augmented reality _ Cybernetics

Document Sample
augmented reality _ Cybernetics Powered By Docstoc
					[Augmented
Reality &
Cybernetics]
                        [Augmented Reality (AR) refers to the live direct or
                        indirect view of a real-world environment whose
                        elements are supplemented with, or augmented by,
                        computer-generated imagery. The augmentation is
                        conventionally in real-time and harmoniously displayed
                        through meaningful context with environmental
                        elements.]




       S B Mirza 1314
Modeling & Simulation
         Submittedto:
    Sir.WaseemSarwer
        GC University
           Faisalabad
            4/12/2010
                 [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

Contents
  1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..2
      1.1 Comparison between AR and virtual environments……………………….2
  2. EVOLUTION………………………………………………………………………….3
  3. WORKING…………………………………………………………………………….4
      3.1 Head-mounted display…………………………………………………………4
          3.1.1 Optical see-through display……………………………………………..5
          3.1.2Video see-through display…………………………………………….....5
          Some animation clicks…………………………………………………………6
      3.2Tracking system ……………………………………………………...................8
          3.2.1 Indoor Tracking…………………………………………………………..8
          3.2.2 Outdoor Trackin………………………………………………………….9
      3.3Mobile computing power………………………………………………………9
  4. APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………..9
      4.1Medical………………………………………………………………………….10
     4.2 Entertainment …………………………………………………………………10
     4.3Military Training……………………………………………………………….10
     4.4Engineering Design…………………………………………………………….10
     4.5Robotics and Telerobotics……………………………………………………..11
     4.6Manufacturing, maintenance and repair…………………………………….11
     4.7Consumer design……………………………………………………………….11
     4.8Instant information…………………………………………………………….11
     4.9bioinformatics……………………………………………………………..........11

  5. Cybernetics................................................................................................................11
  5.1 CYBERNETICS — A Definition………………………………………………....12
  5.2 Influences…………………………………………………………………………..12
  5.3 Cybernetics Today………………………………………………………………..12
  6. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………..13
  7. REFRENCE………………………………………………………………………....14




                                                                S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 1
       [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010




1. INTRODUCTION

 Augmented reality (AR) refers to
 computer displays that add virtual
 information to a user‘s sensory
 perception. Most AR research
 focuses on see-through devices,
 usually worn on the head that
 overlay graphics and text on the
 user‘s view of his or her
 surroundings.      In    general     it
 superimposes graphics over a real
 world environment in real time.
 Getting the right information at the
 right time and the right place is key
 in all these applications. Personal digital assistants such as the Palm and the
 Pocket PC can provide timely information using wireless networking and
 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that constantly track the handheld
 devices. But what makes Augmented Reality different is how the information
 is presented: not on a separate display but integrated with the user‘s
 perceptions. This kind of interface minimizes the extra mental effort that a
 user has to expend when switching his or her attention back and forth
 between real-world tasks and a computer screen. In augmented reality, the
 user‘s view of the world and the computer interface literally become one.




Real                Augmented                Augmented                Virtual
Environment         Reality                  virtuality          Environment
 In Augmented Virtuality, real objects are added to a virtual environment. In
 Augmented Reality, virtual objects are added to real world. An AR system
 supplements the real world with virtual (computer generated) objects that
 appear to co-exist in the same space as the real world. Virtual Reality is a
 synthetic environment.

 1.1 Comparison between AR and virtual environments:

 The overall requirements of AR can be summarized by comparing them
 against the requirements for Virtual Environments, for the three basic
 subsystems that they require.

                                     S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 2
         [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

     1. Scene generator : Rendering is not currently one of the major problems
        in AR. VE systems have much higher requirements for realistic images
        because they completely replace the real world with the virtual
        environment . In AR, the virtual images only supplement the real
        world. Therefore, fewer virtual objects need to be drawn, and they do
        not necessarily have to be realistically rendered in order to serve the
        purposes of the application.
     2. Display devices: The display devices used in AR may have less
        stringent requirements than VE systems demand, again because AR
        does not replace the real world. For example, monochrome displays
        may be adequate for some AR applications, while virtually all VE
        systems today use full color. Optical see-through HMD‘s with a small
        field-of-view may be satisfactory because the user can still see the real
        world with his peripheral vision; the see-through HMD does not shut
        off the user‘s normal field-of-view
     3. Tracking and sending: In this area, the requirements for AR are much
        stricter than those for VE systems. A major reason for this is the
        registration problem.


BASIC SUBSYTEMS                      VR                              AR
Scene Generator               More advance                    Less Advance

Display Device                High Quality                    Low Quality

Traking & sending             Less advance                    More advance


  Table 1: Comparison of requirements of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

  2. EVOLUTION:
        Although augmented reality may seem like the stuff of science fiction,
         researchers have been building prototype system for more than three
         decades. The first was developed in the 1960s by computer graphics
         pioneer Ivan Surtherland and his students at Harvard University.
        In the 1970s and 1980s a small number of researchers studied
         augmented reality at institution such as the U.S. Air Force‘s
         Armstrong Laboratory, the NASA Ames Research Center and the
         university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
        It wasn‘t until the early 1990s that the term ―Augmented Reality ―was
         coined by scientists at Boeing who were developing an experimental
         AR system to help workers assemble wiring harnesses.
        In 1996 developers at Columbia University develop ‗The Touring
         Machine‘

                                       S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 3
              [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

             In 2001 MIT came up with a very compact AR system known as
              ―MIThrill‖.
             Presently research is being done in developing BARS (Battlefield
              Augmented Reality Systems) by engineers at Naval Research
              Laboratory, Washington D.C.
      3. WORKING:
      AR system tracks the position and orientation of the user‘s head so that the
      overlaid material can be aligned with the user‘s view of the world. Through
      this process, known as registration, graphics software can place a three
      dimensional image of a tea cup, for example on top of a real saucer and keep
      the virtual cup fixed in that position as the user moves about the room. AR
      systems employ some of the same hardware technologies used in virtual
      reality research, but there‘s a crucial differences: whereas virtual reality
      brashly aims to replace the real world, augmented reality respectfully
      supplement it.

      Augmented Reality is still in an early stage of research and development at
      various universities and high-tech companies. Eventually, possible by the end
      of this decade, we will see first mass-marketed augmented reality system,
      which one researcher calls ―The Walkman of the 21st century‖. What
      augmented reality attempts to do is not only super impose graphics over a
      real environment in real-time, but also change those graphics to
      accommodate a user‘s head- and eye- movements, so that the graphics
      always fit and perspective.
Here are the three components needed to make an augmented-reality system work:
      -      Head-mounted display
      -      Tracking system
      -      Mobile computing power
      3.1 Head-Mounted Display :
      Just as monitor allow us to see text and graphics generated by computers,
      head-mounted displays (HMD‘s) will enable us to view graphics and text
      created by augmented-reality systems.
      There are two basic types of HMD‘s
      - Optical see-through
      - Video see-through
                                                                              Camera
                         Display                                               Display
                       Combiner                                              Opaque Mirror
                       (Semi-transparent mirror)

                    Optical Display                               Video Display
                                   Fig 1: Optical and Video Display

                                          S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 4
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010



3.1.1 Optical see-through display:

                                         Head
                             Head       Tracker
              Scene         Locations               Monitors
             Generator


                                                                   Real
                                                                   World
                                                   Optical
                                                  Combiners


               Fig 2: Optical see-through HMD conceptual diagram.

 A simple approach to optical see-through display employs a mirror beam
splitter- a half silvered mirror that both reflects and transmits light. If
properly oriented in front of the user‘s eye, the beam splitter can reflect the
image of a computer display into the user‘s line of sight yet still allow light
from the surrounding world to pass through. Such beam splitters, which are
called combiners, have long been used in head up displays for fighter-jet-
pilots (and, more recently, for drivers of luxury cars). Sony makes a see-
through display that some researchers use, called the ―Glasstron‖.

3.1.2 Video see-through displays :



                                              Head
                    Head                     Tracker      Video Cameras
  Video             Locations                                              Real
  Of                                                                       World
  Real
  World
                 Scene
                Generator
                      Graphics                          Monitors
                      Image

       Video Compositor



                                  Combined Video
                     Fig 3: Video see-through HMD conceptual diagram

                                        S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 5
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010




some animation clicks..
                            S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 6
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

In contrast, a video see through display uses video mixing technology,
originally developed for television special effects, to combine the image from
a head worn camera with synthesized graphics. The merged image is
typically presented on an opaque head worn display. With careful design the
camera can be positioned so that its optical path is closed to that of the user‘s
eye; the video image thus approximates what the user would normally see.

A different approach is the virtual retinal display, which forms images
directly on the retina. Potential advantages include high brightness and
contrast, low power consumption, and large depth of field.




      Fig 5: Two optical see-through HMD’s, made by Hughes Electronics

The user of one of these products navigates and operates using special markers or
paddles that are printed out in advance. These paddles contain special markers that,
when detectedby the webcam, are provided (typically) with superimposed images
from the topic being studied. Rather than navigate with a keyboard and mouse, AR
tools are much more versatile.
For example, consider the AR application Imaginality from Mindspace Solutions5.
The tool itself is installed on the user's computer, and various modules can be
downloaded from the Internet. For example, the solar system model has many
interesting features. Each paddle calls up a different planet (or the sun) when seen
by the webcam. The planet rotates on its axis and can be moved around, looked at
from different angles, etc., all by moving the physical paddle.

This image of Jupiter contains
vertical bars with more information
about the planet.




                                     S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 7
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

When the paddles for two planets are
placed close to each other, the smaller
planet shrinks to the correct relative
size of the larger one (in this case
comparing the Earth to Jupiter.
And, there's more. An information
paddle provide textual information
when placed near one of the planets on
The screen.



                                       This information paddle can be
                                       brought closer to the webcam to
                                       allow it to be read with ease.
                                       Other topics can be explored in
                                       much the same way – anatomy,
                                       DNA, the list is endless. But Imaginality
                                       far from the only AR application with
                                       educational value.




3.2 Tracking and Orientation:
The biggest challenge facing developers of augmented reality the need to
know where the user is located in reference to his or her surroundings.. A
tracking system has to recognize these movements and project the graphics
related to the real-world environment the user is seeing at any given
movement. Currently both video see-through and optical see-through
displays optically have lag in the overlaid material due to the tracking
technologies currently available.
3.2.1 Indoor Tracking:
Tracking is easier in small spaces than in large spaces. Trackers typically have
two parts: one worn by the tracked person or object and other built into the
surrounding environment, usually within the same room. In optical trackers,
the targets – LED‘s or reflectors, for instance – can be attached to the tracked
person or to the object, and an array of optical sensors can be embedded in
the room‘s ceiling. Alternatively the tracked users can wear the sensors, and
targets can be fixed to the ceiling. By calculating the distance to reach visible
target, the sensors can determine the user‘s position and orientation.
Researchers at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill have developed
a very precise system that works within 500 sq feet. The HiBall Tracking
System is an optoelectronic tracking system made of two parts:

                                     S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 8
        [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010



  Six user-mounted, optical sensors.
  Infrared-light-emitting diodes (LED‘s) embedded in special ceiling panels.

 3.2.2Out door Tracking:
 Head orientation is determined with a commercially available hybrid tracker
 that combines gyroscopes and accelerometers with magnetometers that
 measure the earth‘s magnetic field. For position tracking we take advantage
 OF a high-precision version of the increasingly popular Global Positioning
 system receiver.
 User can get better result with a technique known as differential GPS. In this
 method, the mobile GPS receiver also monitors signals from another GPS
 receiver and a radio transmitter at a fixed location on the earth. This
 transmitter broadcasts the correction based on the difference between the
 stationary GPS antenna‘s known and computed positions. By using these
 signals to correct the satellite signals, the differential GPS can reduce the
 margin of error to less than one meter.

3.3 MOBILE COMPUTING POWER :
  For a wearable augmented realty system, there is still not enough computing
  power to create stereo 3-D graphics. So researchers are using whatever they
  can get out of laptops and personal computers, for now. Laptops are just now
  starting to be equipped with graphics processing unit (GPU‘s). Toshiba just
  now added a NVIDIA to their notebooks that is able to process more than 17-
  million triangles per second and 286-million pixels per second, which can
  enable CPU-intensive programs, such as 3D games. But still notebooks lag far
  behind- NVIDIA has developed a custom 300-MHz 3-D graphics processor
  for Microsoft‘s Xbox game console that can produce 150 million polygon per
  second—and polygons are more complicated than triangles. So you can see
  how far mobiles graphics chips have to go before they can create smooth
  graphics like the ones you see on your home video-game system.

4. APPLICATIONS:
  Only recently have the capabilities of real-time video image processing,
  computer graphics systems and new display technologies converged to make
  possible the display of a virtual graphical image correctly registered with a
  view of the 3D environment surrounding the user. Researchers working with
  the AR system have proposed them as solutions in many domains. This
  section will highlight some of the proposed application for augmented
  reality.




                                     S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 9
             [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010



       4.1 Medical:
           1. Most of the medical application deal with image guided surgery. Pre-
               operative imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, of the patient
               provide the surgeon with the necessary view of the internal anatomy.
           2. Another application for AR in the medical domain is in ultra sound
               imaging. Using an optical see-through display the ultrasound
               technician can view a volumetric rendered image of the fetus overlaid
               on the abdomen of the pregnant woman. The image appears as if it
               were inside of the abdomen and is correctly rendered as the user
               moves.
           Fig 6: Virtual fetus inside womb of
               pregnant patient.




4.2 Entertainment :
       A simple form of the augmented reality has been in use in the entertainment
       and news business for quite some time. Whenever you are watching the
       evening weather report the weather reporter is shown standing in the front of
       changing weather maps. In the studio the reporter is standing in front of a
       blue or a green screen. This real image is augmented with the computer
       generated maps using a technique called chroma-keying. It is also possible to
       create a virtual studio environment so that the actors can appear to be
       positioned in a studio with computer generated decorating.
      Movie special effects make use of digital computing to create illusions.
4.3 Military Training:
       The military has been using display in cockpits that present information to
       the pilot on the windshield of the cockpit or the visor of their flight helmet.
       This is a form of Augmented Reality display. SIMNET, a distributed war
       games simulating system, is also embracing augmented reality technology.
       By equipping military personnel with helmet mounted visor displays or a
       special purpose rangefinder the activities of other units participating in the
       exercise can be imaged.
4.4 Engineering Design:
       Imagine that a group of designers are working on the model of a complex
       device for their clients. The designers and clients want to do a joint design
       reviews even though they are physically separated. If each of them had a
       conference room that was equipped with an augmented re4ality display this
       could be accomplished.


                                           S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 10
              [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010



4.5 Robotics and Telerobotics:
       In the domain of robotics and Telerobotics an augmented display can assist
       the user of the system. A Telerobotics operator uses a visual image of the
       remote workspace to guide the robot. Annotation of the view would still be
       useful just as it is when the scene is in front of the operator. There is an added
       potential benefit.
4.6 Manufacturing, maintenance and repair:
       When the maintenance technician approaches a new or unfamiliar piece of
       equipment instead of opening several repair manuals they could put on an
       augmented reality display.
4.7 Consumer design:
       Virtual reality systems are already used for consumer design. Using perhaps
       more of a graphics system than virtual reality, when you go to the typical
       home store wanting to add a new deck to your house, they will show you a
       graphical picture of what the deck will look like.
        Applications in the fashion and beauty industry that would benefit from an
        augmented reality system can also be imaged. If the dress store does not have
        a particular style dress in your size an appropriate sized dress could be used
        to augment the image of you.
4.8 Instant information:
        Tourists and students could use these systems to learn more about a certain
        historical event.
4.9 Bioinformatics:
        Research in Bioinformatics focuses on development of novel algorithms and
        architectures for genomics, proteomics, microarray analysis. The interested
        areas include protein-protein interaction network analysis, microarray data
        analysis, high dimensional data visualization, computational analysis and
        interpretation of Genomes, protein structure prediction, comparison, and
        modeling, evolutionary studies of Genomic ORFans, molecular recognition
        and docking of ligands onto receptors, and microarray analysis using
        variational Bayes by using augumented reality applications & facts.

       5. Cybernetics:

       Cybernetics" comes from a Greek word meaning "the art of steering".
       Cybernetics is about having a goal and taking action to achieve that goal.
       Knowing whether you have reached your goal (or at least are getting closer to
       it) requires"feedback",a concept that comes from cybernetics.

       Cybernetics as a process operating in nature has been around for a long time.
       Cybernetics as a concept in society has been around at least since Plato used it to
       refer to government.

                                            S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 11
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

In modern times, the term became widespread because Norbert Wiener wrote a
book called "Cybernetics" in 1948. His sub-title was "control and communication in
the animal and machine". This was important because it connects control (a.k.a.,
actions taken in hope of achieving goals) with communication (a.k.a., connection and
information flow between the actor and the environment). So, Wiener is pointing out
that effective action requires communication.
Wiener's sub-title also states that both animals (biological systems) and
machines (non-biological or "artificial" systems) can operate according to
cybernetic principles. This was an explicit recognition that both living and
non-living systems can have purpose. A scary idea in 1948.

According to the author William Gibson, who coined the term "cyberspace" in 1982:

―Cyber‖ is from the Greek word for navigator. Norbert Wiener coined ―cybernetics‖
around 1948 to denote the study of ―teleological mechanisms‖ [systems that embody
goals]. — NY Times Sunday Magazine 2007

5.1 CYBERNETICS — A Definition:

Artificial Intelligence and cybernetics: Aren't they the same thing? Or, isn't one about
computers and the other about robots? The answer to these questions is
emphatically, No.

Researchers in Artificial Intelligence (AI) use computer technology to build
intelligent machines; they consider implementation (that is, working examples) as
the most important result. Practitioners of cybernetics use models of organizations,
feedback, goals, and conversation to understand the capacity and limits of any
system (technological, biological, or social); they consider powerful descriptions as
the most important result

5.2 Influences:

Cybernetics has directly affected software for intelligent training, knowledge
representation, cognitive modeling, computer-supported coöperative work, and
neural modeling. Useful results have been demonstrated in all these areas. Like AI,
however, cybernetics has not produced recognizable solutions to the machine
intelligence problem, not at least for domains considered complex in the metrics of
symbolic processing. Many beguiling artifacts have been produced with an appeal
more familiar in an entertainment medium or to organic life than a piece of software.

5.3 Cybernetics Today:

The term "cybernetics" has been widely misunderstood, perhaps for two broad
reasons. First, its identity and boundary are difficult to grasp. The nature of its
concepts and the breadth of its applications, as described above, make it difficult for
non-practitioners to form a clear concept of cybernetics. This holds even for

                                     S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 12
      [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

professionals of all sorts, as cybernetics never became a popular discipline in its own
right; rather, its concepts and viewpoints seeped into many other disciplines, from
sociology and psychology to design methods and post-modern thought. Second, the
advent of the prefix "cyb" or "cyber" as a referent to either robots ("cyborgs") or the
Internet ("cyberspace") further diluted its meaning, to the point of serious confusion
to everyone except the small number of cybernetic experts.

However, the concepts and origins of cybernetics have become of greater interest
recently, especially since around the year 2000. Lack of success by AI to create
intelligent machines has increased curiosity toward alternative views of what a brain
does [Ashby 1960] and alternative views of the biology of cognition [Maturana 1970].
There is growing recognition of the value of a "science of subjectivity" that
encompasses both objective and subjective interactions, including conversation
[Pask 1976]. Designers are rediscovering the influence of cybernetics on the tradition
of 20th-century design methods, and the need for rigorous models of goals,
interaction, and system limitations for the successful development of complex
products and services, such as those delivered via today's software networks. And,
as in any social cycle, students of history reach back with minds more open than was
possible at the inception of cybernetics, to reinterpret the meaning and contribution
of a previous era.

6. CONCLUSION:

The recent emergence of augmented reality (AR) allows anyone with a computer
and webcam
to experience the blend of the real with the computational worlds. Furthermore, the
worlds of AR are fully interactive, not just static representations of designs done by
others. AR applications can range from entertainment to education. These systems
have the following characteristics: They can be-
• Static (moves with card in viewers hand)
• Dyanamic (is a moving object)
• Interactive (viewer can manipulate the object
• Autonomous (object is controlled by someone else or artificial intelligence)
They can be viewed with-
• Webcam and viewer‘s computer monitor – object only exists inside of computer
space
• A wearable viewing device
• Projected image (implied hologram) – object is actually seen with naked eye
Information using AR has interesting properties-
• Data is predetermined by designer
• Data can be manipulated by viewer
• Data is changing autonomously with user
• (This progression of change also happens with other web technologies.)
We believe that the educational application of AR represents the emergence of a new
paradigm of Internet use.

                                    S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 13
    [[AUGMENTED REALITY & CYBERNETICS]] April 12, 2010

                         7. REFERENCES



 A survey of Augmented Reality by Ronald T. Azuma
 Recent Advances in Augmented Reality by Ronald T.Azuma, Yohan
  Baillot, Reinhold Beringer, Simon Julier and Blair MacIntyre
 Augmented Reality: A new way of seeing. Steven K Feiner
 Augmented Reality and computer Augmented                     Environment,
  available at
  http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/project/ar/ref.html
 Encounter at Farpoint - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. at
  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encounter_at_Farpoint>
 Touchable Holography. at <http://www.alab.t.utokyo.
  ac.jp/~siggraph/09/TouchableHolography/SIGGRAPH09-TH.html>
 Stephenson, N. Snow Crash. 440(Bantam Books: New York, 1992).
 Virtual Worlds, Avatars, free 3D chat, online meetings - Second Life Official
  Site. At <http://secondlife.com/>
 Gibson, W. Spook Country. 371(G.P. Putnam's Sons: New York, 2007).
 Imaginality Unleashed - Exciting Hands-On Educational Software - Virtual,
  3D, Educational Objects in the Real World for fun, enjoyable learning
  experiences. at
  <http://www.mindspacesolutions.com/imaginality/iuhome.html>
 Dick, P.K. The Minority Report. 103(Pantheon Books: New York, 2002).
 Goodbye Virtual Reality, Hello Augmented Reality
  By Brian Solis, blogger at PR 2.0 and principal of FutureWorks PR,
  Co-Author Putting the Public Back in Public Relations and Now Is Gone
   From Asignment of a Student,Dept. Of Computer Science And Engineering ,M.E.S.
    College Of Engineering




                                 S B Mirza 1314 [Modeling & Simulation] 14

				
SB Mirza SB Mirza Bioinformatician http://bioinformatics99.blogspot.com/
About