; Consumers Perspectives on Tourism and the Environment
Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Consumers Perspectives on Tourism and the Environment


  • pg 1
									          WORKING PAPER

            September 1998/no. 10

    Consumers’ Perspectives
on Tourism and the Environment

          Anne Marie G. Christensen
            Suzanne C. Beckmann

       C✧E✧C Working paper no. 7


   TEL: +45 38 15 21 00 / FAX NO: +45 38 21 01


Tourism is today considered one of the world’s largest growth industries, which
during the latest 30 years have six-doubled its number of international travellers.
Due to its enormous extension in size and spreading the environmental
consequences of the growing tourism industry are experienced all over the world.
In many destinations, both nature and manmade systems are today ruined after
just few decades of exploitation.

To stop tourism's serious over-exploitation of our common nature and hereby
prevent its destruction of exactly what it is based on, the relationship between
tourism and ecology must be balanced by the spreading of tourism development
with a sustainable objective.

The aim of this serie of two papers is, in a consumer behavioural perspective, to
make an explorative study of tourism and its relation to the natural environment.
This first paper, looks into the concepts and background of the relationship
between tourism and the natural environment.

This is done, first by studying and discussing relevant literature concerning the
potential problems and conflicts between tourism and the natural environment,
second by listing and discussing a range of guiding principles for future
development within the tourism industry in accordance with the sustainable

Tourism and the natural environment                                               1


       The modern industrial culture has, without any doubt, provided wealth
and welfare for many people, but there are increasingly developments in several
areas that raise questions about industrial societies' capability for solving the
existing problems. These can be referred to as: (1) eco-geographical environment
problems, (2) socio-economic society problems, and (3) physical-psychological
individual problems (Gullestrup, 1996), all of which are interrelated.

       One of the areas where we face the dilemmas and conflicts inherent in
these problems is within the tourism industry. Tourism certainly contributes to
many positive things, both for individuals and whole societies. For the individual
tourist, traveling is a source of much pleasure and great experiences, and at
tourist generating areas and destinations, tourism contributes to economic
development and the creation of jobs in both industrialized and developing
countries. Moreover, international tourism has been considered as contributor to
the enhancement of inter-cultural understanding.

      Inherent in the many positive effects of tourism is a dark side, which
include impacting both the natural and cultural environments at destination
regions. By virtue of its enormous extension in size and spreading, especially the
environmental consequences of the growing tourism industry are experienced all
over the world. At many destinations, nature is today ruined after just few
decades of exploitation. Tourists are deserting impoverished destinations to seek
new unspoiled places to travel to, and the tourism industry seems to loose its
image as "pollution-free" service industry.

      To stop tourism's serious overexploitation of our nature and hereby
prevent its destruction of exactly what it is based on, the relationship between
tourism and ecology needs to be balanced by introducing the sustainability
paradigm to tourism (Gunn, 1994; Lui, Seldon & Var 1987; Wheatcroft, 1991).

       But exactly what kind of problems and conflicts exist in the relationship
between a large-scale industry such as tourism and the protection of the
environment? The answer to this question is vital to a development where
tourism can be adapted to the paradigm of sustainability, namely, meeting the
needs and wants of the present generation without compromising neither nature
nor future generation's needs and wants (The World Commission, 1987).

       The relationship between economy and ecology is particular interesting to
study within tourism, because it is a leisure activity, and it is in the leisure time
that modern man and woman experience the most intensive contact with the
natural environment (May, 1991). Many have attempted to clarify and explain this
relationship during the last twenty years, while most focus on specific destination

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 2

areas, approaching it from a single theoretical viewpoint. Only few attempts have
been approaching the matter holistically.

       It has been pointed out that consumption affects the environment (e.g.,
Balderjahn, 1985; Durning, 1992; Fisk, 1974), and also tourism has been described
as a system of elements that influence on each other and functions in interaction
with their environment. Leiper (1979) describes tourism as a system, based on an
understanding of tourism as a mobile activity, where the tourists’ travel from
their permanent homes to return after a temporary stay abroad/elsewhere. This
view allows to draw a picture of the mechanisms and components interacting in
this system (see Figure 1). The elements of the system are tourists, generating
regions, transit routes, destination regions, and a tourism industry. Having the
characteristics of an open system, the organization of these five elements operates
within broader environments: physical and cultural, economic, political and
technological, and social.

                                                  Figure 1:
                                         Tourism and the environment

                                                   Physical and cultural
                          ecosystems                                                       infrastructure
                 fauna                    Economic, political, technological env.                           buildings
         flora           politics                                                           economics
                                                       Social environment
                                              family                      freinds

                                    Departing                                   Tourist
                  Tourist                                   Transit
                                    tourists                                    arriving              Tourist
                  generating                                                                      destination
                                    Returning                routes             and
                  regions                                                                             regions
                                    tourists                                    staying

                                             values                       traditions
                               technology                                           advertising
                                                           legislation                                   nation

                                       religion                                        history

(Adapted from Leiper, 1979)

      Figure 1 is thus symbolic of the arrangement of the multiple elements and
facets of tourism, namely geographical, behavioural, industrial and
environmental (Leiper, 1979). The behavioural element, tourists, are represented

Tourism and the natural environment                                                                                     3

leaving generating regions, traveling to and staying in destinations, and returning
home. The tourism industry element is represented within all three geographical

The concept of tourism

       Parallel to the industrial revolution in Western societies, tourism has
undergone major developments, particularly during the second half of this
century. From being a luxury for the chosen few only a few generations ago,
tourism is today the world's biggest growth industry and has six-doubled its
number of international travelers during the last 30 years (Wood & House, 1993).
The intensive and stressful working life created the need, while growing incomes,
paid holidays, more leisure time, and improved means of transportation created
the basis. Economies of scales and lower travel expenses due to mass tourism
gave most people the possibility to join in the feast of traveling, which in Western
industrialized societies today is an important and integrated part of most people's

        The concept of tourism is not clearly defined, and the definitions found in
the literature are split between conceptual and technical definitions, that originate
from either the supply or demand side of tourism (Burkart & Medlik, 1982;
Holloway, 1989). The focus here is on the consumer, i.e., the individual tourist's
activities, and therefore the definition of tourism used here takes its starting point
in the demand side.

       Tourism is just one among many activities people can use their leisure time
for (Holloway, 1991). What separates tourism from other leisure activities is
normally described as a change in setting. Consequently to be a tourist one must
travel to and stay in another place than one usual lives in and the stay must be
temporary (Framke, 1993a; Lash & Urry, 1994). By including the criterion of
purpose, tourism can then be defined as: activities of persons who travel or stay in
another place than their usual surroundings, by purpose of special interests, business, or

       Another common criterion used mainly in the statistical literature is the
length of the travel. Day and weekend trips might in some cases be excluded.
From an environmental perspective, however, people exploit the environment on
shorter trips almost as much as they do on longer trips. Longer trips often only
use more or slightly different resources that may have greater environmental

      All of the three mentioned purposes add to tourism's exploitation of the
environment, but since holiday tourism is the largest and also requires the most

Tourism and the natural environment                                                      4

resources (Framke, 1993b), it is here that the conflicts between tourism and the
environment are most visible.

       In general, a touristic activity can be described as a process that runs
through several phases from the planning of the holiday to long time after
returning home (Medlik, 1988; see Figure 2).

                                         Figure 2:
                               Five phases of a tourist activity

            Home                            In transit             At destination

                                       Travelling to the
                                        destination                   Activities
         Remembering                      Home journey

(Adapted from Clawson & Knetsch, 1966)

The natural environment

        The inconsistency within the diversity of academic studies of the
relationship between economy and ecology blurs the picture of what precisely we
are dealing with. But the more recent literature generally recommends to define
the natural environment from a holistic view point, first and foremost because this
reflects the complex reality, and secondly because it allows to analyze the single
components and yet study their relations (Hunter & Green, 1995; Mieczkowski,

        Within ecological theory, natural surroundings are divided into the living
(biotic) and the non-living (abiotic) components, which function in interaction
within what is called ecosystems (Riisgaard, 1988). Understanding of our
surroundings as a combination of single elements between which complex
dynamic relationships exist, together forming a whole, the natural environment
can be defined as: the combination of all biotic and abiotic elements on earth, which
function in an interplay through ecosystems.

       The biotic elements consist of all living organisms, i.e., animals (fauna) and
plants (flora). The abiotic elements can be defined as all material and energy

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 5

found in the air, the soil, and the water. Ecosystems consist of a society of
individuals from different populations, living in a given area together with their
non-living surroundings. The limits of an ecosystem are estimated and in practice
determined by the chosen unit of analysis, and can therefor span from the
biosphere which consists of the surface of earth in which there is life, to lakes,
forests, rivers, the sea, or the smallest waterhole.

       Central to ecology is that all life in ecosystems is driven by fluxes of solar
energy, with the largest ecosystem being the earth itself. When considering our
economic activities it is appropriate to look at the earth as a closed system where
solar energy is the only input. The picture creates a simple image of how
important it is that the waste we produce can be either recycled or assimilated in
the ecological system, in order to maintain balance within and between the
economic and ecological systems.


       Due to the pressure exerted on the environment by tourism some
destination areas may ultimately become unsustainable, and decline in popularity
over the long term (Hunter & Green, 1995). The following section gives a review
of the often deleterious effects of tourism-related behaviours on the natural
environment, distinguishing between effects on the biotic and abiotic elements.

Tourism's impacts on the biotic elements

       Since the biotic elements are important resources of tourism, they a
particularly vulnerable to tourism industry's and tourist behaviour's impact. The
tendency of many tourists to bring home souvenirs as memories or status symbols
(Brown, 1992) for example, may result in the selective removal, collection or
killing of often rare animals and plants, and thus adding to the loss of biological
diversity (Hamele, 1988).

       Organisms may be transferred from one area to another outside their
natural habitat, either deliberately when tourist smuggle rare animal species
home from an exotic destination, or accidentally when tourists without knowing
import foreign seeds into for example national parks under their shoes (Romeril,

       Physical infringements where animals are hurt or killed, either by accident
as in traffic or deliberately by fishing or hunting, are more extreme impacts.
Disturbance has less direct consequences, but the stressing of animals in their
habitats by touristic activities can cause extinction or migration of certain animal

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 6

species (Edwards, 1987; Erize, 1987; Walker, 1991). A gray goose for instance uses
several days of energy rations when it is partridged by a skier passing up to 150
meters from it (Hamele, 1988), and if such disturbances happen too often it will
ultimately die of hunger.

        Beaches, one of the tourists’ most preferred destinations, are in certain
areas also the place where turtles once a year lay their eggs. Studies in Turkey
have shown that castles made of sand, excavations, and sunshades stuck in the
sand cause the destruction of whole egg colonies. Noise from restaurants and
discotheques at night prevent the females from reaching the shore in time for
laying their eggs (Morrison and Selman, 1991). And light from roads and
buildings prevent female turtles from nesting and disorientate the newly hatched
turtles who normally find their way to the sea with the help of the moon’s
reflections (Walker, 1991).

       Noise from roads and runways are generally disturbing many animals
(Hamele, 1988; Wheatcroft, 1991). Engines and load speakers on boats, can if they
get too close, disturb the parental care of bird colonies (Edwards, 1987). And also
vibrations from roads, air traffic, construction sites, snow generators, or water
scooters can impact animals by causing stress that may disrupt breeding and
nesting habits (Edwards, 1987; Smith & Jenner, 1989).

       Changes in the living conditions of animals, either by impacting abiotic
conditions or by influencing feeding chains, have serious implications. Soil
erosion caused by mountain bikes, trekking, or winter sports, can change animals’
habitats so drastically that their level of reproduction is changed or that they are
forced to migrate. Trekkers cutting forest vegetation for heating and cooking have
caused wood scarcity in, e.g., Nepal (Mäder, 1988; UNEP, 1995). Using tropical
wood for furniture and decoration of hotels has implications with global
consequences (Hunter & Green, 1995), since the recent years’ clear cuttings in
tropical forests have led to considerable environmental decline. Many tropical
forests have after clear cutting turned into bushes or deserts, due to the washing
or blowing away of the top soil (Riisgaard, 1988).

       The tourists' physical activities and vehicles not only destroy or flatten the
vegetation, but may also cause soil erosion (Erize, 1987). Winter sport is the major
reason why the Alps today are called the most threatened mountain system in the
world (Hansen, 1990). Where forest areas are cut clear to provide skiing facilities,
the occurrence of avalanches and landslides have greatly increased.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 7

Tourism's impacts on the abiotic elements

      The abiotic elements serve important purposes to tourism, since they not
only offer resources, but also serve as setting for touristic activities and
experiences on the land, in the water, and in the air. Attrition, pollution, and
uncontrolled use of resources are the kind of problems that cause conflicts
between tourism and environmental protection related to these elements.


       The use of natural resources for the suppliant of transportation, power, and
heat for warming up houses and swimming pools, are the main areas where
tourism adds to the problem of air pollution (Hamele, 1988). Smog problems are a
well-known phenomenon in the holiday season in many large holiday cities and
along highways. Lead pollution, especially in countries that have no legislation
regarding leaded fuel, is known to concentrate up through the food chain,
reducing the reproduction ability, and influencing both animals’ and humans’
central nerve system. Moreover, the emission derived from the burning of fossil
fuels cause problems regionally, because air currents in the lower layer (0-3 km)
transport polluting materials across large distances before they are washed out
and disposed on the surface of the earth (Miljøministeriet, 1990). While still in the
atmosphere, chemical reactions turn sulfur dioxide into acid, which acidifies rain,
lakes, and rivers, thus causing for example “Waldsterben”.

       Globally seen, air transportation is one of the biggest polluter, contributing
to increased levels of ultra-violet radiation, which influence animal and human
immune systems and can cause skin cancer. Climatic changes are suggested to be
caused by changes in the atmospheric composition of the so-called greenhouse
gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone.


       Even though many tourism development areas suffer from a general
shortage of fresh water, fresh water is used to irrigate golf courses, parks and
hotel gardens, for washing and bathing, and to fill up swimming pools. And in
the south where the climate is typically warm and dry, the unequal distribution of
fresh and drinking water between tourists and the local residents is a well-known
problem (Dowling, 1991, 1993). In the Mediterranean for example, hotels’ daily
use of 400 liter water per guest is extremely high compared to the locals' use of 70
liter per person per day (Hamele, 1988), while other literature mentions hotel
guests using up to ten times as much water as the locals (Mieczkowski, 1995).

      In French winter sport areas there are examples of ecological imbalanced
lakes due to the high use of fresh water for the production of artificial snow

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 8

(Smith & Jenner, 1989). Rodriguez (1987) has studied the ski industry's influence
on the water resources in an area of Mexico and found that ski resorts and
connected facilities have caused both qualitative and quantitative deterioration of
the aquatic systems.

        The discharge of waste water and sewage, the leaking of nutritive salts,
dumping of waste and oil, fuel refuse, and remedies used for maintenance and
cleaning of boats are all adding to the pollution of both fresh water and the sea
(Erize, 1987; Hamele, 1988).

       Sports such as sailing and golfing that have a "green" image both
contribute to water pollution with serious consequences for the aquatic animal
and plant life (Hunter & Green, 1995). Sailing pollutes with paint used for keeping
algae from the hull of the boats, which has been found to disturb the reproduction
of whelks (Hansen, 1990). And the maintenance of golf courses with pesticides,
crop sprays, and nutritive salts are in many countries the source of pollution in
the aquatic environment (Erhvervsfremmestyrelsen, 1993).

        In other cases, pollution comes directly from tourists' activities: the increase
in visits from English anglers for example caused ecological imbalance in a Lake
in Denmark, in terms of high levels of nutritive salts due to anglers’ pre-feeding of
the fish. Another frightening and rather extreme example of pollution was found
in Venezuela in 1984, where local tourism developers poured products containing
dioxin in the ocean along the coast to exterminate seaweed that annoyed guests
(Mäder, 1988). Dioxin is one of the most dangerous poisons to the environment,
and the consequence was millions of dead fish and several thousands of people
that had to be evacuated.


        The spreading of tourism into hitherto unspoiled areas of land is a well-
known problem all over the world (Mäder, 1988). The construction of hotels
facilities, and tourists attractions in vulnerable nature can have serious
consequences to both animal and plant life. Especially areas near the sea are
vulnerable, but at the same time they are a popular location with many tourists
(Mieczkowski, 1995). Even though many countries have now adopted legislation’s
to prevent developments too near the coastline, the natural marine-coastal
ecosystems are nonetheless often destroyed, which consequently increases the
risk of tidal waves and coastal erosion (Andersen, 1997; Mieckowski, 1995).

       Trampling on dunes and the ensuring erosion of sand is another significant
problem that is seen along the coastline stretching from Denmark over Germany
to The Netherlands. Unique areas such as Grenen at the Northern top of Denmark

Tourism and the natural environment                                                    9

are today threatened by the large numbers of visitors during the summer period
(Jensen, 1997).

       Winter sport, trekking, mountain biking, and the use of off-road vehicles
also cause damage to the soil structure (Edington & Edington, 1988; Edwards,
1987). As mentioned before, changes in the biotic elements can influence the
abiotic elements, but also the reverse can happen. In mountain area with intense
skiing the snow takes longer to melt in the spring due to skiers and machines
compacting the snow and the soil underneath, thus causing reduced growth
periods for vegetation (Hamele, 1988).

       The tourists' disposal of non-degradable waste along transit routes and at
recreational areas defaces the natural environment's aesthetic qualities and
influences the nature in several ways. The large flocks of seagulls often observed
at beaches because attracted by the tourists' litter, leading to a changed
composition of species to the disadvantage of smaller, more shyer birds
(Mieczkowski, 1995).

The consequences of ecosystem’s damage

      As shown above, modern tourism has added a great deal to the creation of
an unbalanced biosphere by influencing and overexploiting the living natural
resources, animals and plants, and polluting and degrading the non-living
elements of the environment.

       Extinction has been a fact of life since life first emerged. The present few
million species are the modern-day survivors of the estimated half-billion species
that have ever existed (The World Commission, 1987). Almost all past extinctions
have occurred by natural processes, but today human activities are
overwhelmingly the main cause of extinction. The diversity of species is necessary
for the normal functioning of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. Next to
preventing the loss of utility opportunities, there are moral, ethical, cultural,
aesthetic, and scientific reasons for protecting species.

        The loss of biodiversity has several consequences for tourism:

•       The intangible and aesthetic values of the natural environment are
        reduced, and beautiful creatures will disappear forever.
•       The loss of species and subspecies, of which many have not been studied
        by natural science, results in the loss of potential resources.
•       Areas become more vulnerable to climatic problems, vermins, and

Tourism and the natural environment                                              10

        Hence, by altering or destroying for example forests' ecosystem, tourism
adds to the reduction of biodiversity. Not only is the quantity of resources such as
fossil fuels and timbers reduced, but also aesthetic values are lost. The following
is just a few examples of the consequences of tourism' s implications on the

        Forests play a central role in the balance of the abiotic world, since forests
encapsulate the water resources in dry areas, so that water and nutritive salts do
not run into rivers and lakes. Large forests also function as “living sponges”, that
stabilize the water balance of the air, and hence the humidity and temperature
(Riisgaard, 1988). Further, recent theories indicate that very large forests, like
tropical rain forests, most likely absorb the increased amounts of carbon dioxide,
that is released from the burning of fossil fuels.

      Clear cutting and burning of forests, destruction or removal of organic
material such as leafs and pieces of wood from the surface of earth, compacting
because of physical impacts from tourists' feet or vehicles, are all things where
tourism contributes to the degradation of the soils’ ecosystems. Touristic activities
can also change the structure, temperature, and humidity of the soil and its
composition of organic material.

       The spreading of tourism facilities where forests are cut clear and burned,
the burning of fossil fuels for the production of energy and for transportation
release large amounts of carbon dioxide. The storing of carbon dioxide and other
kinds of gasses in the atmosphere keeps the sunrays back near the surface of
earth, which can lead to a global increase in the temperature, known as the
"greenhouse effect" (The World Commission, 1987). These climatic changes and
the increase in ultra-violet radiation can directly influence human health.
Furthermore it can decrease the amount of land present to human occupations
and water supplies, since higher temperatures may lead to rising sea levels.
Ultimately, a higher sea level can lead to floods, coast erosion, and breaking dikes,
and saltwater penetrating to groundwater. Lower lying coast locations and deltas
might be flooded, thus ultimately causing drastic disturbances in both national
and international systems of agriculture, production, trade, and also tourism.

        Water serves important purposes to tourism. Fresh water is of vital
importance to drinking water supply, fishing, transportation, and recreational
activities. Both animals and plants are dependent on it for survival. The oceans,
which cover about 70% of the earth's surface, play a decisive role in the global
ecosystem, influencing the climate and the atmosphere, as well as being a source
of food and other resources. To tourism the sea means opportunities of
transportation, employment, and particularly recreation. But at the same time
tourism pollutes the seas by, e.g., sewage, chemicals, and waste such as plastic,
heavy metals, and oil. Some materials which by the means of tourism end up in

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 11

the oceans are only slowly assimilated and degraded in the ecosystems, while
others are non-degradable and stored in living organisms. In the sea the impact is
not limited to one single area, but passes through the streams of water and air
over national borders and through connected food chains from species to species
(The World Commission, 1987).

Tourism and the natural environment                                             12

Many small brooks make up a big river

        The core problem of the environmental implications of modern tourism is
its size (Krippendorf, 1987). While the individual tourist's behaviour may not
contribute very much to environmental degradation, the sum of individual
actions can lead to significant destruction of the natural environment (May, 1991).

       The extent of the problems depends highly of the kind of choices the single
tourist makes, and at worst the environmental problems increase for every tourist
who decides to have a holiday. Tourists that are aware of the consequences of
their actions and the responsibility connected to their choices, would ideally
consider questions like (Elkington & Hailes, 1992):

•       how far they travel - and how they get there
•       which kind of accommodation they choose
•       which activities they choose while on holiday
•       where and what they eat and drink
•       what they buy and where they buy it
•       how they behave

       An environmentally conscious consumer can be defined as "a person, who
knows that production, distribution, usage, and disposal of products cause
external costs, and values such costs critically, and therefore tries to minimize
these through his or her behaviour" (Balderjahn, 1985, p. 253). An
environmentally conscious tourist then is a person who, apart from the evaluation
of how to organize his or her holiday, also considers which consequences the
various elements of a holiday have on the natural environment. This complicates
the tourist’s decision making, since being conscious of the environment can easily
lead to a conflict between the wish to be a tourist and "consume,” among other
things, the natural environment, and the wish to protect and sustain this same

       The tourist's decision process is thus further extended to also include the
complicated relationship, which exists in the interaction of tourism and the
natural environment. The assessment of a single impact is quite difficult and
when aiming at predicting the potential consequences of a given activity, tourists
face several assessment difficulties. Moreover, the tourists’ decisions are
complicated by the fact that they per definition operates in surroundings that are
different from their home environment, and that they stay there only temporary.

Difficulties in assessing tourism’s environmental impacts

Tourism and the natural environment                                              13

        The wide range and type of impacts reflects the complexity of the tourism
industry, and renders the comprehensive appraisal of the environmental
consequences of tourism difficult (Hunter & Green, 1995). When looking at the
tourism industry as an economic system, it is important to recall that it should be
understood as an open system. Any system, economic or ecological, functions in
interaction with other systems in a network of inter-related systems. Tourism is
strongly dependent on other related industries such as those of transport and
food production, which all function in relation to the natural environment. So
even if the above mentioned problems were discussed as isolated examples,
restricted to for example destination areas and with a focus on the ecological
problems, these usually will imply both social and political consequences.

       Looking at the environmental problems alone, the largest difficulty is to
separate touristic activities from the rest of the surroundings, since these activities
may be pursued both by tourists and by host population, and they may also occur
in conjunction with other economic activities (Briassoulis, 1991). According to
Briassoulis (1991) the major difficulties involved in the assessment of tourism
impacts can be summarized as:

•       Tourism is an amalgam of inter-linked activities and therefore
        distinguishing impacts arising from individual activities is often difficult.
•       Environmental changes even occur without human implications, making
        tourism-induced changes more difficult to quantify.
•       A lack of detailed knowledge of environmental conditions prior to the
        advent of tourism in a given area frequently limits the viability of post-
        development investigations.
•       In addition to direct impacts, tourism may have indirect impacts, which
        may not be amenable to straightforward assessment.
•       Some impacts will only manifest themselves over the long term, making
        establishment of causality links more difficult.
•       The components of the environment are interlinked, and thus a tourism
        activity influencing one aspect of the environment may produce an indirect
        impact on another.


       The relationship between man and nature has undergone radical changes
in the past few centuries, and man’s exploitation of nature has increased
considerably due to social, economical, and technological developments
(Anderson & Challagalla, 1994). In general the perception and understanding of
the relationship between economy (man) and ecology (nature) can be
characterized by two opposing world-views. Gunn (1987), Hunter and Green
(1995), and Mieczkowski (1995) describe the one as resource-exploitative and

Tourism and the natural environment                                                  14

growth oriented, and the other as resource-preservationist and zero-growth
oriented. Verburg (1992) labels them exemptionalism and environmentalism.
Others like Hanning and Rønnest (1993), and Yanarella and Levine (1992) classify
the perceptions by including several intermediate stages. But common to all
classifications is that there are two opposites where one of them focuses on
economic growth and the other considers the ecological system to be at least as if
not more important than the economic system (see Table 1).

                                       Table 1:
                   World-views of the economy-ecology relationship

  Perception of                       Exemptionalist      Environmentalist
  Superior system                     Economy             Ecology
  Progress                            Growth              Development
  Process                             Linear              Cyclical
  Resources                           Unlimited           Limited
  Man                                 Conqueror           Citizen
  Basic value                         Economic            Philosophical/aesthetic
  Interests                           Individualistic     Collectivist
  Environmental action                Reactive            Proactive
  Government                          Free market         Restrictions/real costs

        Central of these opposites is the distinction between economic growth and
economic development. Daly (1990) describes economic growth as a quantitative
increase of the economy's physical dimension, while development is characterized
by a qualitative improvement in the structure, design, and composition of the
physical stock of welfare that derives from added knowledge. In other words an
economy in growth becomes bigger while an economy in development becomes
better (Hawken, 1993).

        In accordance with the two opposite views of the relationship between
economy and ecology, the perceptions of the problems associated with tourism
and environmental protection, is different for the tourism industry and
environmentalists (Framke, 1993a; Mieczkowski, 1995). While the tourism
industry believes that a sustainable tourism must have a clear commercial goal,
i.e., tourism must create economic profits, while environmentalists are convinced
that any kind of tourism is threatening to the nature (Romeril, 1989).

       The first view does generally not consider the natural resources which
tourism is based on to be worth protecting. Here sustainable development is
limited to continuing economic growth without considering the welfare of the
ecological system. A so-called environmentally friendly or sustainable tourism is

Tourism and the natural environment                                             15

seen as one among a whole range of different kinds of tourism connected to a
variety of activities and types of traveling such as holidays by bicycle or canoe,
holiday in the country side, sport fishing holidays, and the like (Framke, 1993a).

        When discussing which direction the development of tourism should take,
conflicts may easily arise between the different stakeholders such as industry,
consumers, municipalities, locals, environmental organizations, and other non-
profit organizations involved in tourism. The tourism industry for example tends
to believe that nature is for humans to be used, that man is a part of nature as well
as animals and plants, and that man therefore should not be excluded from
certain nature areas by preservation actions (Jacobsen, 1997). The argument is that
even if some nature areas are overexploited for few weeks every year, outside the
tourist season these areas are deserted and thus able to recuperate. Moreover the
attitude might prevail that a country such as Denmark that believes to have the
best environmental legislation in the world, automatically also has an
environmentally friendly tourism (Framke, 1993a).


       The practical implementation of sustainable development is a multi-sided
task. For a development to be sustainable it must fulfill three basic principles that
aim at improvements within what is considered as the major problem areas:
poverty, atmosphere, forests/biological diversity, water, soil/agriculture, human
health, human settling, and population growth. The three basic principles are
(The World Commission, 1987):

1. optimizing human well-being,
2. respecting the earth’s capacity to regenerate resources and absorb waste,
3. fair allocation of costs, benefits, and resource-use options.

       Fair allocation is divided into inter- and intra-generational allocation,
where the first refers to the allocation between current and future generations,
and the second to the allocation within the current generation. In the following
the concept of sustainability will be discussed primarily with regard to the
allocation between generations. However, recommendations made by The World
Commission about intra-generational fairness are very important too, since
especially poorer parts of the world seek to take often short-term economic
advantages at nature’s expense. Further, this discussion considers only problems
directly connected to the natural environment, i.e., it is limited to focus on what
The World Commission (1987) regards as an absolute minimum demand of
sustainable development: not bringing the natural systems, which support the life
on earth in danger such as the atmosphere, waters, soil and living creatures.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                16

      Sustainable tourism development implies that development within tourism
uses resources in a sustainable way and takes place within the limits of the
surrounding ecosystems’ global carrying ability. Typically the natural
environment’s carrying ability is determined by (Christensen, 1993):

•       biodiversity
•       conservation of the range of natural ecosystems (forests, atmosphere,
        water, soil)
•       ecosystems biological productivity

      To reach a balance between the environment and economic development,
The World Commission (1987) recommends preserving, strengthening and
extending the so-called carrying ability:

•       preserving all plant and animal species because of both their economic and
        non-economic value for human beings
•       reducing the negative impacts of human activities on the quality of the
        biotic and abiotic elements in nature as much as possible in order to protect
        the general integrity of ecosystems
•       using new human knowledge and technology, e.g., for developing
        sustainable alternatives

      Compared to the factors that determine nature's carrying capability,
tourism's development is mainly influenced by:

•       the number of tourists
•       tourism’s use of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable
•       the institutions in tourism’s external surroundings (economic, political,

       An unsustainable tourism development can therefore be described as a
development, where tourism’s exploitation is too large compared to nature's
carrying ability.

The number of tourists

       As already mentioned, the largest problem of tourism is its size and it’s
continuing growth in absolute number of tourists. Authors like Wheeler (1991)
therefore also doubt whether a sustainable tourism development is at all possible.
The reasons for tourism's growth is obviously that more people travel, but also
that more people tend to make more than one holiday a year, all due to such as
higher incomes, better transportation opportunities, and growing amount of
leisure time. When these determinating factors of tourism, are added to the

Tourism and the natural environment                                                17

economic growth it generates in destination regions, it is obvious that the
spokesmen of sustainable tourism are up against far-reaching forces,
economically, politically and technologically.

       Within the environmental literature some authors suggest to distinguish
between micro and macro levels, proposing that sustainable tourism development
on the individual project level (micro level) can lead to solutions which can be
used to overcome the macro problems related to global tourism (e.g., Owen, Witt
& Gammon, 1993). Such assessment is in accordance with The World
Commission's advice for acting locally and thinking globally, which most lately
was stressed in the Agenda 21 agreement (Keating, 1994).

       Several attempts have been made to relate the problems of tourism’s
environmental implications to the amount of tourists. An often used concept in
this respect is "carrying capacity" (Romeril, 1989), which expresses a limit to the
number of tourists, inside of which tourism development may pursue without
environmental implications, and hence preventing a destination from becoming
unsustainable and consequently loose it’s attractiveness in the long run. The
concept is based on the idea of the product life cycle of a destination area, and is
often referred to as tourism’s interpretation of sustainability at the local level.

        The main problem with the concept of carrying capacity is that there is no
consensus about how to define it. One important distinction though is the
difference between the physical and the psychological carrying capacity. The
physical aspect refers to the natural environment's so called objective and
ecological carrying capacity, while the psychological aspect refers to tourists’
perception of a destination's carrying capacity, based on the number of other
tourists and the perception of the natural environment’s physical condition or

       Because most tourists visit places to experience attractive natural
surroundings, the physical and the psychological carrying capacity are
interrelated, even if they not necessarily follow each other (Walker, 1991). A
destination’s environmental carrying capacity for instance may be exceeded long
before tourists perceive the place negatively. On the other hand, the tourists’
perception of when an exploitation of nature become unacceptable, may be
reached before it is ecologically too late (Inskeep, 1987).

       Unfortunately it is very difficult in practice to operationalize the concept of
carrying capacity. According to The World Commission (1988) any measurement
of the natural environment must be objective and scientifically based. But since
there is up till now no agreement on such basic issues as how for example to
define the natural environment, measurements are often more subjective than
objective. Moreover the psychological carrying capacity is by all means a

Tourism and the natural environment                                                 18

subjective term, which from the individual tourist’s perspective vary from person
to person. Additionally another problem of the concept is in determining whether
the level of a carrying capacity figure should express a maximum level or a
minimum level when respecting the needs and wants of future generations.

      The conflict between the economic and the ecological interests are clearly
present in the concept of carrying capacity, since it can be used in the arguments
of both supporters of economic growth and of protectors of the environment.
There have been several examples of how carrying capacity is used under false
pretensions, as for example found at the Galapagos Islands (De Groot, 1983),
where economic interests where favored over ecological interests.

       Besides measurements of carrying capacity, there are other means of
handling the problem of tourist’s high numbers. In Denmark for example, several
reports include marketing strategies which aims at spreading tourists, both
geographically and seasonally (e.g., Danmarks Turistråd, 1992). The geographical
spreading is for example suggested as a solution to the large concentration of
tourists especially along the West coast of Denmark. Elsewhere such strategies of
spreading tourist distributions is criticized by claiming them to be the essence of
confusion between marketing and well-considered tourism planning (Wheeler,
1991). Accordingly, these type of marketing strategies are proposed to carefully
balance advantages and disadvantages according to the concept of sustainable
tourism development, since a spreading of tourists in time and place can result in
serious consequences over a larger area of the natural surroundings, than if
tourists are limited to smaller areas, in a larger number, and for shorter periods
(Hunter & Green, 1995). But also here the conflict between economy and ecology
is evident, since the wish to spread the tourists' visit often is combined with the
aim to spread tourists' financial resources in flavor of more local areas and over
the whole year.

Tourism’s use of natural resources

       The natural environment adds to the activities of tourism through many
different resources. In summary nature delivers three different kinds of
“products” and “services” which tourism, and human activities in general, draw
on (Miljøministeriet, 1990):

•       Nature contains resources (material, processes, and biotic elements) that
        are part of the tourism industry's production of products and services.
•       Nature delivers services, which absorb and distribute both tourism
        industry’s and tourist’s waste products and emission (pollution).
•       The natural environment functions as a consumer good for tourism in
        general, by forming the background for the tourist’s experiences and

Tourism and the natural environment                                              19

        activities, and by adding to the tourist’s spiritual and physical health.
        These goods are the so-called free resources, as for instance the non-
        commercial part of activities such as sailing, riding, fishing, and hiking.
        Other parts of the natural environment are purely intangible as for
        example the pleasure of having the opportunity to experience or use the
        nature in outdoor activities or the simple pleasure of knowing that nature

       In a sustainable tourism development the utilization of the natural
environment should be kept at an absolute minimum, and according to The
World Commission be in accordance with a scientific assessment of nature’s
carrying capacity. This is, as mentioned above, not without problems, but it
means that for example the yearly exploitation of such stocks as fish or forest
resources by no means should exceed the speed of regeneration.

        At this point, distinguishing between renewable and non-renewable
resources is important. Renewable resources used for, e.g., souvenirs, food,
clothes, buildings, and fuel, should be used only in a sustainable way, meaning
that the level of utilization lies within the limits of natural regeneration and
growth. On the other hand the same rule cannot be used in connection with non-
renewable resources, such as fossil fuel, metals, and minerals, since they per
definition cannot be utilized in a sustainable manner. Accordingly, The World
Commission (1987) stresses that a sustainable development demands that any
utilization of non-renewable resources should avoid any limitation of future
choices. In other words the exploitation of non-renewable resources may not
happen faster than it takes to develop renewable substitutes (Daly, 1990).

       The aim of a sustainable resource-use is to prevent earth being exploited
beyond regeneration. Therefore the utilization of nature's resources must be
limited, putting emphasis on reuse and recycling. In environmental economics
Daly (1990) suggested the concept of a "steady state" economy where the
ecological and economic systems are balanced and their input equals their output,
while all waste from the economic system is either reused or assimilated in the
ecological system.

      With regard to tourism, the protection of the so-called free and intangible
values of the resources in the natural environment needs particularly to be
acknowledged. Such values include, according to Hunter and Green (1995) and
Miljøministeriet (1990):

•       The existence value - which is human being's satisfaction of knowing that a
        resource is being preserved, and thereby exists also to please future

Tourism and the natural environment                                              20

•       The option value - which is the option of alternative future uses of an area if
        it is preserved.
•       The bequest value - which is the pleasure of knowing that a resource is not
        being used or exploited to its theoretical maximum capacity in the interests
        of future generations.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                  21

The institutions in tourism’s external environment

        The goal of achieving sustainability is hence a question of overcoming the
imbalance between the natural environment and economic activities. The World
Commission (1987) points out that the decision process concerning economic
activities are not coordinated with the use and preservation of natural resources.
A sustainable development demands that such a split between these two sectors
are overcome (Christensen, 1993).

       Within the tourism industry, public authorities play important roles in the
development of tourism, especially in the overall planning and allocation of
financial means, which in Denmark for example to a high degree consists of EU
subsidies. At the same time it is the political institutions which play a role in
forming the legislative frame within the environmental area. As mentioned earlier
it is not enough that the tourism industry considers such things as a strict
environmental legislation as sign of tourism’s environmental friendliness. A
sustainable development demands cooperation across sectors, so that the care for
the natural environment becomes an integral part of the decision processes at all
tourist related political levels, next to any other objective.


       A sustainable tourism development is a development that meets the needs
of the present tourists and the tourism industry without compromising the ability
of future generations to fulfill their own needs and wants.

      For the individual tourist who wants to combine the consumption of goods
and services with the sustainability paradigm, the following guidelines are

•       During the planning phase, tourists should prefer countries, regions,
        destinations or attractions where there are used scientific measures for the
        acceptable number of visitors.
•       Tourists should be aware of the specific problems of given areas and
        behave as responsible as possible, e.g., by keeping water consumption at a
        minimum in countries with water scarcity.
•       Means of transportation with low energy-use should be chosen, e.g., train
        or bus preferably to a car, and cars with four passengers instead of
        airplanes (Madsen, 1993). Additionally the number of seats should be
        coordinated with the number of passengers, and luggage should be held

Tourism and the natural environment                                               22

•       The choice of agents, tour and transportation agencies, hotels, and other
        tourism business should fall on those who claim a sustainable attitude and
        act accordingly.
•       Products made from rare animal or plant species, and products where the
        production, distribution, usage, or disposal causes unacceptable damage to
        the environment or for example ruins natural habitats should be avoided.
•       Disturbance of animals, attrition and compacting of vegetation and soil
        should be avoided, and visited places left at least as clean as found on
•       Pollution or waste problems should be reported to the local tourism
        authorities, and personal experiences related to the implementation of
        sustainable tourism consumption should be informed to others.

       A precondition for tourists realizing sustainable consumption is that the
tourism industry offers sustainable products and services that help tourists to
among use fewer resources in the long run (Hawken, 1993). This means that both
existing and future tourism businesses should handle their operations in
accordance with the sustainable paradigm. Hence a sustainable tourism business
should design, produce, distribute, and market its products or services according
to guidelines such as:

•       The use of the natural environment should not exceed the scientifically
        derived carrying capacity. Hence the number of tourists should be
        controlled and kept at a level, which respects the natural environment's
        values of existence, option, and bequest.
•       The biological elements should be respected, and impacts such as attrition
        and pollution of the abiotic elements should be kept at an absolute
•       The degree of exploitation of renewable resources should lie within the
        limits of regeneration and natural growth. The exploitation of non-
        renewable resources should exclude as few of the future alternatives as
•       Connected industries should fulfill the same demands of sustainability as
        the tourism industry itself, and cooperation should take place across
        traditional institutional sectors.

Tourism and the natural environment                                             23


Andersen, Jens Otto (1997). Coast protection at the Danish North Sea coast. European
       seminar on coastal dunes. Management, protection and research. Skagen,
       DK, 19-22 August, 1997.
Anderson, Wilton Thomas & Challagalla, Goutam N. (1994). The negative legacy
       of consumption. International Journal of Research in Marketing. 11, 165-176.
Balderjahn, Ingo (1985). Strukturen sozialen Konsumbewußtseins. Reanalyse un
       Versuch einer Bestimmung. Marketing. ZFP. Heft 4, 253-262.
Briassoulis, H. (1991). Tourim and the environment: planning issues ans approaches,
       proceedings of an International Symposium on Architecture of Tourism in
       the Mediterranean, Istanbul, Turkey: Yildiz University Press.
Brown, Graham (1992). Tourism and symbolic consumption. In: Johnson, Peter &
       Thomas, Barry (Eds.) (1992). Choice and demand in Tourism. London:
Burkart, A.J. & Medlik, S. (1982). Tourism. Past, present and future. London:
Christensen, Erik (1993). Bære-hva' for noget? Et forsøg på begrebsafklaring. I:
       Kun til pynt? Miljøplitikken i Danmak. Rapport 4 fra Det Økologiske Råd.
       Det Økologiske Råd og Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke.
Clawson, Marion & Jack L. Knetsch (1966). Economics of outdoor recreation.
       Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Copeland, Emma (1992). The role of airlines in the tourism and environment
       debate. Tourism Management, 13(1), 112-114.
Daly, Herman E. (1990). Sustainable growth: An impossibility theorem. In: Daly,
       Herman E. & Townsend, Kenneth N. (Eds.). Valuing the earth. Cambridge,
       MA: MIT Press.
Danmarks Turistråd (1992). Fælles fodslaw. Viby: Jydsk Centraltrykkeri A/S.
De Groot, R. S. (1983). Tourism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands,
       Biological Conservation, 26, 291-300.
Dowling, Ross K. (1991) Tourism and the natural environment - Shark Bay,
       Western Australia. Tourism Recreation Research, 16(2), 44-48.
Dowling, Ross K. (1993). Tourism planning, people and the environment in
       Western Australia. Journal of Travel Research , 31(4), 52-58.
Durning, Alan Thein (1992). How much Is enough? The consumer society and the
       future of the earth. New York/London: W. W. Norton & Company.
Edington, John M. & Edington, M. Ann (1988). Ecology, recreation and tourism.
       Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edwards, Jonathan R. (1987). The UK heritage coasts - An assessment of the
Erize, Francisco J. (1987). The impact of tourism on the Antarctic environment.
       Environment International, 13, 133-136.
Fisk, George (1974). Marketing and the ecological crisis. New York: Harper and

Tourism and the natural environment                                               24

Framke, Wolfgang (1993a). Miljø og turisme. Turisme, 1(1), 2-4.
Framke, Wolfgang (1993b). Turismen definerer sig påny. Turisme, 1(6), 7-9.
Gartner, William C. (1987). Environmental impacts of recreational home
       developments. Annals of Tourism Researh, 14(1), 38-57.
Gunn, Clare A. (1994). Tourism planning: Basics, concepts, cases. Bristol, PA: Taylor
       & Francis.
Haaning, Martin & Rønnest, Arne Kvist (1993). Sustainability: A concept with many
       meanings. A revised version of a contibution to seminar about
       environmental regulation in the EU, Aarhus University, autumm 1993.
Hamele, Herbert (1988). A major impact. Naturopa, 59, 5-7.
Hansen, Kjeld (1990). Den grønne forbrugerguide. København: Høst og Søns Forlag.
Hawken, Paul (1993). The ecology of commerce. A declaration of sustainability. New
       York: Harper Business.
Holloway, Christopher J. (1989). The business of tourism. London: Pitman.
Hunter, Colin & Green, Howard (1995). Tourism and the environment. A sustainable
       relationship?. London: Routledge.
Inskeep, Edward (1987). Environmental planning for tourism. Annals of Tourism
       Research, 14(1), 118-135.
Jakobsen, Verner (1997). Tourist- and landscape protection interests in the beaches and
       dunes of Skagen area. European seminar on Coastal Dunes. Management,
       protection and research. Skagen, DK, 19-22 August, 1997.
Jensen, Frede (1997). The Danish experience in recreation and planning in and around
       coastal dunes. European seminar on Coastal Dunes. Management, protection
       and research. Skagen, DK, 19-22 August, 1997.
Keating, M. (1994). Agenda 21 - en dagsorden for bæredygtig udvikling. København:
       FN-forbundet og Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke.
Krippendorf, Jost (1987). The Holiday Makers. Understanding the impact of leisure and
       travel. Oxford: Heinemann Professional Publishing Ltd.
Lash, Scott & Urry, John (1994). Mobility, modernity and place. In: S. Lash & J.
       Urry, Economies of Sign and Space, pp. 252-278. London: Sage Publications.
Leiper, Neil (1979). The framework of tourism: Towards a definition of tourism,
       tourist, and the tourist industry. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 390-407.
Lui, Juanita C., Sheldon, Pauline J. & Var, Turgut (1987). Resident perception of
       the environmental impacts of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 14 (1), 17-
Mäder, Ueli (1988). Tourism and Environment. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(2),
Madsen, Søren Hull (1993). Økologiske deklarationer på rejser?. Turisme, 1(2), 6-9.
May, Vincent (1991). Tourism, environment and development. Values,
       sustainability and stewardship. Tourism Management, 12(2), 112-118.
McCracken, Grant (1988). Culture & Consumption. Bloomington & Indianapolis:
       Indiana University Press.
Medlik, S. (1988). What is Tourism? The International Conference for Tourism
       Educators. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 19-20 July, 1988.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                  25

Mieczkowski, Zbigniew (1995). Environmental issues of tourism and recreation.
       Lanham: University Press of America.
Miljøministeriet (1990). Miljø og økonomi. København: Miljøministeriet.
Morrison, Pat' & Selman, Paul (1991). Tourism and the environment: A case study
       from Turkey. The Environmentalist, 11(2), 113-119.
Owen, Elwyn R., Witt, Stephen F. & Gammon, Susan (1993). Sustainable tourism
       development in Wales. From theory to practice. Tourism Management, 14
       (6), 463-465.
Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik (1988). Basisbog i økologi. København: G.E.C. Gad.
Rodriguez, Sylvia (1987). Impacts of the ski industry on the Rio Hondo watershed.
       Annals of Tourism Researh, 14(1), 88-103.
Romeril, Michael (1989). Tourism and the environment - accord or discord?.
       Tourism Management, 10(3), 204-208.
Smith, Christine & Jenner, Paul (1989). Tourism and the environment. EIU Travel
       and Tourism Analyst, 5, 68-86.
The World Commission (1987). Our common future. The world commission on
       environment and development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UNEP (1995). Environmental codes of conduct for tourism. Technical Report No. 29.
       United Nations Environment programme. Industry and Environment.
       United Nations Publication.
Verburg, Carol J. (1992). The environmental predicament. Four issues for critical
       analysis. Boston: Bedford Books.
Walker, T.A. (1991). Tourism development and environmental limitations at
       Heron Islan, Great Barier Reef. Journal of Environmental Management, 33,
Wheatcroft, Stephen (1991). Airlines, tourism and the environment. Tourism
       Management, 12(2), 119-124.
Wheeler, Brian (1991). Tourism's troubled times. Responsible tourism is not the
       answer. Tourism Management, 12(2),91-96.
Wood, Katie & House, Syd (1993). Den gode turist. Århus: Klim.
Yanarella, Ernest J. & Levine, Richard S. (1992). Does sustainable development
       lead to sustainability? Futures, 24 (8), 759-774.

Tourism and the natural environment                                            26


TOURISM AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT                                 2
        The concept of tourism                                      4
        The natural environment                                     5
        Tourism’s impact on the biotic elements                     6
        Tourism’s impact on the abiotic elements                    8
        •   Air                                                     8
        •   Water                                                   8
        •   Soil                                                    9
        The consequences of ecosystem’s damage                     10
        Many small brooks make up a big river                      13
        Difficulties in assessing tourism’s environmental impact   13
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT                                    16
        The number of tourists                                     17
        Tourism’s use of natural resources                         19
        The institutions in tourism’s external environment         22
SUGGESTIONS                                                        22
REFERENCES                                                         24

Tourism and the natural environment                                 27

Research group
                                           ✧ ✧
“Consumption, environment, and culture” C✧E✧C
Department of Marketing, Solbjerg Plads 3, DK-2000 Frederiksberg C.

C✧E✧C aims at comprehensively assessing the cultural context within which consumers and
producers derive their decisions, in order to enhance our understanding of antecedents, correlates,
and consequences of human experience and action as related to consumption and production
issues. Traditional consumer behaviour models have emphasised that decision-making is
characterised by optimising a personal utility function. However, the current debate on “political”
consumers and companies, ethics and morality, sustainable development and environmental
decline, and the like clearly indicate that these models are unable to explain recent trends in
consumption patterns and corporate behaviour, let alone forecast future developments in society.
C✧E✧C thus goes beyond the traditional view, drawing on a diversity of theories and models
from various social science disciplines and applying a multi-method approach to data collection.
C✧E✧C also acknowledges that the usual separation between consumers and producers is futile
in understanding the complexity and dynamics of today’s market exchange processes, and will
therefore investigate the mutual influences and dependencies of these two market partners.
Furthermore, the role of institutional structures of society at large need to be studied to explain
aids and impediments for change processes.

Current research efforts focus on (1) developments in (post)modern consumer society, (2)
implications of the sustainability paradigm for consumers, business, and public policy, and (3)
values as expression of culture content and culture process.

The research group is financially supported by the Copenhagen Business School, the Danish
Environmental Research Programme / CeSaM, Den Grønne Fond / Miljøstyrelsen, the Danish
Ministry of Agriculture, the FAIR programme of the European Union, and a number of business

For more details please contact the coordinator:
Research Professor Dr. Suzanne C. Beckmann
e-mail: suz.beckmann@cbs.dk

Department of Marketing, Working Paper nr. 10/1998. ISSN 0109-3401

Tourism and the natural environment                                                              28

                                      WORKING PAPERS

1/83               Flemming             An Alternative Theory of the Advertising Communication
                   Hansen               Process.
2/83               Tore Kristensen      Development and Institutional Structure.
3/83               Flemming             Kan virkningerne af øget reklame tv-dækning i Danmark
                   Hansen               undersøges?
1/84               Tore Kristensen      Metodeproblemer ved empiriske undersøgelser af
2/84               Orla Nielsen         Industriel købsadfærd.
3/84               Steven Lysonski      Organizing for Service Marketing.
4/84               Steven Lysonski      Role Portrayals in British Magazine Advertisements.
5/84               S. Ingebrigtsen      Epistemological Problems in Marketing.
                   & Michael
6/84               Sigurd Bennike       A Theory for Mass Communication.
7/84               Steven Lysonski      A Boundary Theory Investigation of the Product Manager's
1/85               B. Nygaard           A Scandinavian View of the Manifest and Latent Themes in
                   Jensen               Home Video Advertisements.
                   & Steven
1/86               Flemming             En generel teori om substitution.
2/86               Claus Buhl           Annoncens appelstruktur.
3/86               Claus Buhl           Receptionsæstetik. *UDGÅET
1/87               Søren Heede          Reklame og kommunikation.
2/87               Hanne H.             Husholdningernes butiksvalg - anvendelse af teorien.
1/88               Claus Buhl           Modtagernes reklame.
2/88               Christian Alsted     Semiotik og retningslinier for valg af annoncetype.
1/89               Lars Grønholdt       Salget af Tv-reklame under indtrængning.
                   & Flemming
2/89               Hans Engstrøm        Revision af teorien om husholdningernes butiksvalg.
                   Hanne H.
3/89               Leif Kristensen      Consumption Syntagms and Paradigms as Reflected in
1/90               Ole S. Nilsson &     En empirisk model for prisdannelsen for danske obligationer.
                   Jørgen Kai
2/90               Lene Scotwin         Sportssponsering - en indledende undersøgelse af dette

Tourism and the natural environment                                                           29

                                      områdes problemer.
3/90               Flemming           Reklameforbruget, dets sammensætning og nogle kritiske
                   Hansen             faktorer.
4/90               Jørgen Kai         Estimation af parametrene i prøve- og genkøbsmodellen.
5/90               Ole S. Nilssson    Modeller for styring af virksomhedens produktportefølje.
6/90               Henrik Dahl        Persuasive Discourse and Advertising.
7/90               Ole S. Nilsson     Teleshopping i Danmark - de første resultater.
1/91               Anne               Double Jeopardy fænomenet - en ny måde at anskue
                   Martensen          markedsstrukturen på.
2/91               Lene Scotwin       Forbrugerne syn på sponsoring - en kvalitativ undersøgelse.
3/91               Lars Grønholdt     Reklame- og Tv-reklameforbruget i Danmark 1991-1995.
                   & Flemming
4/91               B. Nygaard         Udformning af Tv-reklame I-III.
5/91               Anne               Markedsføring af nye produkter.
6/91               Lars Grønholdt     Radioreklamens fremtidige udvikling i Danmark.
                   & Flemming
7/91               Tore Kristensen    User-Interfaces and Metaphors: an Essay on Design
8/91               Ricky Wilke        Relationel Markedsføring. Kontrakten; markedsføringens
                                      strukturelle dimensioner - i ét økonomisk, juridisk og
                                      sociologisk perspektiv.
1/92               Ole S. Nilsson &   Exposure Frequency - Distributions and Related Topics.
                   Jørgen Kai
2/92               Flemming           The Interaction between the Academic Marketing Community
                   Hansen             and the Business Community: to Whose Advantage?
3/92               Gorm Kunøe         Metalojalitet.
4/92               Henrik             An Evolutionary Approach to Strategic Management.
                   Johannsen Duus
5/92               Jørgen Kai         Indtrængningen af nye produkter under konkurrence.
6/92               Henrik             The Entrepreneur and Innovation in Innovation Theory.
                   Johannsen Duus
7/92               Ole S. Nilsson &   “Mediaplan”- En beslutningsstøttemodel for
                   Jørgen Kai         reklamebudgettering.
8/92               Henrik             The Measurement of Innovation.
                   Johannsen Duus
9/92               Ada Scupola        The Impact Information Technology on Marketing

Tourism and the natural environment                                                     30

1/93               Tore Kristensen    En erhvervsøkonomisk analyse af design.
2/93               Anne               Forudsigelse af salget af nye produkter.
1/94               Ole S. Nilsson &   The Changing Danish Consumer.
                   Hans S.
2/94               Henrik             Economic Foundations for an Entrepreneurial Marketing
                   Johannsen Duus     Concept.
3/94               Flemming           Massekommunikation i Danmark: Omfang, finansiering og
                   Hansen             brug.
4/94               Søren Hougaard     Den markedsorienterede virksomhed.
1/95               Leif Kristensen    The Imagery of a Shop - Retail Rhetoric.
2/95               Flemming           Recent Developments in the Measurement of Advertising
                   Hansen             Effectiveness: the Third Generation.
3/95               Leif Kristensen    Butiksbilleder.
4/95               Henrik             Three Research Programmes in Business Marketing.
                   Johannsen Duus
5/95               Søren Hougaard     Relationstankegang som virksomhedsfilosofi i fremtidens
6/95               Hans S.            Double Jeopardy Patterns for Political Parties.
                   Solgaard & M.
7/95               Ricky Wilke &      Brand Imitation and Society.
                   J. L.
1/96               Torben Hansen  Kvalitetsbegrebet og dets fortolkning og anvendelse i
2/96               Søren Hougaard Vækst og vækstbarrierer i små og mellemstore virksomheder -
                   & Henrik       Teorier, arbejdsmodel og metodegrundlag.
                   Johannsen Duus
3/96               Jørgen Kai     En regnearksmodel for indtrængningen af nye varer på et
                   Olsen          segmenteret marked.
4/96               Torben Hansen Fødevarer og kvalitet: En eksplorativ undersøgelse af mulige
                                  determinanter for forbrugerens kvalitetsopfattelse
5/96               Ricky Wilke &  Inter-organizational Cupertino and Contraction - a
                   Freytag        Contractional and Interactional View on how Companies are
                                  Fixing Transaction Terms.

6/96               Ricky Wilke        Pertinent Levels of Analysis in Business-to-Business
                                      Marketing: Theory of Organizational Buying Behaviour,
                                      Internorganizational Theory and Network Theory.
7/96               Torben Hansen      En model for forbrugerens perceptionsproces i relation til
                                      fødevarers kvalitet.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                       31

8/96               Tore Kristensen    The Contribution of Design to Business: a Competence-based
9/96               Tore Kristensen,   Cultural Differences in Management of Design Professionals:
                   M. Bruce,          a
                   B. Morris &        Comparison of British and Scandinavian Design Professions.
                   L. Svengren
1/97               Flemming           The Effect of Moveable Stadium Billboard Advertising and
                   Hansen, Hans       Some Factors Influencing it.
                   Bay &
                   Lars Friis
2/97               Jørgen Kai         Estimation af kundernes indkøbshyppighed og butiksloyalitet
                   Olsen & Ole S.     på et segmenteret marked
                   Nilsson            (Center for Detailhandelsstudier, Working Paper nr. 1).
3/97               Anne               Kundetilfredshed - set i et teoretisk perspektiv.
4/97               Suzanne            The Interplay between the Dominant Social Paradigm and
                   Beckmann & W.      Value Systems: Influences on Danish Business Students’
                   E. Kilbourne       Environmental Concern (C.E.C. Working Paper nr. 1).
5/97               W. E. Kilbourne,   Differences in Environmental Attitudes of Business and
                   S. Beckmann,       Economics Students: a Multi-National Examination of the
                   Alan Lewis &       Role of the Dominant Social Paradigm (C.E.C. Working Paper
                   Ynte van Dam       nr. 2).
6/97               Flemming           Quantifying Creative Contributions: Advertising Pretesting’s
                   Hansen             New Generation.
7/97               Flemming           From Life Style to Value Systems to Simplicity.
8/97               Jørgen Kai         Indkøbsprofilkortet
                   Olsen              (Center for Detailhandelsstudier, Working Paper nr. 2).
9/97               Flemming           Store Loyalty, Frequency of Shopping and Their
                   Hansen, Poul K.    Determinants.
                   Faarup & Antje
10/97              S. Beckmann,       Anthropocentrism, Value Systems, and Environmental
                   W. E. Kilbourne,   Attitudes: a Multi-National Comparison (C.E.C. Working
                   Ynte van Dam       Paper nr. 3).
                   & Mercedes
1/98               Jørgen Kai         Analyse af indkøbsadfærden og butiksloyaliteten for 9 danske
                   Olsen, Ole S.      supermarkedskæder
                   Nilsson &          (Center for Detailhandelsstudier, Working Paper nr. 3).
                   Robert Lind
2/98               Flemming           Testing Communication Effects.
3/98               Suzanne            The Danes and the Euro: Caught in a Dilemma Between

Tourism and the natural environment                                                     32

                   Beckmann           National Pride and Economic Pragmatism? (C.E.C. Working
                                      Paper nr. 4).
4/98               Jørgen Kai         Den illoyale danske forbruger
                   Olsen, Ole S.      (Center for Detailhandelsstudier, Working Paper nr. 4).
5/98               S. Beckmann,       Socio-Economic Dimensions of the DSP: a Multi-National
                   W. E. Kilbourne,   Comparison of their Role in Environmental Concern
                   Eva Thelen,        (C.E.C. Working Paper nr. 5).
                   Botschen & Jack
6/98               Shun Yin Lam     Uncovering the Multiple Impacts of Retail Promotion on
                                    Apparel Store Performance: a Study Based on Shopper Count
                                    (Center for Detailhandelsstudier, Working Paper nr. 5).
7/98               A. G.            The Role of Tourism in Environmental Decline
                   Christensen & S. (C.E.C. Working Paper nr. 6).

Tourism and the natural environment                                                  33

                                      RESEARCH PAPERS

1/85               Flemming              Commercial Effects of Television across Boarders.
                   Hansen & Lars
2/85               Hugo Tranberg &       Brand Loyalty Patterns in Different Areas, its Variability, and its
                   Flemming              Relationship with Degree of Penetration and Other Factors.
3/85               Lars Grønholdt &      Effekten af Tv-reklamer belyst gennem virkningerne af annon-
                   Flemming              cering i vesttysk Tv for afsætningen af dagligvarer i Danmark.
4/85               Folke Ölander &       Attitudes to Consumer Policy Issues in Denmark - 1976 to 1984.
1/86               Flemming              Markedsføring af Tv-reklamer i Danmark.
2/86               Flemming              Annoncørernes interesse i Tv-reklame.
3/86               Cai F. Christensen    Afsætningsomkostningerne i Danmark 1973 - 1983.

1/87               C. Alsted, C. Buhl    Tv-reklamespot og seer.
                   & F. Henriksen
1/89               Christian Alsted      Tegnbrug i reklamenkampagner på ølmarkedet.
                   Jesper Lohmann
2/89               Christian Alsted      Annoncetyper og brugssituationer - en empirisk afprøvning af
                   & Hanne H.            udformnings-teorier baseret på konsumentøkonomiske begreber.
3/89               Ole E. Andersen,      Advertising Recall as a Measure of Advertising Effect.
                   U. Bronée,
                   L. Grønning &
4/89               Orla Nielsen          Industrial Buying Behaviour in Companies Producing to Order.
1/90               Peter Allingham       Welcome to the Pleasuredomes.
1/92               Børge Rasmussen       "Den afsætningsøkonomiske forsknings og undervisnings indhold
                                         år 2000."
2/92               Flemming           The Demand for Newspaper Advertising Space in Denmark in
                   Hansen & Ole S.    the Past and in the Future - with a Methodological Appendix.
3/92               Cai F. Christensen Afsætningsomkostningerne i Danmark 1983-1990.

1/93               David G. Mick &       A Meaning-Based Model of Advertising Experiences.
                   Claus Buhl

Tourism and the natural environment                                                          34

2/93               Flemming            Radio Advertising Expenditure.
                   Hansen & Lars

3/93               Cai F. Christensen Det offentliges reklameforbrug i Danmark 1990.
                   & M. Brogaard
4/93               Jørgen Kai Olsen   Det teoretiske markedskort.
5/93               Ole S. Nilsson &   "Salesplan" - a Forecasting and Decision Support System for
                   Jørgen Kai Olsen   Fast Moving Consumer Goods.
1/94               Jørgen Kai Olsen   Mærkevalgfordelingen på et segmenteret marked.
2/94               Anne Martensen     Et værktøj i markedsføringsplanlægningen for nye produkter.
3/94               Flemming           Advertising Expenditure in Denmark 1992-93.
4/94               Flemming           The Effect of Sponsoring: an Experimental Study.
5/94               Flemming           Measuring and Managing Brand Loyalty for Fast Moving
                   Hansen             Consumer Goods.
6/94               Flemming           Labelling a Danish Study and its Background.
1/95               Flemming           Recent Developments in the Measurement of Advertising
                   Hansen             Effectiveness.
2/95               Hanne H. Larsen Lavprisvarehuses effekt.
                   & E. Lykke
3/95               Jørgen Kai Olsen   En generel model for indtrængningen af nye varer på et
                                      segmenteret marked.
4/95               Hans S. Solgaard Modelling Voter Switching Behavior in a Multiparty System.
5/95               Ole S. Nilsson &    Measuring Consumer Retail Store Loyalty.
                   Jørgen Kai Olsen
6/95               Anne Martensen      Vejen til succesfulde produkter.
7/95               D. E. Smith,        The BST Debate: The Relationship between Awareness and
                   J.R. Skalnik &      Acceptance of Technological Advances.
                   P. C. Skalnik
8/95               David E. Smith      Distance Learning Technology for Enhancing Pedagogy.
9/95               David E. Smith &    The North-South Divide: Changing Patterns in the Consumption
                   Søren Heede         of Alcoholic Beverages in Europe.
1/96               Flemming            Danske reklameonkostninger.
                   Hansen & Lars
2/96               Karin Tollin        Combining Low Price with Service or with Quality - a Strategic
                                       Choice in Grocery Stores?
3/96               Anne Martensen      Forudsigelse af salget af "Danish Black" på det engelske marked.

Tourism and the natural environment                                                      35

4/96               Flemming             Value Dimensions - are they really that many ?
                   Hansen & Are
5/96               Ole S. Nilsson &     En adfærdsteoretisk model til beregning af kunders levetid og
                   Jørgen Kai Olsen     værdi.

6/96               Hans Engstrøm        En teoretisk referenceramme for studier af magt i det vertikale

1/ 00              Lars Randrup og      Children and TV commercials
                   Kien Trung-Lac
2/ 00              Gorm Gabrilsen,      The meaning of colours in Design
                   Tore Kristensen
                   og Flemming
3/ 00              Gorm Gabrielsen      Quantifying Rffects of Banner Advertising
4/ 00              Flemming             Awareness and Attitudinal sales Effects of TV-Campaigns
5/ 00              Lotte Yssing         A comparison of two advertising effect Models
6/ 00              Flemming             Estimation of Emotional and Evaluating Effects of Sports
                   Hansen og Jens       Sponsorships
7/ 00              Jens Halling, Tore   Development and empirical application of a tool for testing,
                   Kristensen, Gorm     diagnosing and providing a creative input to corporate
                   Gabrielsen og        communication
8/ 00              Anders               Emotions in mass communication

Tourism and the natural environment                                                         36

To top