are Your Responsibilities As A Mooney Owner?
The Mooney Pilot Magazine

                                Regular Columns
                            14     letters to the editor
                                   Upgrading Older Mooneys
                                   The Making Of An Efficiency Champ, 201 On The Cheap

                            46     MoA’s clAssifieds
                                   Got something to sell? Reach every Mooney owner!

                            The cover picture is furnished by the Mooney Airplane Company of Kerrville, Tx
                            Cover Girls Wanted: Since we can now take select "ground shots", e-mail us your
                            digital picture. We can often fix them so they look like "air to air' shots.
            March                   airbill

             ith other aircraft it may be harder to tell older models
             from new, but with Mooneys this isn’t so much the case.
             In fact, a sharp 8 year old wantabe Mooniac can tell the
difference between a M20C and a TLS if for no other reason than its         Wayne Fischer               John Green
more modern slopped bigger windshield. Outside of lower cruise
speeds, the older “pre-201’s” had two main drawbacks-a cramped
if not poorly laid-out panel, and a smallish if not squintish, more
straight up and down noisy windshield. To its credit, and while a
new design interior Royalite did help the elbow room a smidgen,
the M20J brought an award winning IFR “T” panel and a more
streamlined windshield were addressed in spades in ’77 with the                                       Mark Alexander
                                                                         Robert Johnston, Jr.
advent of the magnificently efficient M20J/201 which had one of                  M.D.
the best of both-a modern larger windshield and a standard “T”
instrument panel. Lucky for us several entrepreneurial Mooniacs
didn’t take “no” for an answer and conjured up ways to retrofit most
of the current production improvements to older Mooneys. One of
these gurus was Coy Jacob and another who was instrumental in the
process was former long-term Mooney Parts and Service Manager
                                                                              Tom Rouch                 Bill Wheat
Dennis Bernhard, both of whom contributed data for our “How Old
Is Old…” article and as addressed a similar topic in our Letters
To The Editor on ageing Mooneys. While we are on the subject
of older Mooneys, lets get some facts straight. First off, older 4-
banger powered “pre-201” types comprise about 2/3rds of the
entire M20 fleet. The majority of those early 4-bangers were 180hp
M20Cs. Check out page 34 to see just how much difference exists            Mark Alexander               Cal Hensley
in the real world between a carbureted 180 hp Lyc vs a fuel injected
200 hp variant. How many of us use our Mooneys to commute
back and forth to work each day? Well, fellow Mooniac Mark
Alexander does and he has some hands-on observations concerning
“affordable” avionics that we think you will be interested in starting
on page 27. We all know our ship’s logs are important but just
                                                                            Fletcher Aldredge             Coy Jacob
when can a log entry be inaccurate to the point it is misleading or….
Check out page 38 for some specific answers so you can manage                  MOA’S Mission Statement:
                                                                         MOA is dedicated to promoting the safety and
your Mooney’s logs better.                                               enjoyment of operating, equipping, and maintaining
                                                                         Mooney aircraft as well as the following: To educate
                                                                         the Mooney owner and pilot community about the
                                                                         safe operation and care of the Mooney product line
                                                                         and more specifically, to foster and encourage formal
                                                                         continuous education programs accordingly. To provide
                                                                         a meaningful conduit or venue between the Mooney
                                                                         owner/enthusiast community and Mooney suppliers,
                                                                         vendors, and manufacturers. To provide a fair
                                                                         unbiased forum for consumer concerns. To promote
                                                                         the awareness of useful reputable vendors, suppliers,
                                                                         and their products within the Mooney market. To
                                                                         assist in enhancing a productive, useful interchange
                                                                         and fellowship between said parties and Mooney
                                                                         owners and enthusiasts. To provide a venue for, and
                                                                         to promote a useful interchange between individual
                                                                         Mooney owners and enthusiasts. To promote the
                                                                         value and utility of the Mooney product line to other
                                                                         potential users and owners through education and
                                                                         market awareness of the Mooney Airplane Company
                                                                         product line.

4 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                                  cockpit                        clutter

                                                             ver stop and think how difficult

                                                                                                 surprising large number of issues fall
                                                             it would be to write a set of       into the gray zone of what the “hands
                                                             rules to govern every possible      on” A&P/AI or more importantly, his
                                                     occurrence or set of circumstances on       local FAA FSDO (Flight Standards
                                                     something as fluid and comprehensive        District Office) interprets the rules
                                                     as the maintenance and operation of         to be. Read about these principles
                                                     fleets of divergent aircraft? Our cur-      of Mooney maintenance and find out
 The ediTor’s Typical                                rent regulatory system as governed by       what are the owners responsibilities as
  cockpiT cluTTer...                                 the FAA owes its existence to decades       it relates to logbook entries vs what is
  (And, You ThoughT Your PAnel                       of “trial and error” and unfortunately      the A & P’s or IA’s responsibilities and
           looked BAd)                               in many ways, much of our regs are          learn about the often misused Form
                                                     “written in blood”... past aviator’s        337 in this issue.
The Mooney piloT Magazine                            blood, that is. Perhaps this is why            If we ask nothing else of our
ediTorial/publicaTion office                         several, if not most, countries model,      Mooneys it would be that they don’t
p. o. box 1748                                       if not outright copy our own FAA’s          catastrophically fail us leaving us with
nokoMis, fl 34274-1748                               rulebooks when adopting their own           little or no way out. Due to the fact
941-486-1770                                         procedures and rules concerning their       the M20 airframe has always been
www.Mooneyowners.coM                                 domestic aviation practices and proce-      considered “hell for stout”* and in
eMail: adMin@MoapiloT.coM                            dures.                                      fact over-built, and given the fact the
display/classified adverTising                          However, unlike most other (nation-      M20 fleet has had no (or nearly no)
Magna MarkeTing, inc.                                wide) federal bureaucracies, the FAA        in-flight catastrophic failures thus
Joan Jacob, direcTor                                 is largely made up of individual semi-      far, why are we talking about ageing
MarkeTing                                            autonomous regions or “fiefdoms”, as        airframes here and now? Simple, the
eMail: Joan@MoapiloT.coM                             some of us in the industry call them.       GA fleet (and M20s in specific) isn’t
941-486-1960                                         While there are such things as “lead        getting any younger, and select com-
p.o. box 1748                                        regions” in certain areas of expertise,     petitive designs out there are starting
nokoMis, fl 34274
                                                     each individual region has lots of lati-    to show their age.
Magna labs                                           tude in their interpretation of the many       So, when it comes to everyday
941-486-1960                                         rules and regulations typically in play.    working/flying Mooney’s, how old
“afTer hrs” 941-484-0800                             Frankly, and as nearly every IA can
or 1-877-564-6662
                                                                                                 is too old? This question is one we
                                                     tell you, what is approved and legal in     deal with here lots lately as we think
fax: 941-412-0551                                    one region, my not be in anther, even
www.Magnalabs.coM                                                                                it is vital. Is, for example, a 40+ year
                                                     neighboring region.                         old M20/C/E etc. still as structurally
The Mooney Pilot is the official publication of
The Mooney Owners of America Association.               On top of that, the FAA isn’t always     strong and safe as a M20 that came
All editorial and photographic contributions are     clear in both rule making and inter-        down the production line at Kerrville
solicited. Any editorial or photographic matter
submitted for publication shall become the           pretation and differing regions occa-       last year? Well, that depends… Has
property of The Mooney Pilot and shall not be        sionally seem to be competitive, if not     your favorite vintage/olderish Mooney
returned unless specifically agreed to between
all parties. All material is subject to revision.    territorial. Perhaps nothing is more        always had good preventative (anti-
Submission of any material shall constitute
an expressed warranty by the contributor that
                                                     confusing than what constitutes a “ma-      corrosive fogging) maintenance and
the material is original and is in no way an         jor repair or alteration” requiring a FAA   regular competent Mooney savvy
infringement on the rights of others. MOA
assumes no liability for information contained in    Form 337 and what doesn’t... let alone      inspections? One thing for sure, soon
contributed material. No part of this publication    exactly what should be logged, how it       the FAA may get involved and possibly
may be duplicated or reprinted without the
written permission of the Executive Director/        is logged, and what doesn’t have to be      even set time or life limits for some
Editor in Chief. The Mooney Pilot Magazine           logged. While most maintenance or           airframes…Like it or not!
does not accept responsibility for the correctness
or accuracy of the matters printed or for any        mod questions are black and white, a          There is no denying the fact that
opinions expressed herein.
                                                     * see sidebar on page22                                           continued on page 6

                                                                                March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 
              cockpit                        clutter

older M20 airframes are ideal for retrofitting the various        The Mooney Pilot Magazine Online Index
improvements and upgrades that the models have seen in-              MOA members can now search out topics carried in back
troduced into the production line over the years. In fact         issues on-line “month by month” in our Magazine Section.
,nowadays, it is getting harder and harder to market a to-        This valuable feature has been one of our most popular ser-
tally “stock” pre-201 M20 as prospective buyers have long         vices. Now you can look up past topics and print them out
embraced the idea that it was a good thing to install such        anytime.
things as a modern/current production windshield, many of         MOA’s PMR & SERA
the applicable speed farings and gap seals, and some type           MOA has compiled maintenance and failure rate type
of cowl mod - if nothing else than a simple cowl closure          data and we have designed Preventative Maintenance
mod. So, since the Mooney market has embraced upgrad-             Recommendations (PMs) and Safety Equipment Recom-
ed/refurbed/modified Mooneys for some time, it is hard            mendations Sections (SETs). This Member benefit will
to find many truly original or “stock” older Mooneys sit-         help prevent unexpected or in-flight problems. Learn the
ting around. We think this is a good thing but just in case       typical MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) stats for most
you haven’t caught the mod fever yet, check out this issue        Flight-Critical components and accessories in the “Mem-
where we talk about some of the more popular upgrades             bers Only” Section.
and refurbishments available for older Mooneys
                                                                  MOA’s Price Guide
   Last, but never least is former MAC production test pilot         Price Guide is in our “Members Only” Section online.
and CEO, Bob Kromer where we do a re-take of a pre-               It will help ensure that
viously published Kromer’s Korner. In this rendition of           your maintenance and
Kromer’s Korner you will read about Bob’s ideas relative          refurbish invoices are
to full power climbs in a Mooney, emergency or off airport        reasonable. Price Guide
landings, and some good common sense avionics sugges-             is the Mooney equivalent
tions. Something we all could use from time to time in            to     the    automotive
today’s budget conscience world.                                  dealers’ Flat Rate Manuals.
Remember, be a Mooney Pilot Contributor. Tell us your              Reader Feedback, Maintenance Concerns, and Product
stories. Email any flying experiences that you feel may           Reviews—We Print the “Good, Bad, and the Ugly”
be of interest or educational value to fellow Mooniacs at Provide a photo of your Mooney and               Never let it be said that MOA shows favorites. We aren’t
who knows, maybe it will make the cover! We are es-               afraid to print letters or comments from folks who have
pecially interested in “air to air” shots that tell your story.   questions, concerns or problems. This is also why you will
Be sure to give us your name and N# so we can give you            often read of certain newsworthy items here first; often this
credit. We love hearing from you so please, send in your          will be the only place you will read of them.
input, both good, bad, and even the ugly. Help us make this       Renew Your MOA Membership Now!
your most sought after magazine.                                    Call anytime “24/7” 1-877-JOIN MOA -(1-877-564-
Renew/Join MOA Bonus                                              6662) toll-free, so you don’t miss an important issue. Re-
  For a limited time, MOA members who renew now for 2             member: if you only get one worthwhile idea...!
years will get a free MOA-T-Shirt or a T-Driver Pre-flight
Tool. Renew for 3 years and get a custom embroidered
MOA Golf Shirt or a free MOA cap.

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     When It Comes To
  Mooneys, How Old Is Old?
    Is a 40 year old M20 still as structurally strong and safe as one that came down the line last year?
    Well, that depends… Has your favorite Mooney always had good preventative (anti-corrosive)
    maintenance and competent Mooney savvy inspections? One thing for sure, soon the FAA may
    get involved and possibly even set time or life limits for some airframes…

    f we ask nothing else of our
    Mooneys it would be that they
    don’t catastrophically fail us
leaving us with little or no way out.
Due to the fact the M20 airframe
has always been considered “hell
for stout”*, and in fact over-built,
and given the fact the M20 fleet has
had no (or nearly no) in-flight cata-
strophic failures thus far, why are
we talking about ageing airframes
here and now? Simple, the GA fleet
(and M20s in specific) isn’t getting
                                                             Even 201s are getting long of tooth ...
any younger, and select competi-
tive designs out there are starting to   Mooneys in specific? This topic is       apparently still going strong; or so
show their age - some catastrophi-       what several organizations, manu-        it would seem.
cally and when that happens it isn’t     facturers, and the FAA is wrestling         So, is a concern for ageing M20
pretty.                                  with perhaps more so every pass-         airframes a fair question when it
  In-flight failures make for bad PR     ing day. While a 15-20 year old          comes to the Kerrville Ironwork’s
and always get the FAA’s attention       car is generally considered soon to      pride and joy? Given the fact that
big-time. And, given the fact that       be ready for the junkyard or maybe       a few GA aircraft tend to lead the
to a large degree many of the FAA’s      shipped off to some third world          pack and spotlight potential prob-
regulations have been “written in        country rutted road to serve up its      lems like this (such as the ageing
blood,” and when people start dying      days as a taxi, many GA aircraft are     pseudo-warbird Beech T-34 mini-
the Feds have been known to throw        nearly 40+ years old, and a large        fleet), and are now showing signs
a large patch-work regulatory quilt      part of our M20 fleet’s average air-     of potential (if not actual) metal fa-
full of “hit that fly with a hammer”     frame is on the north side of 30+...     tigue in critical areas, this becomes
type regulations over catastrophic       often way north! Heck, even the          a legitimate area of concern for us
problems like this, well you can         bulk of the semi-current production      all; including us Mooniacs. Our
imagine the rest…                        M20J fleet is over 20 years old. But     concerns here at MOA are when the
                                         with that said, and with the risk for    FAA sniffs out a critical fleet-wide
  Just how old is too old for a gener-   corrosion aside for a moment, the
al aviation aircraft, and in our case,                                            problem like this in one specific
                                         typical 40-year-old M20 airframe is
*See “Hell For Stout” sidebar
                                                                                                       continued on page 9
8 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                            technical                              pro

brand, they generally go on high          tory veteran Bill Wheat, who is still        Now with that disclaimer out on
alert for the rest of us and their pre-   with Mooney (as an FAA/DER) and           the table, you should also know
cautionary regulatory wordsmiths          considered an institution around the      that all Mooneys as well as most
go to Defcon 2. Often it has been         place. We also contacted several          GA aircraft flying today were certi-
said that political pressure influence    Mooney savvy sources out in the           fied under the old FAA CAR 3 stan-
FAA regs as much, if not more, than       field such as Lone Star Aero’s Den-       dards, which did not set a life-limit
common sense.                             nis Bernhard and nearby Ronnie            for aircraft or critical components.
   As it turns out, at some 300+/-,       Cramer at Dugosh at Kerrville for         As far as we can tell, only a few
the Beech T-34 Mentor’s fleet isn’t       their take as well.                       newly certified GA aircraft actually
large but it is unique for a former         While we are not making claims          have official “life limits” for critical
military aircraft in that it is essen-    or issuing guarantees for any spe-        structural components; i.e. wings
tially a tandem fuselage version of a     cific M20 airframe by any means,          and such. These include the Com-
“beefed-up” Beech Bonanza/Debo-           we have formulated some broad             mander 112 and 114 and the offer-
nair series and shares the same ba-       based conclusions. So make no             ings from Cirrus and Lancair, all
sic wing etc. Many surplus T-34s          mistake about this, this article is not   of which have been certified under
have seen more time in service            to be considered official doctrine of     the newer regulation FAR Part 23,
than their civie counterparts, and
while they probably received good
maintenance overall while in the
military, often they may have been
“rode hard and put away wet…” as
most T-34s served their tour of duty
as aerobatic trainers (of sorts), and
presumably been bounced around
and stressed to a higher degree than
the more prolific civie V-tail or
Debonair versions.
  So given the hard tour of duty
many T-34s lived with, the FAA
kinda considers the T-34 fleet as
their “aerial canaries,” much the
same as back when canaries were
used in mines as early detectors of                                                 which requires the manufacturer to
fowl (yea, pun intended) air…More         Mooney, the FAA, or even MOA
                                          for that matter, nor is it proof posi-    establish a time life-limit — gener-
later. See our T-34 Sidebar for de-                                                 ally in flight hours — for critical
tails.                                    tive that your specific ’62 or ’67 era
                                          M20 doesn’t now (or may in the            structures such as wing spars.
   Our Mooney Experts Wade In.            future) require extensive inspection        For example, the pressurized P58
MOA has raised this question of           or maintenance procedures relative        Baron (unlike its older siblings in
ageing M20 airframes to several           to critical primary structure, and/       the Beechcraft line) was essentially
Mooney savvy experts such as              or for that matter, is it still safe to   re-certified under FAA Part 23 and
Rocky Peters, former long-term            fly. What you will read here is our       thus has a 10,000-hour wing spar
Chief Engineer during the LoPres-         best interpretation of the subject        time-life limit. We have no reason
ti heydays as well as Ed Penney,          relative to the information available     to believe however, that the newly
long-term Mooney VP and man-              concerning the basic M20 airframe         certified Part 23 Baron’s wing spars
ager of Customer Service for a zil-       thus far.                                 would fail any quicker than the old-
lion years, and 30+ year M20 fac-                                                   er ones in the course of normal duty.
                                                                                                         continued on page 10

                                                                     March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 9
            technical                            pro

In fact, it isn’t uncommon for these     reason to believe that “add-on” type      Like we said earlier, the FAA
life-limits to be raised substantially   spar braces of some sort will be       considers the T-34 Mentors to be
once experience is garnered within       more common with other models as       their “canaries in the coal mine,” as
the fleet.                               well within the GA fleet as it ages,   being early indicators of problems
  The T-23 fleet hasn’t had much         but we have no reason to believe       that might crop up with other aging
good news lately as 3 have broken        that such a mod is on the horizon      aircraft in the future. “These T-34s
up catastrophically and the Feds         for our M20s anytime soon, if ever.    were flown to the extreme corners of
grounded the entire fleet. Accord-       The Feds, AOPA, And A Beech            the envelope and exposed to stress
ing to a recent report we obtained       Owners Group Meet                      and fatigue cycles much greater
on-line via the T-34 Mentor’s Own-          A few years ago the AOPA            than an aircraft flown in the normal
ers Group (, the T-         technical specialists were present     or utility category,” said Luis Guti-
34 Owners Association along with         at a meeting with the FAA and          errez, AOPA director of certifica-
the AOPA has been working with           the T-34 Owners Association in         tion and regulatory policy. He goes
the Feds to arrive at some reason-       Kansas City. Given the fact the        on to say, “but with the average age
able answers to the ageing airframe      FAA has grounded the fleet due to      of GA aircraft now exceeding 30
problem, as all involved realize that    three high profile in-flight break-    years, the FAA is increasingly con-
this concern won’t simply go away,       ups, this important policy-setting     cerned about the potential for fail-
but will become more and more            meeting was focused on the critical    ures in any older aircraft.”
prevalent as time marches on.            problems facing the Beech T-34           Sources within the FAA stated that
  In fact, our guess is that about       series aircraft; namely how to keep    they are considering options that
all it would take is a few more          the wings on-of all things! Of par-    could return some of the low-time
airframes to start showing similar       ticular interest to many V-tail fans   T-34s to airworthiness quickly, and
problems as the T-34, and the FAA        is the fact these former military      approve airframe inspections and
would kick into high gear once and       trainers have a similar basic wing     modifications that could get some
for all on this issue. One thing is      to the Beechcraft Bonanza, De-         of the higher-time aircraft back in
sure; there is no easy answer and no     ponair, and even Baron. The ones       the air as well. “However, aircraft
easy or quick way to determine if        that had critical problems were        structures do wear out,” said Guti-
GA aircraft as a whole should have       primarily used in recent times for     errez. “Every landing, every jolt of
some type of life-limit imposed on       mock air-to-air combat.                turbulence, flexes critical structures
them, model by model, or maybe
even en-mass. Before you scoff
at the idea, remember when people
start dying the rule makers start
  Airline transport category aircraft
aside, besides the Beech T-34, an-
other model the FAA watches is
the venerable twin Beech 18 series,
which themselves have shown their
age... structurally, that is. D-18
Beech twins have had several ma-
jor modifications mandated (both
“in-house” Beech sanctioned and
STC/PMA’d) to extend the life
of their basic structure, or in their
case, the wing spar via external spar                    Typical Pre-201 "Shot Gun"arranged panel.
cap straps. In fact, we have every
                                                                                                    continued on page 16

10 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                          kroMer's                       korner

             Bob's Mooney Q&A;
       Full Power Climbs, Emergency
       Landings, and Common Sense
            Avionics Suggestions
   First words: There is little doubt Bob Kromer is one of the most knowledgeable Mooney experts
  around. We consider ourselves lucky to have Bob on-board at MOA. Bob stands ready to answer
  your questions and to that end, MOA has been providing an email (
  where you can “Ask Bob” for his technical expertise for your favorite Mooney. Here are two popu-
  lar topics readers have expressed an interest. Please feel free to address your questions to Bob and
  he will either answer them privately or respond here in his regular column, Kromer’s Korner.
    From time to time MOA will also feature engineering flight reports on various model Mooneys
  by Bob as well. It is important to note that the opinions expressed here are not necessarily those
  of MOA, Mooney Airplane Company, or any specific vendor or supplier, but those of Bob Kromer
  personally as he draws from his cornucopia of Mooney experience.

                                    that a reduced power climb will     really performs at its best in
                                    help “save” an engine and aid       climb using 1) full throttle with
                                    in making the published TBO.        a normally aspirated engine or
                                    That’s just not correct. For        2) max rated manifold pressure
                                    the Mooneys we fly (normally        with a turbocharged engine, 3)
                                    aspirated and turbocharged),        maximum RPM (2700 for most,
                                    there is absolutely no technical    2400 in the Eagle), 3) mixture
                                    evidence that indicates reduc-      leaned to 125 degrees rich of
                                    ing engine power for climb will     peak EGT or TIT, 4) cowl flaps
                                    gain you anything other than a      full open, and 5) airspeed at
                                    longer time to reach smooth,        Vy+10 or +20.
                                    cool air for cruise. The engines      Let’s discuss each of these
                                    used in all Mooney models are       items. Air is cheap, fuel isn’t.
Dear Bob,                           rated for continuous operation      Consider the extra airspeed a
  Question: Immediately after       at maximum (takeoff) power          good value to help cool the en-
takeoff, I like to reduce power     and you aren’t causing any          gine in the climb. 125 degrees
(manifold pressure and propel-      damage or extra wear and tear       rich of peak EGT or TIT is the
ler RPM) to save my engine.         by keeping the power there for      mixture setting for best power,
Can you give me a recommen-         the climb to altitude. In engi-     just what you’re looking for
dation for the best RPM to use      neering flight test at the facto-   to obtain peak rates of climb.
for the reduced power climb to      ry, we performed many engine        Max propeller RPM gives you
altitude?                           cooling climb tests and looked      the most static thrust, just what
  Answer: One of the greatest       at the most efficient way to        you want for best climb perfor-
misconceptions that I find in the   get a Mooney to altitude. We        mance. And the throttle fully
Mooney community is the myth        found that the Mooney airframe      open (normally aspirated) or set
                                                                                          continued on page 12

                                                          March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 11
           kroMer's                        korner

to maintain max rated manifold        proach in nasty weather and hit
pressure (turbocharged) gives         some tall, solid, big trees. All
you maximum horsepower for            that was left of the airplane on
the climb and helps in the even       the floor of the forest was the          The Full Throttle
distribution of induction air to      cabin section from the firewall to         Climb Debate
the cylinders for cooling.            the baggage area. The pilot told
  So next time you’re out fly-        me the last thing he remembered          While giving full credit to
ing, try keeping the power up         was seeing his airspeed reading          Bob’s technical experience
and the speed up for climbing to      70 KIAS just before impact. Al-          and opinions, despite Bob’s
altitude. If you do, you’ll be fly-   though injured, the pilot lived to       comments about retaining
ing your Mooney the way it was        fly again – in another Mooney.           full power well after take-
designed to fly – efficiently and       But no matter how tough, all
                                                                               off until your eventual cruis-
economically.                                                                  ing altitude is reached, many
                                      structures have their limits, in-
                                                                               pilots and even some engine
  Question: What’s the single         cluding your Mooney. The sin-
                                                                               overhaul shops offer an alter-
most important thing I can do         gle most important thing you can
                                                                               native opinion that it may be
to survive an off-airport, forced     do to make an off airport landing
                                                                               wise to reduce power some-
landing in my Mooney?                 successful is to reduce the crash
                                                                               what once the obstacles are
                                      forces by keeping the ground-
  Answer:     It is vital you keep    speed as low as possible prior
                                                                               cleared and a positive climb
your speed (groundspeed) as                                                    rate is assured.
                                      to the impact. Never, ever slow
low as possible during the            down so much that you stall or
“landing.” I received several                                                  Typically this initial power
                                      lose control – that’s generally
letters and photos during my                                                   reduction is slight, perhaps
                                      a fatal mistake in any airplane.
tenure at the factory from pilots                                              down to some 85-90%+/- of
                                      But if you’ll slow to 1.1 to 1.15
who had survived forced land-                                                  full rated power. But then
                                      Vstall prior to impact (60-65
ings in their Mooney. Some of                                                  again as Bob so adroitly points
                                      KIAS or so in the Mooneys we
the photos were remarkable.                                                    out, factory engineering tests
                                      fly), your chances of survival in-
They showed the remains of a                                                   indicate this is not necessar-
                                      crease dramatically.
totaled airplane, except for a                                                 ily the best procedure overall,
completely intact and undam-             From the equation defining ki-        nor does data exist to indicate
aged cabin area.                      netic energy , energy is equal to        that reducing power increases
                                      the mass multiplied by the veloc-        engine life or adds to cooling.
  The Mooney airframe is in-          ity squared divided by 2, you can        Bob is absolutely right in his
credibly strong and besides its       deduce that an impact at 80mph           statements that your engine is
super strong one-piece spar, the      is roughly twice as hazardous as         rated at full continuous power
cabin’s 4130 steel tube roll cage     one at 60mph and one at 120 is           output and the engine manu-
is at the core of this feature. As    about three times as dangerous           facturers tend to side with
part of the cabin structure, it’s     as one at 70mph. So, whatever            his observations for engine
unbelievable how much impact          it takes, keep the groundspeed as        typically found in Mooneys.
and crash force the triangulated      low as you can if you’re going           So, the choice is yours. As
tubular steel fuselage frame in       down somewhere. Land into the            always MOA welcomes dis-
your Mooney will take and still       wind. Keep the airspeed low but          cussion on this and any other
retain its basic shape. I remem-      the airplane controllable. Doing         topic presented.
ber one photo of an accident          so gives that wonderful Mooney
where an M20J pilot descended         airframe and tubular steel cage
too low on a non-precision ap-
                                                        continued on page 13

12 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                             kroMer's                      korner

surrounding the cabin the best         hear good things about the new       Frankly, in my opinion unless
opportunity to keep you and            economical E-gyros such as the     your ship has dual alternators or
your passengers alive.                 Garmin 196 and the Icarus Mini     you never fly over strange territo-
                                       HSI feature and predict you will   ry, IFR, or at night, I think it wise
  Question: I fly my older             see more of them in Mooney         to have a portable self-powered
M20C with fairly outdated avi-         cockpits in the future.                                continued on page 45
onics a lot in IFR conditions.
What’s your opinion on the best
safety items I can invest in for
the kind of flying I do.

  Answer:      Lots of different
opinions on this one, I think it
wise to equip your aircraft for
the type of flying you are doing.
There is no underplaying the im-
portance of reliable navigation
and communication equipment
especially when things turn
sour or when IFR. Tremendous
strides have taken place in the last
few years in avionics especially
with the advent of the mind-bog-
gling capabilities of state of the                   The Comm and Nav setup of an IFR panel
art GPS/Map/Com combos
now featuring TAWS, Traffic
Avoidance, and especially up-
loadable live Wx information.
Resale stats show capable avi-
onics packages make reason-
able investments.
  I would recommend you al-
ways have at least one good
nav/com or maybe a good
GPS/map/com on-board. Al-
ternatively for budget and
emergency considerations, one
could buy 1) a capable portable
GPS, 2) a portable transceiver,
3) a coaxial connection into
the airplane’s comm antenna
to connect the portable trans-
ceiver into and 4) the ability to
connect your headset into the
portable transceiver. I also

                                                           March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 13
            letters                     to        the          eDitor

 Upgrading Older Mooneys: The
Making Of An Efficiency Champ 201
 On The (Cheap) Installment Plan

        What Mod/Up-Grades Are Available And What Is Practical
Dear MOA,
   My Mooney is a 1963 C model
(180 hp, carbureted, short fuse-
lage). I am facing a major engine
overhaul, and thinking that this is
the time for some modification work
to enhance my aircraft. I have
owned the airplane for 7 years, and
it has proven to be very depend-
able, and suits my needs very well,
but for a few “wishes”. Most of my
                                                Yeah ... We know, it ain't a Mooney. But what would Al and
flight time is cross-country, with at
                                                                      Art do with this?
least two people, and often the seats
are full. With full tanks, I can cur-     Next would be more horsepower          The aircraft currently has a few
rently take 675 lbs. of people and      under the cowling to boost climb      speed mods (Lasar cowl closure,
baggage, and I really don’t want to     capabilities, and help out with the   flap and aileron gap seals, flap
compromise that. About 30% of my        top speed. I am thinking seriously    hinge covers, tail root horizontal
flight time is IFR, and most of it is   of a 200 hp conversion, with some     fairing, dorsal fin vertical seal, and
in and out of small airports. I like    compression adjustments to that, to   one piece windshield) and I am able
the manual gear, flaps, and trim. I     make it even better.                  to consistently flight plan for 140
don’t need the bells and whistles. I                                          knots, averaging right at 10 GPH
                                          Number three would be a cowl/
want to go fast, safely and as effi-
                                        windshield makeover to push the       fuel burn. At some point in the fu-
ciently as possible.
                                        speed up further and improve cool-    ture, I’m sure I’ll have to reseal the
  On top of my wish list are a few      ing. I assume this would also in-     tanks, as they are just beginning to
more inches in the cabin length, to     volve moving the battery to the aft   show some signs of seepage. The
allow a little extra legroom for the    equipment bay and moving the oil      paint is in excellent shape, the inte-
rear seat passengers. I am 6’1”         cooler to the rear of the engine.     rior is Spartan but acceptable.
and don’t mind the fit of the Mooney
at all, but the overall comfort of a      Further down on the list is over-     If I could satisfy myself that some
‘full seats’ cross country would be     lapping nose doors. I’m not sure,     of these issues were addressable
greatly improved by a couple of         but these may be addressed with       (mainly the leg room) then I’d be
extra inches of leg room. I have        Lopresti’s cowl mod. Along with       comfortable committing to this air-
looked at going to an F model or a      that, a one-piece belly would make    frame, and working out a plan and
201, but can’t bring myself to part     me a lot happier when I have to       schedule for these improvements,
with mine yet, after what I’ve seen     open it up for maintenance or at      as well as avionics upgrades.
available, and since knowing mine       annual time.
                                                                                If you could give me your expert
so well.
                                                                                                  continued on page 24

14 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007

Entrants must complete the Aviator Services registration form to enter the “Win An Engine” sweepstakes. No purchase is necessary
     to enter. All entries must be received by midnight CDT July 19, 2007. The winner will be announced at AirVenture 2007.
            technical                          pro

                                                        that, yes we are       the cowl and associated FWF and
                                                        interested in what     trim system related components.
                                                        is happening to the       One shop we contacted for in-
                                                        Beech fleet. Do        tel on the subject was Coy Jacob’s
                                                        we think sooner        operation in Venice, Florida, who
                                                        or later what          at one time was selected by Flight
                                                        happens to them        Safety to sell about 8 of these (re-
                                                        will happen here to    tired) M20J/AT aircraft. As it turns
                                                        us? Probably not       out, Flight Safety was phasing them
                                                        in our lifetimes,      out to be sold to private owners.
                                                        but then again we      Coy reports that the highest time
                                                        don’t have the         airframes he remembers in their
                                                        world’s clearest       fleet were M20J/AT’s that clocked
                                                        crystal ball either    up into the 7-8,000 hrs total time
   The 201 windshield retrofit/mod is one of the most   What we do have
             sought after upgrades by buyers.                                  range. When (given their calendar
                                                        reason to believe      age), that would calculate be about
and causes metal fatigue. Eventu- is that sooner or later the Feds will        three or four times the hours you
ally, something will break. That’s adopt some sort of regulation or            would have expected to see in pri-
why ongoing airworthiness efforts standards on the subject, and due            vate ownership. All in all, the good
are so important. Even though we to the close (if not exact) structural        news is that he found no major
believe that our older aircraft are similarity in the entire M20 product       structural problems and no sign of
still safe, there is NO QUESTION line one to the other, it may be wise         metal fatigue in primary structure
that the FAA is reevaluating the way if MAC or some Mooney owner’s             whatsoever.
it deals with aging general aviation group come up with our own specs
aircraft,” said Gutierrez. “AOPA and preventative inspection and                 Outside of the expected cosmetic
will be there to make sure that we maintenance procedures before the           “wear and tear” issues, the only real
take the necessary steps to ensure FAA decides to act globally.                concern he observed with this high
continued safety while also doing High Time Trainer M20s Tell                  time mini-fleet was with the fiber-
everything possible to keep these Their Secrets                                glass cowls, emergency gear retract
aircraft flying and affordable.”                                               cord/pulleys, and (of all things) the
                                         For a while in the late ‘80s and      cabin door hinges and door slides
Should Mooniacs Worry?                 early ‘90s MAC produced a M20J/         showing excessive wear. He said
   We have been saying all along       AT (Advanced Trainer) version that      the M20 emergency gear exten-
that airframe corrosion, not total     was primarily sold to flight schools    sion system simply wasn’t designed
flying time will be the nemesis of     for (surprise) advanced training;       to be extended several times a day
your “hell for stout” Mooney as,       namely IFR training. All in all,        for years on end w/out wearing out.
to date, no indication has reached     Daytona Beach based Flight Safety       Certain components in the emer-
us that any M20 has experienced        probably purchased more of these        gency gear extension systems such
primary structural failure due to      ships than anyone else and some         as the emergency hand pull cable as-
metal fatigue. On point is the fact    accumulated approximately 7K+ in        semblies showed abnormal wear as
that Al and Art Mooney contempo-       total flying time in relatively short   did certain joints on the gear itself.
rary genius engineer Ralph Harmon      order. While none suffered prima-       After all, each AT trainer had its gear
designed the venerable Beech 35        ry structural problems due to flight    justifiably extended numerous times
series aircraft (the T-34’s civilian   training and high airframe times,       each day in the course of giving
counterpart) PRIOR to his switch-      there were some wear and tear is-       normal IFR training and probably
ing brand names and moving to          sues primarily in the gear systems      received a typical year’s worth of
Kerrville.                             and stress cracking issues in some of   private use in just a few weeks.
                                       the fiberglass components; namely
  Now with indirect lineage like                                                 Remember, where it is normal
                                                                                                    continued on page 17

16 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                            technical                      pro

                                                            major refurb procedure, they looked nearly as good as
                                                            a M20 with less than 1/4th the total time.
                                                            How Long Is A M20 Good For?
                                                               We posed this question to about everybody we thought
                                                            was a Mooney expert and nobody really had any defini-
                                                            tive answers except former long-term Mooney Chief
                                                            Engineer, Rocky Peters. Rocky should know. While
                                                            he is now with Switzer Aircraft, he served as Chief
                                                            Engineer at MAC for several years back in the heady
                                                            LoPresti heydays. We talked with him a few years back
                                                            and he said he would have no problems putting his fam-
                                                            ily in a 50,000 hour M20 airframe providing it has good
     Leather wrap yokes are a nice touch in nearly          Mooney savvy inspections, and preventative mainte-
                       any Mooney                           nance especially in the form of anti-corrosion fogging
for privately owned M20s to only manually extend the        and replacement of components when needed etc.
gear system once a year (probably as a test at annual),       Rocky went on to say that the M20 main spar is sooo
these training aircraft had their gear extended manually    over-built that he doubts it would give much trouble in
via the emergency pull/crank several times a day. So,       any event. The gross weights have slipped up over the
they got a typical private M20’s lifetime worth of wear     years and consequently the weakest links (yep, another
and tear in a year or so. Likewise for the entire gear      pun) are now the M20 landing gear and associated me-
system as these aircraft had more pattern work in any                                             continued on page 18

given active week than most privately owned aircraft
get in a year or so.
  Another area showing up as being prone to wear was
in the inboard flap hinge pivot bracket which tended to
crack at around 5,000 hrs tt and needing replacement
according to Bill Wheat who has watched several high
time airframes (7-9,000hrs+/-) come through the Du-
gosh facility after doing a tour of duty as trainers.
   Also, since the 4 banger Lyc isn’t known for its over-
ly smooth operation, in a high time training airframe
situation, the M20J’s fiberglass cowls suffered in that
they tend to absorb engine vibrations and the fasten-
ers simply wear out after time. Also, the cowls were
removed far more often than their private counterparts
and they accumulated flying time at a rate of 5-10 times
quicker than private ownership as well. How did the
M20J cowls fair? “Not too good” said Jacob as most
required major structural repairs to bring them up to
snuff when compared to cowls with about 1/4th the to-
tal time in service. He said that without major mainte-
nance, the cowls would seem to have about a 5,000 hr
useful life before major re-work is called for.
   Other than odds and ends here and there, these flight
line trainers didn’t show any appreciable metal fatigue
structurally whatsoever and once they had undergone a

                                                               March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 17
            technical                           pro

chanical linkage. So, landing weight-limits aside, the basic air-
frame itself simply doesn’t have much in the way of true weak
points that they have ever found. He remembered however that
the nose gear structures are “right up to the limits” as to how much
abuse it can handle when it comes to the larger/heavier engined
models. Also, he has seen engine mounts sag in the event of su-
per hard landing/crashes to the point they need to be replaced.
  Mooney guru/legend Ed Penney says one of the main things
they used to check for excessive stress in hard (crash) landings
back when he was at the helm of Customer Service was the two
front seats. As it turns out, once they knew the weight of the pilot
and/or co-pilot they could predict how many G’s the airframe saw
depending on what components gave way in the seat mechanisms.
Amazing… Good food for Weight Watcher’s thought…
  Mooney institution and long-term M20 engineer Bill Wheat
says that in his opinion one main factor in keeping metal fatigue
at bay in the Mooney wing is the fact that in order to have metal
fatigue you typically have to have some sort of flexing or move-
ment under stress within structure itself. “The M20 wing is so
damn stiff or stout that it simply doesn’t bend much, (if at all) to
speak of under a load” says Bill, and he should know as he knew
both Ralph Harmon and the Mooney Brothers and at nearly 40
years on the job (off and on), has been around the factory longer
than anyone else. He said the wing and fuselage is way over-
built and he spikes his opinions with recollections of doing dive
testing back in his factory test pilot days to speeds he won’t even
talk about here and now.
  Bill says he wouldn’t be surprised if the basic Mooney airframe
went the way of the venerable DC3 in that the Feds tried to put
a time-limit on some of the super high time DC3 airframes (50-
75,000+ hrs) but found that in practice they simply didn’t break-
no matter how much time they spent in the air! Many are now be-
ing flown out of dirt strips someplace other than the U.S. markets
and are still going strong. As it stands, the FAA has all but given
up trying to write a life-limit spec for the C-47/DC3 airframes as
they simply keep on flying and not suffering any major failures
no matter how much they are abused and over-loaded…
  Again, it will probably be airframe corrosion that will be the
grim reaper of your favorite Mooney, not metal fatigue. And, for
that we have a most effective weapon and the weapon comes to
us in the form of a CorrosionX laden spray wand used by a man
who knows where and how to use it often enough.
  We plan on continuing this series in the near future, probably in
the next “Members Only” issue. Keep tuned and let us know of
your experiences.
Sidebars on Pages 22 and 23

18 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                                 technical                             pro

                           Ageing Aircraft Woes
                           Aren't Going Away…
      The NTSB Cautions The FAA (Again) About The Lack Of Regulations And/Or
      Maintenance Procedures Concerning Older Aircraft... for now it's not M20s

         emember the amateur video
         all the major networks aired,
         that just happened to catch the
’05 watery crash of the Chalk Airlines
Grumman Turbo Mallard amphibian,
the right wing failing completely and
separating from the fuselage shortly
after take-off in Miami? Well, the find-
ings are in, and FAA just got its hands
slapped (once again) by the NTSB for
not addressing maintenance issues spe-
cifically targeted toward older ageing
aircraft. It is our bet that sooner or later
(probably sooner) they will do some-
thing about it globally that will trickle                       The problem area on Chalk's Grumman G73T
down and affect most of us flying any-
thing but near new aircraft-including us       airline documenting the repair work.      selves with this al be it, tragic acci-
Mooniacs.                                                                                dent? Simple, much of what we know
                                                  Other maintenance problems at
What Happened                                  Chalk included substandard repairs on     as “FAA Regs” have been written in
   The NTSB said the Grumman Mal-              the wing that failed and an un-inspect-   blood and this one is a perfect example
lard G73 took off with a nearly 16 inch        ed repair performed in 2000, accord-      of what it takes to goad the FAA into
long crack in its right wing. Accord-          ing to the NTSB. Rivets were installed    action. Look no further than the recent
ing to Chalk’s pilots who were inter-          improperly on the wing, including one     FAA sponsored symposium in Kansas
viewed by investigators, a group of            that apparently was attached in a way     City on “Ageing Aircraft” as an ex-
pilots discussed problems with Chalk           that prompted a crack, according to the   ample of the FAA awakening to this
maintenance procedures a year before           final NTSB report.                        growing problem. We think it only a
the accident. “There was a widespread                                                    matter of time before the Feds will em-
                                                Why do we here at MOA concern our-                            continued on page 34
perception that pilot complaints were
not properly addressed by maintenance
and that it was often necessary to write
up the same problem repeatedly until it
was fixed,” according to an interview
with Robert Lutz, a captain at Chalk’s
whose comments were included in the
NTSB reports.
Lutz said three pilots left the airline as
a result, but Lutz and others said the
maintenance had recently improved,
the NTSB said. Investigators examin-
ing the wreckage found that metal near
the crack had once been repaired, ac-
cording to the NTSB documents. Inves-
tigators could not find any record at the

                                                                        March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 19
                             Aviation Oxygen Systems               Aviation Oxygen Systems

                           Don’t leave Earth without it.         Don’t leave Earth without it.
                                              Portable                              Portable
                                              and                                   and


                                              Systems                               Emergency
      Be a                                                                          Systems
   Mooney Pilot
    MOA needs your input.
Don't be shy….Be a Guest
  Author. Tell us your story.                 Masks and
 Share your Mooney flying
  experiences that you feel                   Oxysaver                              Masks and
    may be of interest or of                  Cannulas                              Oxysaver
  educational value to your
fellow Mooney owners and                                                            Cannulas
 pilots. We especially want
 to hear about the different
   things you have learned                    Parts and
    while flying (or owning)
   your Mooney as well as                     Accessories                           Parts and
  the places you fly to and
  like to visit. We welcome                                                         Accessories
    unsolicited writings and
articles as well as photos to
be used within the article or
 as a 'Cover Girl' shot. For      Celebrating
                            25 YEARS                                    Celebrating
  more information on how
 to submit information and

                                                                  25 YEARS
   have it published in The
   Mooney Pilot Magazine,                as the
                           WORLD LEADER
   please contact the MOA
  office at 941-484-0801 or
 email                                                      as the
  Thanks! We look forward In High-Duration Oxygen Systems
    to making you another Phone (800) 237-6902 •   WORLD LEADER
       famous Mooniac!                                            In High-Duration Oxygen Systems
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                                                           March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 21
           technical                             pro

   The Mooney Wing: Hell For Stout…Yep And
        It Wasn't An Accident Neither…
           Next time you venture into a T-Rex nasty black thing, you may want to
                          give homage to a man named Ralph…

  An MOA Staff Research Report            had a wood tail and wood wing           We used a three-piece skin system
     As we have stated here before,       FAA Certified. In fact, they were       at Beech which left an exposed
  Ex-Bonanza Chief Engineer Ralph         just barely in production when          spar, but was easy to produce.
  Harmon actually designed the all-       Al and Art left. Ralph’s daunting       When I designed the M20 wing, I
  metal M20 back in he early ‘60s         task was to make the Mooney “all        wrapped the spar front to back as
  the one we all fly and love today;      metal” and develop a good set of        you would have to tear metal to
  not the Mooney brothers Al and          engineering drawings as Al was          break that sucker! I guess I went
  his practical “hands-on” brother        nothing short of a brilliant designer   to far too many (test pilot) friends’
  and co-worker Art, per se. While        himself, but had kept much of the       funerals while in Kansas and was
  not taking anything away from the       design work in his head.                damn well determined not to do
  brothers Mooney; they actually            In an interview we had with           so again in Kerrville. In short, I
  designed and then delivered a           Ralph Harmon before he died, we         learned from my mistakes while
  wood wing and tail M20, and got         got the impression that he ended up     at Beech, and fixed them on the
  it certified - not the aluminum one     somewhat resenting Walter Beech’s       M20 when I came to Kerrville.
  as they did little other than lay out   method of doing not much more           I had no one looking over my
  the groundwork for an aluminum          than was absolutely necessary,          shoulder saying “make it cheaper
  airframe. Remember, this was            engineering or structure-wise. He       and/or lighter” when I designed
  back in the time when the wood          said Walter’s favorite saying was,      the all-metal M20, and it probably
  winged wonder, the great handling       “fix (strengthen) it ‘till it quits     shows…”*
  Ballanca, was still king heir           breaking and then quit.” As a
  apparent, and wood aircraft were        result, Ralph (over) engineered the        * Note: The preceding was taken from
                                                                                  notes from an interview with Ralph Harmon
  still being made to some degree.        all-metal M20 from the get-go.          just after he addressed a Mooney owners
                                                                                  meeting years ago in circa ’81 in Kerrville
     The industry was switching to          When he came to Mooney he             and was recently confirmed with Bill Wheat at
  aluminum but the all-aluminum           told his engineers that he would        Mooney for its accuracy.
  Bonanza didn’t have the best of         rather see a Mooney pilot land with
  reputations as it was known that        a crushed backbone (“busted butt,”
  several early prototypes met their      actually) than a
  fate by turning into aerial confetti.   broken wing.” He
  In fact the early Bonanza’s             also was on record
  structural record was (apparently)      as saying, “I
  a source of some embarrassment          learned at Beech
  to Ralph.                               both what TO do,
    Being the Chief Engineer on the       and what NOT to
  Bonanza project, Ralph was super        do with wings like
  experienced at designing these types    this at Beech. I
  of aircraft. After he left Walter and   always wanted to
  Olive Ann Beech’s outfit, he came       “wrap the spar” at
  on-board at Kerrville shortly after     Beech but Walter
  Al and Art left - or were forced out    said it would take
  (depending on who you listen to) of     too much time to
                                          rivet, so we didn’t.          Typical wing in a jig at Kerrville
  Mooney back when Mooney only

22 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                               technical                                 pro

Beech T-34 Mentor: An Aerial Canary In The Mine?
              The (300+/- strong) T-34 fleet suffers through several catastrophic in-
               flight wing separations, and (surprise) the FAA grounds the fleet…

    s the Beech T-34 one of the FAA’s

                                           Lemishko said he found signs of a pos-      continue at 80-hour intervals.
    fowl air (yep pun intended) mine       sible stress fracture in the forward spar      As of press-time our take is that the
    tester canaries? Being a military      of the wing and determined the wing         FAA is considering options that could
trainer dating back to the ‘60s, the       came off in backwards and upwards           return some of the low-time T-34s to
unique para-military T-34 is arguably      motion. Lemishko also declined to           airworthiness quickly, and airframe
one of the easiest or least economi-       comment on whether any work had             inspections and modifications that
cally offensive “war birds” to own and     been done on the crash plane’s spars        could get some of the higher-time
maintain as it shares many components      but said he’d be going through the logs     aircraft back in the air as well. “Air-
with its various Beech civilian coun-      to see if the AD requirements had been      craft structures do wear out,” said
terparts; namely the Bonanza/Debo-         carried out.                                Gutierrez. “Every landing, every jolt
nair series. However the “T” stands           One of the problems we interpreted       of turbulence, flexes critical structures
for trainer and it was/is typically used   here at MOA is the fact that the Beech      and causes metal fatigue. Eventually,
in aerobatics and thus sustained more      wings are breaking or failing in differ-    something will break. That’s why on-
aerodynamic loads than just flying         ent positions and that not all failures     going airworthiness efforts are so im-
straight and level. However, with that     are identical. Thus the original four       portant. Even though we believe that
said, it is thought to be considerably     AMOC (Alternative Means Of Com-             our older aircraft are still safe, there is
“beefier” than its civilian counterparts   pliance) to the (inspection) Airworthy      no question that the FAA is reevaluat-
as it was designed with aerobatics in      Directives were rescinded as pertinent      ing the way it deals with aging general
mind.                                      to AD 2001-13-18 and the 200-hour           aviation aircraft,” said Gutierrez.
  Now fast forward to today’s state of     extension that was referenced in SAIB       T-34 Spar Cracks Apparently
the art video and laser “guns” which                                                   Spreading...
several entrepreneurs have fastened to                                                    The aircraft can only be flown on
their T-34s who now (or at least were)                                                 ferry permits to their home bases or
providing fantasy or mock fighter                                                      repair centers and only in VFR con-
dogfights whereas pilots could sign-up                                                 ditions with no forecast moderate or
for mock fighter pilot experiences and                                                 severe turbulence. The last accident
“shoot down” other T-34s. As a side                                                    killed a pilot and customer of Venezu-
bonus, wing mounted cameras cap-                                                       ela. The left wing came off the aircraft
tured the action and pilots took home                                                  and the AD says that the center section
videos of the whole experience as a                                                    of the wing failed four inches inboard
bonus! This was all fun and games                                                      of the attach point. What is more trou-
until the wings started coming off the     CE-02-38R2. The reason for rescind-         blesome is that the FAA investigators
T-34s, which kinda put a damper on         ing all four AMOCs given was because        also found evidence of fatigue at other
everybody’s aerial fun and games, at       they did not address Location (3) and/      locations, none of which were covered
least for now.                             or Location (4). The reason for rescind-    by the previous AD. That AD, requir-
T-34 Ageing Spar Problems At A             ing the 200-hour extension given was        ing periodic inspection of various
Glance                                     that it was based on engineering judg-      wing components, was issued after a
  On April 19, 1999, a T-34A flown         ment that the lower rear bathtub fitting    November 2003 wing separation on
by Sky Warriors near Atlanta, Geor-        was a precursor to fatigue cracking in      a Texas Air Aces T-34 that killed the
gia, lost a wing and crashed.              the wing. The FAA no longer felt the        owner and a customer.
On November 19, 2003, a Texas Air          lower rear bathtub fitting was a pre-
                                           cursor to fatigue cracking in the wing         While the Beech wing bears little (or
Aces T-34A lost a wing and crashed.                                                    no) similarity to the Mooney wing the
On December 7, 2004, Texas Air             based on the data from the accident in
                                           Texas.                                      later of which is thought to be signifi-
Aces lost another T-34 when another                                                    cantly stronger, the T-34 wing is cer-
wing came off (yet another) T-34             The FAA published a revision of AD        tainly in the same “wing family” as the
  Several Airworthy Directives have        2001-13-18 on March 1, 2004. This           other Beech 35 series aircraft. Frankly,
been issued with the latest crash and      AD rescinded all four approved alter-       if we were flying a Beech Bonanza or
the FAA (in effect) grounded the fleet.    nate methods of compliance (AMOCs)          even a Baron type aircraft, we would
Texas Air Aces company officials told      and required all T-34s that had accu-       keep extremely close watch on what is
the Houston Chronicle that they had        mulated 80 hours time in service since      going on with the T-34 fleet. But then
“complied fully” with the (then current)   the original AD was issued in August        again, that is only our thoughts from
AD but declined to say what, specifi-      2001 to comply with Raytheon Ser-           afar, and you may feel differently…
cally, had been done to the airplane(s)    vice Bulletin SB57-3329 for additional
that crashed. NTSB spokesman Alex          inspections. These inspections would

                                                                      March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 23
            letters                      to        the          eDitor

opinion on these issues and wishes,      Mark,                                 ferent options you are considering,
I’d appreciate it very much.                Thanks for your detailed but in-   and we know this area has wide
Thanks,                                  teresting letter. We field requests   appeal among most all Mooney
Mark Van Der Hart                        or queries like this all the time     older owners. To truly do justice
1963 M20C, N6876U                        from owners of older Mooneys          to your queries this material is too
  P.S. We are in the automotive          and, while many older Mooneys         complex to cover in just one issue,
mechanical and collision repair          have already been modified and        so we will break it down and begin
businesses, and I am able to work        upgraded, obviously many haven’t      with background here. We will ad-
actively with my local FBO on my         yet gone through this process.        dress the pros and cons of specific
aircraft maintenance and repair.         There is a complete laundry list      mods in future issues.
Currently I do most of the mechani-      of mods and up-grades available          To better understand your op-
cal work on the aircraft and all of      from several sources. Now a days      tions we have asked our experts
the paintwork, with the blessing of      some of the mods or upgrades          for some background information,
my FBO. I’d like to do as much of        aren’t as cheap as back in the ini-   which is what they started off with
this as possible in the field, working   tial Mooney mod heydays in the        here, as well as some mod basics.
with my FBO and the local FSDO.          late 70-80s and early ‘90s when       We feel these are important so you
Presently the aircraft is down for       airframe OEM factory parts and        can make intelligent decisions.
an annual, and the cylinders are off     component prices were (lets say)         Here is Part I of our expert’s
of the engine to correct oil leaks at    “more reasonable.” Much can be        take on this subject titled “Mod
the cylinder base o-rings. We dis-       done to older Mooneys, and most       Basics.” Stay tuned for more spe-
covered some piston scuffing, and        all upgrades make sense both eco-     cifics on individual mods and up-
one small cylinder crack, and have       nomically and performance-wise.       grades in the next issue.
decided to do a major overhaul.            To get to the bottom of your        By Coy Jacob and Dennis Bern-
There are 1830 hours on the engine       query, we posed your questions to     hard
since its last major, with no signifi-   Coy Jacob of Mooney Mart/Mod
cant engine repairs since that time.     Squad and Dennis Bernhard of
That’s what makes me think it’s time     Lone Star Aero. You have touched
to look at these options.                on several subjects or several dif-

     Part I, Mod/Refurb Basics: Or, How To Build
      An Economy Champ 201 On The Cheap…
   There is no denying the fact that     brisk, and BLUEBOOK reports the
the older M20 airframes are ideal        bulk of most “mod money” can be
for retrofitting the various improve-    recovered when these aircraft are
ments and upgrades that the mod-         resold providing certain guidelines
els have seen introduced into the        are kept when making the original
production line over the years. In       mod/refurb package investment.
fact the Mooney market has em-              We Mooney owners seem to
braced upgraded/refurbed/modi-           take for granted the cornucopia of
fied Mooneys for some time and           modifications and upgrades read-
in some quarters it is hard to find a                                          the two important factoids:
                                         ily available for older Mooneys,
truly “stock” older Mooney sitting       something few other “brand B, C,        1) The initial or basic all-metal
around. Owners of these upgraded         or P” owners have. At the heart of    M20 airframe was in essence, sig-
Mooneys report resale of qual-           the whole Mooney mod concept are      nificantly over designed or overbuilt
ity refurbed/modified Mooneys are                                              by former Bonanza guru Ralph Har-
                                                                                                   continued on page 25
24 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                  letters                      to        the           eDitor

mon, and thus it welcomed signifi-         lets like crazy
cant increases in both cruise, gross       just to get one.
weight, and horsepower with little         Still today the
(if any) structural changes, and           4 banger 201’s
   2) All basic M20 airframes are          fuel specifics
essentially the same structurally,         are the ones to
and except for cabin length, they          beat when de-
are identical dimensionally, even          signing a piston
in cabin width. A common fallacy           single. As a re-
is that newer production Mooneys           sult, it remains
are wider (externally) than the very       one of the most
first M20B/C, which came off the           highly sought
production line back in the early          after and popu-
‘60s. Proving this point is the fact       lar used aircraft
that (in theory) a cabin door off a        out there.
’63 M20C will fit nicely on a ’04             However, a
Ovation. Consequently most of              little    known
the newer style improved compo-            fact is that as
nents and OEM parts can simply be          good as it was,
grafted onto the older airframes in        the early M20Js
some fashion with little or no major       just barely met
structural rework.                         their advertised
M20J History Lesson                        performance
  The Mooney M20 was always                numbers, espe-
known for speed, but by the mid            cially once a full
‘70s others were catching up. In           complement of
circa ’77 Mooney did great things,         IFR antennas,                            ly M20J/201s didn’t normally cruise
both esthetically and performance-         steps, and wing walks were added to      at anything close to their advertised
wise, to the breed when they refined       production aircraft. We say this with    201 mph top speed, but still turned
the line dramatically and came out         the thought that back then, a lot of     in a respectable, if not remarkable,
with the 201; a vastly improved ver-       others didn’t even come close, and       185+ mph cruise as compared to the
sion of their longer (or what is now       lawsuits were won by pointing out to     low to mid 170s, like its predecessor
known as) “mid-length” fuselage            juries the inaccuracies of “brand P’s”   the M20F/Es.
M20F, line which was morphed               POHs. But in the real world the ear-                         continued on page 26
into a M20J/201.
   In fact, by creating a highly refined
aircraft out of the original M20F
that now topped out at 201 MPH on
only 200 hp, Mooney raised the ef-
ficiency and performance bar sub-
stantially to the point that the 201
became THE industry standard to
beat, performance and efficiency-
wise. In so doing, it garnered several
“Plane of the Year” type awards in
its day and buyers opened their wal-

                                                                   March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 2
            letters                    to         the           eDitor

   Actually another often overlooked   extended some 11” to create the          hp Mooney with some modifica-
fact is that the M20J design was       M20F, later on the J/K was based         tions and custom baffles, and Ven-
further refined throughout the years   on that same longer fuselage. In         ice, Florida based Mooney Mart/
and some 5-8+ mph was eventually       fact, the basic jigs to build the 4130   Mod Squad (for one) has delivered
gained as the model progressed.        structural tubular fuselage assem-       several OEM 201 cowl equipped
This came with the addition of fur-    blies for the M20F are the same as       M20Cs which perform similar to
ther improvements like overlapping     those to build the original M20F/        201s.
nose gear doors, fiberglass belly      Executive fuselage. Early M20J           Belly Up With Your Budget
pans, sculptured wing tips and so      fuselages were built in M20F jigs          Now the real question is, just how
on up until production ceased in       with only slight changes made as         far do you want to go with your re-
the mid ‘90s when it was termed        the model progressed, namely a           furb project and how big is your
the M20J/MSE (Mooney Special           thicker wall 4130 tube at the for-       budget? While selling your beloved
Edition). For a while Mooney           ward lower wing attach point and a       bird may be the furthest thing from
even called it a “205”, a name that    few brackets here and there.             your mind now, eventually every-
was fairly accurate representing its                                            body sells his or her Mooney-one
                                          On point is the fact that all
eventual top speed in MPH. All                                                  way or another. So, keeping resale
                                       Mooneys ride on almost exactly the
this performance came with a lowly                                              in mind (if for no other reason than
                                       same wings structurally except for
200 hp 4 banger that (in most cases)                                            to protect your estate) should be of
                                       nuances like fuel capacity, landing
did good to put out 200 hp in the
                                       light, and gear door configurations.     some consideration.
real world once it had alternators,
                                         So with all that said, you can see     Looking The Part
vacuum pumps, etc., bolted on to
                                       why it makes sense to effect vast           Some surprises are in order if
it, and had to breathe through the
                                                                                you think all mods or “mod/refurb
rather inefficient Mooney exhaust!     improvements on older Mooneys
                                       by retrofitting several well proven      packages” are treated equally in
Note: Early Mooneys were marked
                                       aerodynamic M20J/K type refine-          most buyers minds, as such sim-
in MPH as apposed to KTS.
                                       ments such as fairing and gap seals,     ply isn’t the case. An important
   Now a days Mooney produces                                                   consideration is the concept of
                                       sculptured wing tips, the newer
the still longer yet PFM/TLS/Ova-                                               your Mooney “looking the part”
                                       style windshield, better cowls, and
tion/Eagle airframe that boasts the                                             after you have spent a considerable
                                       inner gear doors. Except for the
third fuselage variant. Besides a                                               amount of money on it doing mod/
                                       201 cowl, that was germane to the
larger engine, current new produc-                                              upgrades, especially when expect-
                                       fuel injected 200 hp engine, nearly
tion models also have further aero-                                             ing to recapture most of your mod
                                       every new refinement (and many
dynamic refinements over the basic                                              money. By that, we mean that the
                                       “after-market” PMA mods) can be
201, such as the third gear door and                                            subject Mooney must look like or
                                       retrofitted to nearly every version
more efficient low drag cowls.                                                  resemble visually the newer model,
                                       of “pre-201” Mooneys, including          if you expect it to have resale value
  When considering mods for older      the numerous 180hp M20Cs out             like a M20J/201. That means, don’t
Mooneys you need to remember           there. In fact, even the improved        just do performance mods.
the original length M20C/E was         201 cowl can be made to fit a 180
                                                                                                    continued on page 30

                          Do You Have All   Of The Issues of the Mooney Pilot?
                                              If Not, Call us at

                                           1-877-JOIN MOA
                                       and order your back issues today.

26 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                     avionics                        expert

           State of the Art vs
           State of the Cheap
    One Intrepid Mooniac Agrees That GPS and Live Wx And
    Terrain Avoidance Technology Is A Godsend, But Finds
    Yoke Mounted GPS Units Fit His Budget And Needs Just
                     Fine, Thank You…

By Mark Alexander
                                         that advice together with constant       530 I really can’t say how much
                                         stories regarding dropping resale        more than $2,000 the upgrade com-
                                         values and the need to constantly        monly costs all total.
                                         concern ourselves with interior and
                                         exterior appointments and I get so       Those of us in the real world who
                                         discouraged I feel like a voice in the   just can’t justify a $15,000 installa-
                                         wilderness.                              tion of a panel mounted GNS Map/
                                                                                  Com model when we fly mostly
                                         Now hear this, you brokers and oth-      VFR and often make our IFR ap-
  A yoke mounted Garmin 396 with Wx3     er experts: I have every intention of    proaches using already installed
                                         keeping my bird. I think I’m doing       well-proven glide slope receivers.
Clearly readers of this magazine are     well to simply continue owning and       Thus many of us have oftentimes
always hoping to find some little tid-   flying her while I continue to meet      purchased a much less expensive
bit of information that will simply      all those other challenges of modern
add to the utility and basic economy     life, including paying for college
of flying their beloved Mooney. I        and buying a new family car now               Garmin 196
am no different from other readers       and then. Lastly, I am still look-
in this regard. In fact I get tired of   ing for reasonable opportunities to
the often preached advice that we        make reasonable improvements in
should all buy new GPS/MapCom-           my Mooney if the price is cheap
ms and spend thousands each year         and the value high and I believe in
to continually upgrade our birds         sharing the info when I come across
with the most up-to-date-soon-to-        a good example of same.
be-obsolete avionics.        Combine
                                         So here is a good example I re-
                                         cently came across. You may have
     Garmin 396                          read that previous buyers of panel       yoke mounted Garmin 196, 396
                                         mounted GNS 430 and 530 GPS/             or the latest 496. I personally own
                                         MapComms are now scrambling              such a yoke mounted device and I
                                         to upgrade their boxes with WAAS         love it. Interestingly, a few months
                                         capability for an up-charge of about     ago I was having some unrelated
                                         $2,000. There is a line to get into      work done at an avionics shop and
                                         at most avionics shops for this ser-     the serviceman offered to upgrade
                                         vice and of course the unit must be      my flight data and software for just
                                         removed from the panel and rein-         $40 more than the $35 charged on-
                                         stalled. Since I don’t own a GNS         line for the upgrade. Not being a
                                                                                                      continued on page 28

                                                                 March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 27
            avionics                        expert

super-computer wizard with extra time I said, “Sure!”
I’ve been told any Garmin dealer will do the same.
  The result was astounding! Now when the open-
ing satellite page opens up at the bottom a line says,
“SEARCHING FOR WAAS” and after thirty seconds
or so says, “USING WAAS”. All of the airport infor-
mation and frequencies have been updated, but an-
other improvement was included. Now instead of a
simple notation that I am approaching vertical profile
when it’s time to descend, the screen tells me that I’m
approaching the vertical profile and a horizontal line        The origins of WAAS
appears on the screen across the navigation page and
the artificial DG and acts as a glide slope indicator.
                                                              The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
  The operator can set up the glide slope indicator (at       and the Department of Transportation (DOT)
home) to lock onto a glide path based on the num-
                                                              are developing the WAAS program for use in
ber of feet per minute descent at the previous cruise
                           0.125 in                           precision flight approaches. Currently, GPS
speed. I find that if I select 700 FPM that if I then
slow the plane down to 100 kts everything works out           alone does not meet the FAA’s navigation re-
great. I also use the glide slope indicator to lead me        quirements for accuracy, integrity, and avail-
to a spot two tenths of a mile before the target at zero      ability. WAAS corrects for GPS signal errors
AGL. In this way if I have an emergency landing at            caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing,
an airport with no glide slope the GPS will bring me          and satellite orbit errors, and it provides vital
1,200 ft prior to the center of the runway. Just re-          integrity information regarding the health of
member to follow a DME arc around the airport until           each GPS satellite.
the heading matches the runway heading. Given the
WAAS upgrade and the battery back-up of the unit
(missing in the GNS 530) you really gain some great
                                                              How it Works
improvements for less than $100.
                                                              WAAS consists of approximately 25 ground
 Now for those of you who haven’t spent a penny on
                                                              reference stations positioned across the
GPS yet of any kind, consider this: A Garmin 396
with all these goodies and terrain clearance colors           United States that monitor GPS satellite
can be bought brand new for less than $2,200. That’s          data. Two master stations, located on either
almost the same price the panel mounted GNS 430               coast, collect data from the reference stations
crowd will pay for just a simple WAAS upgrade. A              and create a GPS correction message. This
new 496 can be had for about $2,700 and it includes           correction accounts for GPS satellite orbit
“live” Wx weather-if you elect to subscribe to the            and clock drift plus signal delays caused by
monthly fee.                                                  the atmosphere and ionosphere. The cor-
   If you don’t need the terrain awareness because you        rected differential message is then broadcast
live in a flat state, you can get all the moving maps,        through one of two geostationary satellites,
glide slope, airport info, nearest weather, DME, air-         or satellites with a fixed position over the
port approaches pointing straight to the final approach       equator. The information is compatible with
fix, special use airspace warnings with accompanying
                                                              the basic GPS signal structure, which means
charts and WAAS accuracy for less than $800 with a
black/white Garmin 196. The unit even keeps a list of         any WAAS-enabled GPS receiver can read
your flights with dates, duration etc. in case you don’t      the signal.
get around to filling in your log book every month or         Presented by permission from Garmin International

                                       continued on page 29

28 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                        avionics                         expert

  Remember, if you suffer a total           Panel Dock. These improvements
electrical failure in instrument con-       eliminate “spaghetti wires” in the
ditions you may lose all your radios        cockpit and assure solid dependable
and navigation info and the GNS             satellite reception.
530 people may lose their GPS                 Save money, avoid buying what
as well, but the little batteries in        you don’t need and keep your bird
your yoke mounted Garmin 196 or             well maintained and flying but if
396/496 will give you all the navi-         you are going to install one of these
gation information and glide slope          state-of-the-cheap boxes do it right
info you may need to get home for           and always pay for the periodic up-
up to six hours-if the conditions are       dates of data and software.
right. While most pilots utilize the
cigarette lighter adapter for power                               Mark Alexander
while airborne, the units even in-
form you when their internal bat-
teries are getting weak should the                                                     VistaNav Multifunction Flight Display
ship’s power not be utilized or fail.
   Now I have just one warning. The
glide slope indicator on the portable
models disappears from your screen
at 500 AGL. There may well be le-
gal reasons why the Garmin people
do not install glide slope informa-
tion to the ground on a VFR ONLY
                                             About The Author: Contributor Mark Alexander is unique in that he uses
unit, but no matter, it still does have      his M20J for the daily commute between his home on the island community
this limitation.                             of Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts (MVY) to Cape Cod on the mainland
  In addition, I strongly advise own-        where he works at Hyannis (HYA) as a stock broker/financial advisor. He is an
ers to have any portable GPS unit            experienced IFR pilot who has accumulated some 3,300 hrs in three aircraft he
attached to a permanent exterior an-         has owned with more than 700 IFR approaches and now has over 6,000 land-
                                             ings to his credit and an emergency landing on a golf course in a Beech Sierra
tenna with aircraft power and then
                                             being his only landing incident. We here at MOA consider ourselves lucky to
attached to the panel with a RAM             have a unique contributor such as Mark. Should you have any additional ques-
articulating arm or the Garmin               tions, suggestions, or opinions, feel free to contact him directly via email at:
                                    or email us here at MOA at: admin@moapilot.

                           Old                Life Is Short … Fly FAST!

                                          � MPH increase
                                          �Windshield Fairing
                                          �Quick Open Cowl
                                           Access Doors
                                          �Smooth, Overlapping
                                           Nose Gear Doors
                                          �Hi-Tech Induction
                                           HID Landing Light STC                                                      New
                                                                      March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 29
            letters                     to        the           eDitor

   More than one client has failed to recognize this, and   201 without doing a windshield mod and maybe even
thus has suffered when they failed to install upgrades,     a OEM cowl mod, we find most buyers expect some
like a newer style 201 windshield, and only put in rela-    degree of “eye candy” and expect your old Mooney
tively low visual appealing speed mods, like fairing and    to “look the part” of being retrofitted into an aircraft
gap kits, gear doors, and one piece fiberglass belly mods   which is a duplicate of an OEM 201, especially if you
and maybe a full complement of map/coms, etc. While         expect them to pay the price of a 201.
it is entirely possible to get a M20F to perform like a     An Upgrade Windshield No-No
                                                              In the early ’70s and in kind of a “quickie” appear-
                                                            ance change, MAC removed the dated aluminum cen-
                                                            ter windshield strap and used one piece of Plexiglas.
                                                            While initially this may look like it is an improvement
                                                            over the older two-piece units, except for a slight in-
                                                            crease in visibility, it isn’t. In fact we think later model
                                                            M20C/E/F one-piece windshield mod is a bad move
                                                            even though you can get this as an upgrade from the
                                                            factory. This single plane bent/curved windshield isn’t
                                                            to be confused with the totally different 201 designs
                                                            with is a multi-curved Plexiglas and thus is much stiff-
                                                            er, read quieter/stronger. We find this one-piece piece
                                                            of Plexiglas is noticeably flimsier and actually creates a
                                                            noisier windshield than the older two-piece design and
                                                            gains you little in the resale market.
                                                            Speed, Ap-
                                                            pearance, Or
                                                               Besides set-
                                                            ting a realistic
                                                            budget,      an-
                                                            other question
                                                            that must be
                                                            addressed up-
                                                                                    A LoPresti Super Cowl Mod
                                                            front is what
                                                            is your intentions or primary needs? Are you looking
                                                            primarily for esthetics, creature comfort/utility, or per-
                                                            formance? Most owners are looking for some of all of
                                                            the above, but keep in mind that most buyers tend to be
                                                            visually orientated and will be attracted to your bird ini-
                                                            tially via photos or the first walk-around impression.
                                                              We find that if you only retrofit somewhat visually
                                                            discrete (but effective) performance items such as gap
                                                            seals, fiberglass bellies, inner gear doors and such, and
                                                            don’t change the overall visual appeal or appearance
                                                            of the aircraft appreciably, then future buyers tend to
                                                            shy away from paying a price commensurate with the
                                                            mod/refurb investment you may have made. We think
                                                            that except for a minimal project such as the addition
                                                                                                      continued on page 32

30 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                letters                          to       the             eDitor

              Converting a 180 hp M20 To a 200:
                                  Does It Make Sense?
   A lot of folks with 180s have thought of converting to        have located a salvage aircraft and engine, it takes lots of
a fuel injected 200 hp engine especially when it is over-        time and effort to put a package together using used com-
haul time, and several have done just that by the use of a       ponents. Most private owners forget the fact that simply
STC or FAA Form 337 field approvals. After all, other than       finding a donor engine 200hp engine (core or otherwise)
where the battery is mounted and several subtle changes          is only part of the equation. The bulk of the real time con-
“up front” such as a different fuel boost pump and the as-       suming effort is tracking down the rest of the parts neces-
sociated engine/fuel pressure gauges etc., as well as the        sary such as engine mount, boost pump, gauges, controls,
4130 engine mount itself, there is no difference in the M20      cowl, baffles, intake system and so on. So, finding a suit-
airframe. Thus, if you acquire the proper M20E/F airframe        able donor airframe is paramount, but can take nearly as
parts (not an easy task), you can slip a 200 in place of a 180   much time as doing the conversion itself.
as long as you provide proper paperwork (or use Lasar’s
STC) and as long as you understand that you’ll have to add          This is one area you need to do your homework prior to
a FAA Approved supplement to your existing POH to get            writing checks. But with that said, a budget figure for do-
you back legal again.                                            ing this conversion would normally be in the $10-15K+ re-
                                                                 gion given the typical price of used parts and a rebuildable
  Now with that out of the way, the real problem is more         engine core. My advice is that this conversion is something
often than not, economics and logistics. Now days it prob-       beyond the scope of the average A&P or generic shop and
ably doesn’t make good economic sense to buy the whole           should only be attempted by a true Mooney savvy mechan-
load of parts necessary OEM/brand new from the factory.          ic or preferably a well-experienced Mooney mod shop.
Economics aside, it is questionable if the factory can or will
supply a new “pre-201” cowl anyway.                                 Before attempting to convert a 180 to a 200 it is wise to
                                                                 talk to the experts and consider all of your options, includ-
   While some of the parts will end up having to come            ing trading aircraft fine-tuning your existing 180. If you are
from the factory such as new controls etc., for all practi-      convinced that this conversion is something for you, have
cal purposes, most parts will end up coming from a suit-         your favorite Mooney mod shop (or you) call around to find
able M20E/F (or even a M20J) donor airframe. Make no             a donor. Also see the attached sidebar on “Does a 200hp
mistake, this isn’t always easy as aircraft tend to hit “nose    Lyc Really Deliver 200hp?” Before making a firm decision
first”, and getting undamaged front-end parts isn’t always       on a complete conversion. Feel free to call or email me
easy, and 200hp engines are more popular (read: sought af-       ( for more information.
ter) than their 180hp variants.
                                                              Coy Jacob
  A good parts source is Mooney mod shops that may have
removed whole assemblies, or finding a flood, hangar fire,
                                                             Typical 200 HP Feul
or wind damaged or otherwise corroded (totaled) airframe
                                                               Injected Lycoming
in a bone yard. A little known fact is that circa ’67 and up
C models use similar or universal cowls. So, by changing
the baffles on newer M20C’s you can probably reuse the
basic stock cowl itself.
  In reality, unless you stumble across a mod shop who
just happens to have all the parts in a pile awaiting your
call and a 200hp engine sitting there, there is no way any-
one can accurately project the exact cost to install a 200hp
engine in a M20C/G beforehand, as it all depends on the
deal they/you can get on the used parts and a suitable 200hp                                           Typical 180 HP Feul
engine. In addition, when calculating the net cost, don’t                                              Injected Lycoming
forget the fact you will be generating an 180hp core engine,
which you or your shop can then sell on the open market.
  Most of the time unless you just fall into a deal where you

                                                                                                              continued on page 32

                                                                     March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 31
            letters                      to       the           eDitor

of a few gap seals on an otherwise      M20 variants like the M20C/E.          which mod/upgrades offer more
stock airframe, if you plan on any        Next month we will get into the      resale value than others.
substantial mod/refurb program at       intricacies of the 5 basic mods        Dennis Bernhard and Coy Jacob
all for your older Mooney, it’s wise    (7 if you count the once-piece
to include a few appearance mods,       belly and sculptured wingtips)         About The Authors: Dennis Ber-
especially the vastly improved and      needed to create a 201 out of a        nhard worked at Mooney for over
quieter 201 style windshield mod.       older “pre-201” Mooney, namely;        25 years as manager of the parts
   Other appearance or esthetic type    the fairing and gap kit, the 201       department and what he doesn’t
                                        windshield, the 201 2end inner gear    know about Mooney parts isn’t
refurb/mods are the new style in-
                                        doors, the improved instrument         worth knowing. He currently
strument panel, fiberglass sculp-                                              owns Lone Star Aero in San Anto-
                                        panel, and the M20J (or now
tured wing tips, and some type of a                                            nio, Texas. Coy owns the Mooney
                                        LoPresti) cowling. We will also
cowl or cowl mod, few of which are                                             Mart/Mod Squad Complex in
both cheap or quick, AND effec-         kill several old wives tales about     Venice, Florida and got into the
tive. The resale market has spoken,     some of these mods you commonly        Mooney mod business in the
in that the current production OEM      hear around the airport, such as the   late ‘70s originally in St. Louis,
factory windshield mod is central       fact your access to your instrument    Missouri as the Mod Squad. He
                                        panel is all but prohibited by the     STC’d and pioneered many of the
to any serious mod project and is                                              mods and upgrades this series of
                                        newer style 201 windshields. You
nearly a “must” unless the scope
                                        will also learn which mods make        articles will address.
of your work (budget) is minimal
overall.                                the most sense economically, what
                                        order they should be done in when                       see sidebar on page 34
   Other popular retrofits include      doing them progressively, and
the vastly improved fully articulat-
ing front seats and the fold-down or
disappearing rear seats that came
on board in circa ’82 as standard
equipment. We find both are im-
mensely useful and add loads of
practicality, and the new front seat
design aids in reducing pilot fatigue
while the fold-down back seats are
great in real world cross-country
flying, especially when only car-
rying 3 or less so you can turn the
unused space into a jumbo baggage
  Of note is the fact that, besides
being far more versatile and com-
fortable, the newer style articulat-
ing front seats are stronger and tol-
erate pushing and leaning on when
exiting far better than the riveted
pan type earlier versions. Also the
new seat backs themselves are thin-
ner and thus allow slightly more
rear seat legroom, something sorely
needed by the original short body

32 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
               technical                                pro

  bark on a specific program of targeting    ing issues relative to older M20s, if for    MOA’s On-Line MODR Form/Database.
  older aircraft for some sort of special    no other reason than the sheer numbers          In an effort to centralize any main-
  maintenance or inspection procedures,      or percentage of the fleet they represent    tenance issues that can be traced to
  and when they do, it may not be what       and their direct structural similarity to    ageing, or that could be of significant
  we here at MOA or the Mooney fac-          current production models. We say this       benefit Mooney owners at large, MOA
  tory for that matter, would recommend      with full understanding and apprecia-        is creating an on-line Maintenance And
  concerning older M20s. Remember, it        tion that for the most part, the factory     Operational Difficulty Reporting Form
  may not be all that unheard of to find     is, understandably, concentrating on         (MODR Form) with which mainte-
  that privately at least, some GA manu-     producing new Mooneys, but we also           nance shops and individual owners
  facturers have been known to think         feel that since most of the staff now        alike can report any maintenance or
  of vintage examples of their (former)      in play at Kerrville wasn’t there when       operational difficulties (especially on
  product lines to be more of a nuisance     older 4-bangers were produced, they          older M20s) where ageing components
  or source of liability than an asset…      naturally don’t have as much “hands          or items are paramount. We are espe-
    While in years past MAC was great        on” insight or intuitive savvy relative      cially sensitive to primary structural
  at issuing Service Bulletins and Ser-      to older M20s that previous manage-          corrosion issues as well as any other
  vice Instructions for older 4-banger       ment had at their fingertips.                problems that can lead to major repairs
  powered M20s, as far as we can tell, we What You Can Do                                 or in-flight failures if left unattended.
  haven’t’ seen much lately come out of      We urge every Mooney owner out                  By the time you read this our on-
  Kerrville on older Mooneys. We think there to report any significant mainte-            line service should be available on the
  that in case the factory isn’t already nance issues to either the factory or to         open/public area of MOA’s web site
  doing so, it would be wise for them us here at MOA were we will manage                  where you can download a simple form
  to start paying special attention to any a searchable database on all significant       to be faxed to us and/or fill it out paper-
OreAeroTellUsMooneyOwnerAd 8/8/06 11:20 AM Page 1 which can be traced
  significant maintenance issues being maintenance issues                                 less online. It is our desire for this ser-
  reported out in the field concerning ag- back to ageing and/or which would be           vice to become a central clearinghouse
                                                              beneficial for all          for any such critical or ageing mainte-
                                                          ™   Mooney owners to            nance issues that could affect the safety
                                                              have at their dis-
                                                                                          and enjoyment of Mooney ownership.
  Oregon Aero® Seats, Seat Cushion Systems                         In addition, the
                                                                                             What follows is a portion of a re-
                                                                                          cent NTSB report of that tragic Chalk
  and Portable Universal. SoftSeat™ Cushions make                FAA provides an
                                                                                          Airlines crash. We think it wise for us
                                                                 official    Service
                                                                                          Mooniacs who fly older aircraft to read
  flying painless. So do our Upgrades for Headsets               Difficulty Report-
                                                                                          between the lines here and encourage
                                                                 ing form common-
  and Helmets. ShockBlockers® Insole Inserts do                                           the factory to do so as well. Please feel
                                                                 ly called a “SD
                                                                                          free to read between the lines…
  the same for walking. Find over 500 Painless,                  form” and obtain-
                                                                                                                 continued on page 36
                                                                 able on-line from
  Safer, and Quieter™ ideas at                    the FAA or through
                                                                 your local shop.


                                                                                         A damaged Mooney
                                     8 0 0 - 8 8 8 - 6910

  34 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                letters                       to         the          eDitor

   Does A 200 hp IO Lyc really Deliver 200 hp?
  Let’s be clear about one thing. While I have talked        engines do deliver on rated horsepower.
to several knowledgeable sources about this issue, and
some of whom claim to have actually been in on dyno            Terry goes on to say that the 180hp carbureted versions
testing of a good sampling of 180hp carbureted engines       tend to put out nearer to their rated horsepower and that
as well as their 200hp fuel injected cousins, I have never   the thought of switching from a 180hp to a 200hp may
sat in on such tests personally, verified this theory with   not actually be worth the trouble or cost. He thinks a
the factory, nor have I seen written confirmation of these   more productive approach may be to more finely “tune”
results.                                                     the 180 by doing a good job of flow balancing (common-
                                                             ly called “porting”) the cylinders and using several other
   With that out of the way, more than one source I con-     of his performance tricks such as milling the case halves
tacted strongly felt that Lycoming may have gotten a         or cylinder base cheeks so as to help raise the compres-
little optimistic years ago when they stated their IO-360-   sion ratio. He feels it is entirely possible to approach
AB6 (D) or other similar IO-360 fuel injected 4 banger       the real world installed output of the 200hp versions (or
models actually put out a full 200hp in the real world,      more) without actually changing the engines out per se.
once installed in most Mooneys. While TCM’s engines
are known to generally deliver on rated horsepower (and        Our take is that he is probably right on both counts
sometimes then some such as their 6 cyl. IO-360 turbo’s),    and given the fact both versions are the exact same cubic
Lycoming’s lowly 4 banger may end up being somewhat          inches and for the most part share cam profiles and the
aggressively rated, as far as we can tell, and there may     only real difference is how the fuel is delivered and par-
not actually be a full 20hp difference between the two, as   allel valves vs. the 200hp’s more efficient angled valve
one would be led to believe.                                 designs, there is a good chance 180hp owners should lis-
                                                             ten up, especially when it is overhaul time.
  Mena, Arkansas based Terry Capehart is well known
in GA engine circles as being one of the most knowl-         Coy Jacob
edgeable custom or high performance engine sources
around. He for one claims that when tested on a dyno,
most 200hp Lycs actually deliver something nearer to
190 hp (or slightly less) once you install the typical M20
exhaust system and accessory loads. He says that Ly-
coming didn’t take accessory load or exhaust restrictions
into count when they rated it. In fact, he says he thinks
they actually applied an inch of “boost” on the intake
side when certifying this engine to get its rated 200hp
and that the FAA allowed this under the guise of simulat-
ing the induction ram air affect gained in most aircraft
intake installations. We can’t argue this, and Lycoming                  200 HP Fuel Injected Lycoming
 won’t say one way or another, other than to claim their

                                                                  March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 3
           technical                           pro

                                  NTSB Report
                      Chalk Airlines Grumman Amphibian
                     Catastrophic Wing Separation/Failure

                                       Washington, DC      right wing separated that were indicators of internal
                                       - The National      structural damage. Although some repairs were
                                       Transportation      attempted, many were ineffective in that they did
                                       Safety     Board    not properly restore the load- carrying capability of
                                       today determined    the wing structure. The failure of Chalk’s to identify
                                                                                                 continued on page 37
that the probable cause of the crash of a seaplane
in Miami, FL, in late 2005, was “the failure and
separation of the right wing, which resulted from (1)
the failure of Chalk’s Ocean Airways’ maintenance
program to identify and properly repair fatigue cracks
in the wing, and (2) the failure of the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) to detect and correct deficiencies
in the company’s maintenance program.”
  On December 19, 2005, a Grumman Turbo Mallard
(G-73T) amphibious airplane, on a regularly scheduled
passenger flight to Bimini, Bahamas, experienced an
in-flight separation of its right wing from the fuselage
and crashed into the shipping channel adjacent to
the Port of Miami shortly after takeoff. Two flight
crewmembers and 18 passengers on board were killed;
the airplane was destroyed by impact forces.
  “This accident tragically illustrates a gap in the
safety net with regard to older airplanes,” said NTSB
Chairman Mark V. Rosenker. “The signs of structural
problems were there - but not addressed. And to ignore
continuing problems is to court disaster.”
  The Board found that neither the performance nor
the appearance of the airplane would have provided a
warning to the flight crew of the right wing’s imminent
failure. The accident airplane, manufactured in 1947,
was operating within its certificated design envelope
and carrying normal aerodynamic loads when the
wing separated. Preexisting damage to wing structural
components would not have been visible to the flight
crew prior to departure. There was nothing the crew
could have done to regain control of the airplane after
the in-flight separation of the wing, the Board said.
  The Board noted that the accident airplane had a
history of recurring fuel leaks near the area where the

36 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                                         technical                          pro

                                            of maintenance programs of         inventory?”
                                            carriers like Chalk’s to ensure    A synopsis of the Board’s report,
                                            the continued airworthiness of     including the probable cause and
                                            the operator’s fleet.              safety recommendations, is available
                                               Earlier in the investigation,   on the NTSB website, www.ntsb.
                                             concerns were raised about        gov, under “Board Meetings.” The
                                             federal regulations that exempt   full report will be available on the
                                             airplanes like the accident       website in several weeks.
                                             airplane, that were type-         NTSB Public Affairs: Paul Schlamm
                                             certificated before January       (202) 314-6100
and properly repair fatigue cracks
                                        1, 1958, from a requirement for        (202) 314-6100
in the wing, and the numerous                                        
                                        more rigorous damage tolerance-
maintenance-related problems found
                                        based supplemental inspections.
on the accident airplane and another
                                        Consequently, on July 24, 2006, the
company airplane, demonstrated
                                        NTSB issued a recommendation
that Chalk’s maintenance program
                                        (A-06-52) urging the FAA to
was inadequate to maintain the
                                        eliminate the exemption for these
structural integrity of the company’s
                                        older airplanes.
fleet, the Board said.
                                          As the FAA has indicated
  The Board also noted that
                                        that it intends to address the
because of the limited availability
                                        identification of age-related
of engineering services and
                                        problems for older airplanes
manufacturer support for the G-
                                        through current operational
73T Mallards, effective FAA
                                        safety programs, the Board has
oversight was important to maintain
                                        classified this recommendation
the airworthiness of these older
                                        as         “Open-Unacceptable
airplanes. Although FAA oversight
was performed in accordance
with existing federal regulations,        “Does it make sense,” said
the Board said, it did not result       Chairman Rosenker, “that rules
in the detection and correction         designed to deal with the problems
of the systemic deficiencies in         of airplanes as they age would
Chalk’s maintenance program and,        exclude the oldest ones in the
therefore, was insufficient to
ensure the safety of the airline’s
  As a result of the investigation,
the Board issued two new safety
recommendations calling on
the FAA to: verify that airline
maintenance programs include
stringent criteria to address
recurring or systemic problems, if
necessary through comprehensive
engineering evaluations; and, to
modify procedures for oversight

                                                               March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 37
          Moa          Maintenance

         When Is A Log Entry
       Inaccurate, Misleading,
             Or Worse?
     About The Practice Of Not Logging Anything “Un-
   Attractive” Or Worse…. What Are Your Responsibilities
                   As A Mooney Owner?

   Ed Forward: What follows is a summary of the information MOA has been able to glean concerning
 common owner induced responsibilities and sometimes even apparent misuse of Mooney aircraft logs.
 Sometimes it isn’t what you say in the logs but what isn’t said. We contacted Paul Lowen at Lasar,
 Tom Rouch, at Top Gun, and Coy Jacob at Mod Squad for input from Mooney shops as well as several
 veteran sources within the FAA such as long-time FAA DAR Arthur A. Williams (
 and FAA FSDO Maintenance Inspector Joe Murray at SO-35 for their expert opinions as well.

                                                             A MOA Staff Research Report
                                                                   ver stop and think how difficult it

                                                            E      would be to write a set of rules to
                                                                   govern every possible occurrence
                                                            or set of circumstances on something
                                                            as fluid and comprehensive as the
                                                            maintenance and operation of fleets of
                                                            divergent aircraft? Perhaps this is why
                                                            several (if not most) countries model, if not
                                                            outright copy our own FAA’s rulebooks
                                                            when adopting their own procedures and
                                                            rules concerning their domestic aviation
                                                            practices and procedures.
                                                              However, unlike most other Federal
                                                            Bureaucracies, the FAA is largely made
                                                            up by individual semi-autonomous re-
                                                            gions or “fiefdoms”, as some of us in the
                                                            industry call them. While there are such
                                                            things as “lead regions” in certain areas
                                                            of expertise, each individual region has
                                                            lots of latitude in their interpretation of
                                                            the many of the rules and regulations
                                                            typically in play. Frankly, and as nearly
                                                            every IA can tell you, what is approved
                                                            and “legal” in one region, my not be in
                                                                                         continued on page 39

38 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                            Moa             Maintenance

anther neighboring region.           regions that required a full mul-       “hands-on” mechanics are FAA
  On top of that, if you think the   tiple STC (Supplemental Type            certified and the work specified
FAA is always clear in both rule     Certificate) to be issued on the        in the logs and the shop invoice
making and interpretation, then      very same procedure.                    has (in fact) been performed in a
I have a lovely bridge in Brook-     Owners Responsibilities                 competent manner.
lyn I would like you to look at.       This brings us to owner’s re-           Interestingly however, no FAA
Perhaps nothing is more confus-      sponsibilities. Even though you         regulations address exactly how
ing than what constitutes a “ma-     may never put ink to log paper          records are to be kept for part
jor repair or alteration” requir-    per se, are you as an owner re-         privately flown “not for hire” 91
ing a FAA Form 337 and what          quired to insure that your logs         aircraft. In short, what we have
doesn’t, let alone exactly should    are accurate? Good question. To         all come to recognize as formal
be logged, how it is logged, and     put it simply, according 91.403.        aircraft logs and/or shop invoic-
what doesn’t have to be. Yes,        a, the owner or operator of the         es, aren’t necessary per se. Air-
most are black and white issues,     aircraft is primarily responsible       craft records can even be (what
but a surprising large number of     to see to it that his aircraft is be-   appears to be) disjointed notes
issues many fall into the gray       ing maintained in an airworthy          and scraps of paper, of sorts.
zone of what the “hands on”          condition. In addition 91.405b          Not that this practice would look
A&P/AI or more importantly,          says it is the owners responsibil-      great in any future buyers eyes,
his local FAA FSDO (Flight           ity to see to it that the aircraft      but just how you keep records is
Standards District Office) inter-    is inspected in accordance with         largely up to you as an owner.
prets the rules to be.               applicable regulations primarily
  On top of that, mods or refurbs    so that an A&P or A/I can
aren’t specifically addressed        determine if the aircraft is
in most FAA Regulations, but         airworthy from a technical
are handled as “repairs or al-       standpoint.
terations”, even though it may         In a different section of
make perfect sense to be able        regulations namely FAA
to install a new production low-     91.7b, say it is the respon-
drag widget or hubcap from a         sibility of the pilot in com-
new Mooney TLS on your ‘64C.         mand of a civil aircraft to see           Some owners have complained
One good example to which we         to it that the aircraft is operated     when shops fail to make entries
uncovered is what some call a        in a safe manner and in accor-          or when logs don’t happen to be
“201 Instrument Panel Mod/Up-        dance with all other FAA regu-          in the their possession when the
date”. Coy Jacob along with          lations. So, there is little doubt      work is being completed. But in
Paul Lowen both personally           that the ultimate responsibility        absence of your logs being han-
witnessed two regions where it       lies with the owner/operator of         dy this latitude in record keeping
wasn’t even considered a ma-         the aircraft in the huge major-         gives credibility to the practice
jor repair or alteration requir-     ity of the cases. Thus, outside         of shops and A&P’s giving out
ing a FAA 337 form to be filed       of outright fraud where the shop        logbook paste-up entries to be
at all. In fact, one region made     clearly misrepresents itself or         posted by owners themselves
the determination that installing    the work being performed to             when the owner fails to present
a new instrument panel was a         the owner, the owner is gener-          the logs to the shop while the
simple A&P log sign-off and an       ally where the buck stops. In           work is being completed.
AI wasn’t even needed. Both          fact, you as an owner have the            So, the FAA holds you respon-
Lowen and Jacob know of other        right to assure yourself that the       sible for items in your control
                                                                                                continued on page 40

                                                             March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 39
                                       Moa                                                Maintenance

(which is nearly everything logbook-wise), but not                                                                                                                       ed several sources within the FAA such as Joseph
to be an expert on complicated mechanical pro-                                                                                                                           Murray, a 40+ year veteran FAA Maintenance In-
cedures. For example, it is youre A&P/IA’s job                                                                                                                           spector at the Tampa FSDO as well as one exceed-
to interpret all applicable FAA Regulations and                                                                                                                          ingly experienced FAA DAR (Designated Air-
properly log all applicable entries as well as com-                                                                                                                      worthiness Representative), Arthur. A. Williams.
plete and submit all applicable FAA form 337’s.                                                                                                                          DAR Williams goes on to say that many times this
Generally speaking, it isn’t your responsibility to                                                                                                                      337 form is overused, if not misused. Technically,
see that his/her language is correct or that he has                                                                                                                      he comments this form is called a “Major Repair
indeed filed the 337’s with the FAA.                                                                                                                                     or Alteration” Form and should only be used for
A&P/IA Responsibilities                                                                                                                                                  that purpose. It is not an OEM parts replacement
  Lots of regulations address the A&P or shops                                                                                                                           form, no matter how large or numerous the parts
responsibilities and we won’t address all of them                                                                                                                        may be.
here. However, when it comes to record keeping,                                                                                                                            He goes on to say that once any maintenance/re-
the FAA Regulations clearly state that it is the in-                                                                                                                     pair/alteration type procedure deviates off of prior
stalling mechanic’s responsibility to accurately list                                                                                                                    approved data (typically the OEM’s Type Certifi-
what work was performed under his care as well                                                                                                                           cate, or FAA OEM Approved Service Manual, or
as what parts were used. It is he who also has to                                                                                                                        even a STC), this form must be used. It should
determine if the work is a “major repair or altera-                                                                                                                      not be necessarily used when simply replacing
tion” and if a STC or 337 sign-off is required.                                                                                                                          parts even if they have to be drilled off and riveted
The Often Misused Form 337                                                                                                                                                                                                                              continued on page 41
                                                                                                                      Form Approved         Electronic Tracking Number
                                                                                                                      OMB No. 2120-0020

                                                                                                                                                                           Aviation Insurance Resources
  US Department
                                       MAJOR REPAIR AND ALTERATION                                                                        For FAA Use Only
  of Transportation              (Airframe, Powerplant, Propeller, or Appliance)
  Federal Aviation

   INSTRUCTIONS: Print or type all entries. See Title 14 CFR §43.9, Part 43 Appendix B, and AC 43.9-1 (or subsequent revision thereof) for
   instructions and disposition of this form. This report is required by law (49 U.S.C. §44701). Failure to report can result in a civil penalty for each
   such violation. (49 U.S.C. §46301(a))
                      Nationality and Registration Mark                                       Serial No.

1. Aircraft           Make                                                                    Model                                   Series

                                                                                                                                                                                 g! of calling another agent.
                      Name (As shown on registration certificate)                             Address (As shown on registration certificate)

2. Owner

                                                                                                                                                                                        Don’t even think
                                                                                              City                                                      State

                                                                                              Zip                                 Country

                                                                        3. For FAA Use Only

           4. Type
       Repair      Alteration          Unit                         Make
                                                                        5. Unit Identification
                                                                                                              Model                                      Serial No.
                                                                                                                                                                           wa                Save Time &                          Insurance Company 1
                                 AIRFRAME                                                      (As described in Item 1 above)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Insurance Company 2
                                                                                                                                                                           One Source,                            Insurance Company 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ONE CALL
                                                                                                                                                                           All Markets
                                                                      6. Conformity Statement                                                                                                               Insurance Company 4
A. Agency's Name and Address                                             B. Kind of Agency

Name                                                                          U. S. Certificated Mechanic                         Manufacturer
Address                                                                       Foreign Certificated Mechanic                  C. Certificate No.                                                     Insurance Company 5
City                                                 State                    Certificated Repair Station
Zip                          Country                                          Certificated Maintenance Organization

  D. I certify that the repair and/or alteration made to the unit(s) identified in item 5 above and described on the reverse or attachments hereto
     have been made in accordance with the requirements of Part 43 of the U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations and that the information                                                         Insurance Company 6
     furnished herein is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ALL MARKETS
Extended range fuel                           Signature/Date of Authorized Individual
per 14 CFR Part 43
App. B
                                                                                                                                                                                      Insurance Company 7
                                                                  7. Approval for Return to Service
  Pursuant to the authority given persons specified below, the unit identified in item 5 was inspected in the manner prescribed by the
  Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and is                 Approved       Rejected
                                                                                                                                                                             Insurance Company 8
                FAA Flt. Standards                                       Maintenance Organization
                                                                                                                      Persons Approved by Canadian

                                                                                                                                                                            Best Rates, Broadest Coverages Available
                Inspector                                                                                             Department of Transport
                                                                                                              Other (Specify)
                FAA Designee                  Repair Station             Inspection Authorization

Certificate or                                Signature/Date of Authorized Individual
Designation No.

  FAA Form 337 (10-06)

                                                                  FAA Form 337

 To learn more about the proper use of FAA Form
Major Repair or Alteration Form 337’s we contact-                                                                                                                     
40 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                            Moa            Maintenance

back on no matter how large or numerous as long          Does Anybody Actually Have To Log Damage
as no repairs or alterations are necessary.              Per Se?
  Now let's think about that statement for a min-           A&P’s are bound to record what work they per-
ute. That means that if a wing is replaced on any        form, not necessarily what condition they found
Mooney with a OEM new (or used) wing assem-              the aircraft to be in, unless the condition uncov-
bly and the resultant aircraft still complies with the   ered during inspection in their opinion, renders
TC data afterwards, technically no 337 is required       the aircraft un-airworthy (and isn’t rectified) or in
even though it constitutes what many of us would         violation of any FAA Regs. For example, while
feel is a “major repair”. Now, if one rivet is dif-      it may be good practice to make log mention of
ferent or any kind of a “non-approved data” repair       the fact the part removed was damaged by (say) a
is made, the party changes and a 337 is mandated.        gear-up or hangar incident, the best we could tell
FAA DAR Williams says in his opinion, many               with private GA aircraft being operated under part
337’s are filed simply because the A&P can (or is        91, there is no regulation to require anybody to so
able to), and it helps him look better in the owners     designate the damage found in the logs or mainte-
eyes as well as most A&P’s tend to err on the safe       nance records.
side.                                                        If (excluding the engine/prop work if neces-
  He adds that to fully understand the true use or       sary etc.) it is entirely possible that by installing a
reason for the often-used 337, one has                                                          continued on page 42

to only look to the title, which is sim-
ply, “A Major Repair or Alteration”.
That typically means doing something
other than called out on a TC or STC
such as a splice, or repair process. If
the shop only replaces parts (no mat-
ter how large or numerous), no official
“repair or alteration” procedure has
taken place.
Why Is This Strict Interpretation
   Easy; it is because all 337’s must be
filed with the FAA who puts them in
your aircraft’s jacket or file forever.
That means they are public informa-
tion and as more and more buyers are
getting “Car Fax” savvy, they are do-
ing a records search on potential air-
craft to check on prior damage/repair
history and in so doing, uncovering
these filed 337’s and matching them
with logs. No 337, no “official” re-
cord of repairs, hence in the absence
of a logged entry or shop work order,
no (apparent) damage/repair history.
Get the point?

                                                             March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 41
          Moa           Maintenance

STC’d fiberglass mod a shop could “fix” a typical      prospective buyer they “got it all” and the aircraft
gear-up. It would then be perfectly legal for the      is as good as new. He also recommends close-in
installing shop to only log this mod being installed   photos be kept as a record to allay future buyers
and (maybe) not even use a form 337 if they don’t      concerns that it was “worse than presented” and to
want to, as long as the installing shop doesn’t de-    show the quality of the work being performed.
viate from the STC or TC in any way.                   The Gray Areas
  One well-known Mooney savvy source contact-            What is or isn’t said is largely the domain of the
ed was Paul Lowen, owner of Lasar in Lake Port,        shop or IA returning the aircraft back to service.
Calif., who went even further. Lowen is on record      However, you should get involved and express
as saying; “you never mention the words “gear-         your opinions. Our staff has seen what we call
up”, (for example) in logs and you often write         stupid log entries, which can cripple the resale
logs so as to minimize the repairs, mostly at the      needlessly. For example, we have seen an entry
owners request.” I wouldn’t ever mention in an         saying “pilot landed hard off airport, gear ripped
annual (for example) of finding a past prop strike.    clean off aircraft, aircraft towed to airport by tow
I would simply say that I replaced the prop and        truck knocking down several mailboxes and fence
inspected the engine etc. without using the terms      posts along the way….” Can you believe what any
“repaired a prop strike”. Generally I try to com-      future buyer would imagine reading that! In short,
ply with the owners wishes and keep the aircraft’s     be honest and ethical all the while keeping in mind
logs as attractive as possible while at the same       a future buyer not knowing what happened, and
time, keeping legal.”                                                                           continued on page 43

                                     That is not to
                                   say, shops can’t
                                   state (under part          Active Noise
                                   91 only) what            Reduction Systems
                                   damage       was
                                   found. In oth-       for your headset or helmet.
                                   er words, they         • 18-21db noise cancelling @ 250 Hz
                                   have only to           • 4 speaker system provides unequalled audio
                                   log what work            quality & speech intelligibility.
                                   they performed.        • Highest quality components
                                   Interestingly,         • Pilot reports at
some owners and shops go to the other extreme.
They log the condition of the aircraft and what           “Just wanted you
happened as well as any and all remedial action
                                                          to know that I was
was taken. Sometimes it is the uncertainty which
                                                          skeptical when I first
most buyers fear and thus, when they see what ap-
                                                          installed the ANR
pears to be a gear collapse or gear-up, they picture
                                                          system in my David
an off airport landing perhaps in boulder strewn
                                                          Clark 13.4. I am
fields or though trees. So, this practice of clearly
documenting the damage and even using extra let-          totally pleased & will
ters or photo’s has lots of merit.                        buy another for my
                                                          co-pilot.” Mark W.
  Coy Jacob of Venice, Fla. based Mod Squad,
reports that in some cases they have even made                                     1-800-876-3374
videos of the damaged aircraft, “before, during the                        2320 Lakeview Drive • Amarillo, TX 79109
repair process, and afterwards” so as to show any                                806-358-6336 • Fax 358-6449

42 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                              Moa            Maintenance

who suspects the worse is look-        there are lots of gray areas and       documented in your logs. If
ing over your shoulders.               many times there is no right or        any entries are made which can
    Experienced shops like Low-        no entirely wrong answer. Often        evoke future questions, it may
en’s Lasar even goes as far as to      it is in the eyes of the beholder      be a good practice to take lots of
move aircraft work being per-          and more veteran FAA personnel         photos and print out a more com-
formed from one “unfriendly”           will be more reasonable than the       plete scope of the entire situation
FAA Region to another “more            ones just starting out.                to be kept in a separate file.
friendly” region for some of           In Summary                               As a buyer, please understand
his mod/refurb work.      When           Try to see to it the scope of        that Mooneys are not composite
it comes to mods and refurbs,          the work is fairly and ethically                           continued on page 44

                                                           properly documented accordingly. Sometimes in
    Can You Officially Repair A Mooney                     the press of day to day business, this procedure or
            By Doing Mods?                                 opportunity may not come through accurately on a
    If You Gear-Up Your Mooney, And You “Fix” It           single phone conversation to a prospective or newly
  By Installing A STC’d Fiberglass Belly Mod, Do You       indoctrinated “Gear-Up Club” member, such as my
  Still Have To Log The Typical “Gear-Up Repairs”?         long ago conversation with Al Burst. But this is our
     Like nearly every Mooney mod shop, this ques-         policy as well as many others we contacted includ-
  tion has been posed to me over the years by scores       ing Paul Lowen’s. In fact, I know of few shops that
  of Mooney owners not wishing to tarnish their logs       would knowingly reflect damage repair needlessly in
  with ugly “gear-up” (or worse) repair entries            logs except at the owner’s request.
    Not unlike Paul Lowen’s take on this very same           A clearer picture of this type of problem can be
  subject, my opinion is that sometimes a mod or up-       exemplified by another less common type of dam-
  date program such as the popular Fiber Glass Belly       age, which occurs occasionally to a Mooney tail as-
  Mod can encompass and thus repair select areas of        sembly. I have seen several M20’s, which sustained
  damage such as the typical gear-up, and sometimes        hangar damage from a falling door, or what have
  not. However, some owners may feel not mention-          you, to the tail or empennage assembly. Many times
  ing the fact that parts removed and discarded were       the damage is limited to the empennage and not the
  damaged isn’t necessarily the ethical thing to do, so    rest of fuselage.
  for the most part, you decide.                             In practice the entire tail assembly can be removed
     The opportunity to do this is only available if the   in an hour or so without disturbing any rivets and
  damage is contained in the belly area which is re-       a new empennage assembly simply bolted back on.
  moved during the STC process. My personal opinion        The question is, does that constitute damage history”
  is that if all damaged components are removed out-       to the rest of the aircraft? I vote no, but I know of
  right and replaced with OEM new, then it is doubtful     one buyer who passed on a Mooney that this very
  any stigma or extra consideration should rightfully      thing occurred. Did he do the smart thing? In my
  remain with the airframe.                                opinion, he was very narrow-minded and probably
                                                           missed out on an otherwise excellent buy. I may
    According to the sources within the FAA I con-         have different views of “damage history” Mooneys
  tacted, it is perfectly legal for any shop to only log   than some, but then again, this is fodder for another
  what work they do. That is, when any shop installs       article and is the topic of conversation in one chap-
  our STC’d One Piece Belly Mod and in so doing all        ter of my book on
  previously damaged (or un-damaged) components            Mooneys.
  are removed, then our log entry can only read work
  being performed at the time such as installing the
  mod as per the Belly Mod STC.                              Coy Jacob
    However, this STC installation procedure doesn’t
  take care of any prop, engine, or ancillary damage
  to the airframe. Those entries would have to be

                                                               March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 43
          Moa           Maintenance

aircraft and that they can be
disassembled in the field by
drilling out rivets and un-
bolting etc. They can then
by      experienced     Mooney
savvy shops be reassembled
(including re-riveting) of their
major components, and this
repair/reassembly work doesn’t
automatically affect the aircraft
  In short, and with all due re-
                                    Ed Afterwards: Jacob is a long-term contributor to Aviation
spect to the folks at Kerrville,
                                    Consumer and Light Plane Maintenance, and formally for the
these aircraft are built here on
earth by mortal sinners, and not    MAPA Log Magazines as well as an editor for MOA. He holds
built in the Archangel Gabriel’s    several NAA/FAI World Speed Records in Mooneys and has over
hangar. They are built to be        5,000 hours. While he has taught classes for A&P’s on how to
worked on, so don’t necessarily     maintain and inspect Mooneys, has had input in various Mooney
hold that against one which has     Factory Service Manuals and SB’s, and has written a book on how
been…                               to inspect and buy Mooneys (The Backwards Tales), he is not a
                                    licensed A&P per se.
A MOA Staff Research Report

             Sarasota Avionics International
          G a r m i n ’s L a r g e s t P a n e l M o u n t A v i o n i c s D e a l e r

                        Toll Free 1-888-289-0997

     We are experienced installers for Mooneys and are
        next to Mooney Mart at the Venice Airport.

   Three FAA Certified Repair Stations for your convenience.
     Venice (S0QR632X)              120 West Airport Ave. Venice, FL 34285
     Sarasota (QV0D957X)            8191 N Tamiami Trail (B-2) Sarasota, FL 34243
     Sarasota (QV0R957X)            1234 Clyde Jones Rd, Sarasota, FL 34243

44 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
                                 kroMer's                         korner

                                nav/com on-board at all times     in the clouds to VMC before
                                anyway. What all this gives       hitting something. To me,
                                you is the ability to navigate    both of those options are really
                                and communicate in case of        dicey.I’d invest in sources
                                an electrical or avionics fail-   of backup navigation and
                                ure. I’ve suffered three in my    communication – all battery
                                Mooney career – one in a pre      powered and independent of
                                J model, one in a single al-      the airplane. Then I’ll feel
                                ternator equipped M20K 252        better about hard IFR in my
                                and one in a J model. Luckily     older Mooney.
                                all were in VMC conditions,
                                but afterwards I though about     Bob Kromer
                                what I would have done if the     Former President, and Engineering
                                                                  Test Pilot
     Be a                       weather had been bad.
                                                                  Mooney Aircraft Corporation
  Mooney Pilot                    Without the ability to
                                navigate or communicate,
  Contributor!                  options are limited to flying
  Share your Mooney flying
                                somewhere you think the
   experiences that you feel
                                weather might be good or
     may be of interest or of
   educational value to your    descending deaf and dumb
 fellow Mooney owners and
  pilots. We especially want
  to hear about the different
    things you have learned
     while flying (or owning)
    your Mooney as well as
   the places you fly to and
   like to visit. We welcome
     unsolicited writings and
articles as well as photos to
be used within the article or
  as a 'Cover Girl' shot. For
more information on how to
submit information and have
 it published in The Mooney
     Pilot Magazine, please
     contact the MOA office
   at 941-486-1770 or email
Thanks! We look forward to
making you another famous

                                                March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 4
                Reach EVERY MOONEY OWNER Here & On-Line
       Email:, Call 941-486-1770 or Fax 941-412-0551
               or submit your ad via email to:
           Classified                 M20 Parts & Stuff For Sale                   Mooney Friendly & General
           Headings                                                                Merchandise For Sale Cont.
                                  M20J/201 Cowlings For Sale
                                  Good Condition as removed, 6 mph speed        $89.9 for 6 or 12V, $139.9 for 24Volt
                                  increase, or 1-           and H/Duty. Visit
         M20 Parts & Stuff
                                  800-224-723.                                 or call (941) 486-1960 for same day
             For Sale                                                           shipments.
                                  McCauley Prop for M20K. “O” S/OH
                                  Like new, still in a box “Make Offer” email   CorrosionX and Boeshield T-9: Superior
        Mooney Friendly & or 941-484-0801           corrosion preventative products as well as
                                                                                RejeX, 303 Vinyl/Leather/Gel Coat/Paint
       General Merchandise        LoPresti Boom Beam, 600,000                   Protectors, All Top Rated. Call for your
            For Sale              candlepower makes your night landings         MOA prices (941) 484-0800
                                  safer and easier. Brand new overstock For
                                                                                Mooney Factory Apparel,
                                  Sale to highest bidder. Place bids 1-877-
                                                                                “Official” Mooney, Caps, Golf Shirts,
                                  64-6662 or email
              Wanted                                                            T’s, Top Quality Embroidered Gear: .
                                  High Performance K&N Airfilters               E-mail: admin@moa or Call
                                  Add significant horsepower to your Mooney     877-64-6662 for MOA prices and fast
                                  and U-Install. See         shipments.
                                  Call for your MOA discount 1-877-64-         Portfolio of 10 color lithographs, 16” x
           Notices &              6662 or email:
         Announcements                                                          20”, depicting Historic First Flights by Pan
                                  12 or 24V Battery De-Sulfators:               American Airways Clippers, 1929-1970,
                                  Can double the life of your Mooney,           dual signed in 1963 by renown artist John
                                                                                T. McCoy and by the nine surviving Pan
                                  boat, motorcycle, battery. HARD TO
                                                                                Am pilots, such as by Hughy Wells and
        Miscellaneous M20         FIND 24 VOLTS NOW IN STOCK!,
            Services                                                            Charles A. Lindbergh, $7,00, set of #3,
                                  ALSO PERFECT FOR BOATS,
                                                                                Limited Edition of 100, 941-48-6019 or
                                  MOTOTRCYCLEES AND RVS. visit:
                         or call for your
                                  MOA discount 1-877-64-6662 or email:         Hanger and Shop Lighting,
                                                    We can raise your light level by 0-60%
      Financing & Insurance
                                                                                without raising your electricity costs simply
                                  PARTING OUT 1967 M20-F                        by replacing the light bulbs or fluorescent
                                  Check for           tubes. Please send an email to iwi@ndak.
                                  pictures and additional information.Contact   net or call 1-800-628-2199 for special
          Title Services &        Jim Nelan at or 770-       Mooney Pricing. Dan Lindberg M20F
            Guarantees            463-0662.                                     N292LG
                                  Avtek is offering $50 to any member for       McCauley Prop and Chrome Spinner
                                  any 28 Volt Stby Electrical Unit working or   3 blade model 3A32C41882NRC-9
                                  NOT. Free Shipping.                           removed from 1997 M20R for Hartzell Top
       Aviation Employment 1-800-770-326.        Prop replacement. NDH. TTSN – 816.3.
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                                  WX1000+ StormScope
                                  Fresh factory O/H & update with Gyro
                                  Stabilization. Call 941-484-0800.

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                                     Mooney Friendly & General                  WANTED:Mooney Savvy A&P/IA and a
                                       Merchandise For Sale                     Shop Foremen, willing to move to sunny
     R/Vs, Boats, Motorcycles                                                   Gulf front Florida, call 941-484-0800, or
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         and Automobiles                                                        email
                                  (Books, Files and Photographs)
             For Sale             941-48-6019                                     Notices & Announcements
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     Aircraft For Sale or Trade   less-used aircraft, boat, motorcycle, RV
                                  batteries dramatically as per AVIATION
                                  CONSUMER research. MOA Members

46 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007
           Reach EVERY MOONEY OWNER Here & On-Line
  Email:, Call 941-486-1770 or Fax 941-412-0551
          or submit your ad via email to:
                                                         Aircraft For Sale                       Aircraft For Sale
       Financing & Insurance                             or Trade Cont’d                         or Trade Cont’d
Insurance WARNING! $$$ Don’t even                                                          Hartzell 3 Bladed Prop, Overall
                                               1979 Mooney M20K 231, MM31DW
think of calling another agent until                                                       very good condition, Jim or
                                               Fresh Annual, TTAF 2770 +/- SMOH 10
you’ve called AVIATION INSURANCE                                                           Karen Johnson 760-36-6289,
                                               SMOH, PRICE $117,900 BB Appraisal,
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market with just one call. Best rates,
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broadest coverage, all markets. Toll Free      InterCom Sigtronics, NAV1 MX170b DME
1-877-247-7767 -              DATA UPL, NAV2 KNS 80 X-Ponder KY92
                                               WX, GPS/MAP AUDIO/LM Kma20. E-mail
Title Services & Guarantees          , call 941-484-0801,
                                               cell 941-04-296
Title Guarantees U.S. Mooney
                                               1990 Mooney M20J MSE,
Owners and Future Owners! Why pay
                                               220 Hours TTAF, 20 Hours SMOH,
sales tax? We have legal alternatives.
                                               King KX-16/1, KCS A HSI,
Foreign owners, we can provide legal
                                               KAP 10, KLN-88 Loran, WX-1000
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nationals. Aircraft Guaranty Title Corp.
                                               Jack: 732-222-0274, Fax: 732-222-2042,
281-44-794 Fax 281-44-799 www.   
                                               1967 M20F Executive
Aircraft Guaranty Title Corp.                  138 TTAF, 201 Clone, 200 HP, IO 360
“We assure the title for more Mooney’s         A1B6, 63 SFOH and SPOH, No damage
than anyone in the world!” Call us for title   history, Numerous mods w/ 201-231
insurance and purchase documentation of        styling, Manual gear and flaps, Paint &
all sorts. 281-44-794 Fax 281-44-799       interior very good, 1999. King KMA 20,                                 KX 1 with glide slope, Garmin 430 and
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      Mooney Flight Training                   oil temp ( interfaced with Garmin 430).
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       MOONEY FLIGHT TRAINING                  4/06 Based KMHT, Dec Annual, $8,000
        Mooney transition training             Robert Sanborn, 603-483-8041,
        Call Mark at 941-492-3471    , Pictures in
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         CFII with 400+ hours.
                                               1970 Mooney M20F 201 Clone for $20-
                                               50K less!
    R/Vs, Boats, Motorcycles                   333 TT, 1737 TT since Major Overhaul,
        and Automobiles                        40 T since Complete Top Overhaul
            For Sale                           with New Cylinders, 3 Blade prop has
                                               1737 TT since Overhaul, New mags
  Aircraft For Sale or Trade                   including new wiring and spark plugs,
Mooney Buyers Stop! Don’t buy                  New tires and battery, Garmin GNS 30
any Mooney until you have seen our             IFR GPS Movingmap, STEC X GPS,
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us at E-mail:              30, BF Goodrich WX-900 Stormscope, or 941-484-0801.            Many mods including 201 Windshield,
                                               Cowling, Side Windows, Full 201 Panel,
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Priced right, many mods and extra goodies      Vacuum, Electric Gear and Flaps, Electric
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call 941-484-0801, cell 941-04-296           and tan interior w/ new leather seats,
1992 M20J 201 600 TAF & Engine                 $79,900 OBO (with partnership at KLZU
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and priced right. E-mail cal@mooneymart.       146,
com, call 941-484-0801, cell 941-04-296      Mooney M20C, N6763N, TT 2049 hrs.
                                               , SMOH 462 hrs., Lycoming 0-360-A1D,

                                                                          March 2007 Volume 80 The Mooney Pilot 47
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          Challenge Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 33                   Power Flow Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 6

          Dorr Aviation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 30               Premier Aircraft Sales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 1

          Electronics Intn’l . . . . . . . . Inside Front Cover           Sarasota Avionics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 44

          GAMijectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 21               Saltaire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 3

          Great Lakes Aero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 2              Sky Ox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 20

          Headsets, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 42            Survival Products. . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 37

          Island Water Sports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 32           Teledyne Continental. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 1

          J.P. Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 7   Vref Aircraft Value Reference. . . . . . . . . . .Pg 41

          Key West Hideaways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 13            Willmar Air Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 2

          LoPresti Speed Mods. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 29             Zephyr Aircraft Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 20

          Magna Labs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pg 36

48 The Mooney Pilot Volume 80 March 2007

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