A challenge for the Sustainable Tourism

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					           Tourism & Climate Change

   A challenge for the
  Sustainable Tourism?
                Marion Hammerl
              Lake Constance Foundation

European Network for Sustainable Tourism Development
          July 3rd, European Parliament, Brussels
             Current political situation
           Ministerial Conference on Climate Change Dec 2007

                    DAVOS DECLARATION


Joint message from:
      – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
      – United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
      – World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
        Challenge: Mitigation and Adaptation

´The Second International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism
  (Davos, Switzerland, October 2007) was a milestone event that brought
  together a wide variety of stakeholders and delivered a clear
  commitment for action to respond to the climate change challenge. It
  underscored the need for the tourism sector to rapidly respond to
  climate change if it is to develop in a sustainable manner, which will
  require actions to:
• mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the tourism sector,
  derived especially from transport and accommodation activities;
• adapt tourism businesses and destinations to changing climate
• apply existing and new technologies to improve energy efficiency;
• secure financial resources to assist poorer regions and countries`
        European Policy on Climate Change

The very first Communication from the European Commission in 2008
 was on Climate Change, showing the importance of the problem:

• A reduction of at least 20% in greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 – rising
  to 30% if there is an international agreement
• A 20% share of renewable energies in EU energy consumption by 2020.
• Tourism was not mentioned once
     Reality in Europe is another thing….
Example: „Sustainable“ Development in Portugal
•   On the 6th May 2008 the ECs DG Environment director publicly called
    for Portugal to halt three tourism specific projects on the grounds that
    their EIAs were ´seriously flawed, exposing how actual project
    implementation does not match policy
•   At a regional level, in the tourism honeypot of the Algarve, which has
    on paper a regional sustainable development process, the regional &
    local councils have developed a tourism strategy that has seen:
     – the highly contested construction of the Odeleuca Dam project
     – a new motorway extension through a protected area
     – hosting of the Paris Dakar rally, the world car rally championship and the
       formula 1 speedboat championships
     – Current construction of a formula 1 standard autodrome
     – Plans for a 2nd regional internatonal airport
    all on the border of 3 Natura 2000 zones, including the habitat of key
    red-listed species Bonnelli´s Eagle and the Iberian Lynx, the worlds
    most endangered large feline species !
               Current situation:
         Sustainable Tourism in Europe

• Policy requirements are not implemented consequently (e.g.
  Programmes of Regional Development Funds)
• Niche product = less than 1 % of the tourism offers of the
  market do really offer environmental and social quality above
  legal compliance
   – Voluntary certification: ca 50 eco-labels and ST certificates on regional,
     national and international level in Europe certified so far less than 1 %.
     Only view explicitly require measures to monitor and to reduce e.g. CO2
   – No sufficient promotion of official European eco-certificates: EU-Ecolabel
     & EMAS are not known
Current situation: Sustainable Tourism in Europe

• Political and financial legal framework does not offer sufficient
  attractive advantages for tourism entrepreneurs to act really
  consequently sustainable.
   Contrary situation: biological products /Fair trade products are still more
   expensive, water price in many countries is low because of subventions, waste
   reduction is not interesting because of fixed fees, no tax incentives,
   enterprises /destinations which implement ecolabel /environmental
   management need to pay for implementation and audit, meanwhile business
   and destinations do nothing or do not have the financial resources
• No sound sensitisation campaigns for tourists - only model
  campaigns without continuity. Very few exceptions such as
  Ecocamping …..
Sustainable Tourism within an unsustainable framework?
              Changes are urgently needed!
Transport: changes on European /global level
1. Strong taxation and trade of CO2-certificates of air transport in order to cut
   the development of low cost short and mid-haul airlines, and to collect funds
   for soft mobility
2. Strong investment in train, especially network of high speed trains such as
   "high speed orient express" from London to Istanbul. Not to forget
   secondary and local lines. But high speed trains should be more energy
   efficient than now!
3. Reaching the maximum technological improvement, but with realistic
   objectives: 50% emission reduction of emissions factors by 2050 for air
   transport seems a maximum. But: Given the traffic growth, technology will
   not be sufficient to reduce emissions as recommended by the Davos
4. Industry of travel and tour-operating offering progressively less carbon
   intensive products, for the climate, but also in its own interest, to maintain
   its business in a carbon constrained economy
 Changes are urgently needed

Transport: changes on regional /destination level
1. Attractive public transport system and all kind of information and
   facilities for tourists to use it : All Inclusive Card /free access,
   Information on public transport in all relevant places where tourists go
   to inform themselves, capacity building for staff in tourism sector in
   order to promote more public transport …….
2. Develop products with increased length of stay, especially for long-
   haul and mid haul destinations
3. Develop and implement soft mobility products (bicycle infrastructure
   and offers, canoeing, solar boats etc.)
 Changes are urgently needed

Land Use & Tourism Development Planning:
measures needed on regional /destination level
1. Soft coastal protection to prevent erosion (e.g., reforestation of
   mangroves, reef protection)
2. integrate climate change factors into regulatory frameworks for
   tourism development, such as Environmental Impact Assessment for
   tourism infrastructure and establishments
3. Implementation of tourism development plans within the framework of
   Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) processes and spatial
   planning such as zoning; shade provision, crop diversification
4. Integrated tourism carrying capacity assessment techniques
   (considering physical, economic, environmental, socio-cultural and
   managerial aspects) must be an obligation, especially – but not only -
   in protected areas as a tool for tourism planning
 Changes are urgently needed

Land Use & Tourism Development Planning:
measures needed on regional /destination level

5. Integrate energy conservation and energy efficiency measures as
   obligatory in urbanisational planning (e.g. building orientation, natural
   ventilation, insulation, etc.)
6. Obligation for use of alternative fuels (e.g., biodiesel) and renewable
   energy sources (e.g., wind, photovoltaic, solar, thermal, geothermal,
   biomass and waste) in a certain percentage
7. Integrate /favourite other regional economical sectors = agriculture,
   handicraft …. But only if they offer products /services with high
   environmental and social quality
8. Strict obligation for a sound monitoring for destinations (municipality,
 Changes are urgently needed

Water: measures needed on regional /destination level
1. Drainage and watershed management to reduce flood and erosion
   risks = Implement EU-Water Framework Directive!
   Locations like the Water-EXPO in Zaragoza, build in a flood plain of
   the river Ebro is a “No-go” example!
2. Adaption = increase the price of water including all environmental
3. Water conservation techniques, such as rainwater storage, the use of
   water-saving devices, or waste-water recycling need to be obligatory
   Changes are urgently needed

Capacity Building for decision makers and staff:
measures needed on European /global & national level
1. Make implementation of ecolabel and /or environmental management
   systems (EMAS) free = no costs for auditing in order to eliminate the
   argument that these instruments are too expensive. Companies and
   destinations which do not have an ecolabel and EMS should pay!
2. Publish not only “good” but also “bad” = not recommendable examples
3. Platform to offer overview regarding certified tourism offers and raise
   awareness for climate-friendly tourism: Tourism sector is aware of
   the challenge of climate change, but tour operators and travel agencies
   etc. need easy and full access to the "better choice„
    – Example: ASR (German association of 3000 travel agencies) would be pleased
      to find all certified tourism services in Europe on the independent DestiNet
      portal for sustainable tourism information, hosted by the European
      Environment Agency
 Changes are urgently needed

Capacity Building for decision makers and staff:
measures needed on regional /destination level
1. Konvoi-Programmes for the joint implementation of ecolabel /EMS
   according to the example of Ecocamping Working Groups
2. Improve adaptive capacity of authorities and managers of protected areas
   through capacity building initiatives, especially in biodiversity hotspots
   of LDCs and developing countries;
3. Capacity building, and climate change and environment related
   education, for managers of the accommodation establishments and in
   related sectors; such as architecture, construction and engineering;
4. Publish not only “good” but also “bad” = not recommendable examples
5. Increase Benchmarking-Systems and concrete assessment on how to
   improve aspects and performance below average (e.g. CO2 emissions per
   overnight stay)
 Changes are urgently needed

Information /sensitisation: on European/global and
   destination level
1. Cultural change, and new attitudes toward travel (end of hyper
   mobility, slow tourism, longer stays...), which will be hard to obtain:
   What can push people to travel less? More welcoming housing
   conditions and daily environment, proximity leisure, cultural and sport
2. Educate and raise awareness among tourists about the impacts of
   global environmental change on the main European destinations such
   as the Alpine landscape and the Mediterranean coast
3. Convert Image Campaigns such as “VISIT – Carrying for the
   environment is carrying for the visitor” into national wide and even
   European wide sound sensitisation campaigns using all ways of
   communication and attractive messages
 Changes are urgently needed

Monitoring & Reporting: on regional and national level

1. Establish scientific monitoring survey programmes to assess
   ecosystem changes and take necessary protection measures
   (monitoring activities could especially focus on species and habitats
   most vulnerable to climate change impacts and most important for
   tourism activities)
2. Establish independent = neutral monitoring structure

3. Publish monitoring results and necessary recommendations
  Is Sustainable Tourism the way towards
            climate protection?

        Yes ..... there is high potential
     and good examples with transferible
procedures and results to be spread and used
                all over Europe!
       Mainstreaming Local Sustainability:
     ICLEI Activities & EU Policy Framework
Sustainable Development Strategy                  Lisbon Strategy

                ca. 115,000 EU Cities & Towns

                     & Projects

                                                plus 2,500
                   490 Cities & Towns           cities & towns signed up to
                                                Aalborg Charter
                                                (compare: EMAS 180
                                                registered public bodies,
                                                below 10 Cities & Towns)

               Aalborg Commitments
The Aalborg Commitments

  8 Vibrant and Sustainable Local Economies:
    We will work to...
    (5) promote sustainable local tourism

  2 Urban Management Towards Sustainability:
    We will work to...
    (2) deliver integrated management towards
    sustainability based on the precautionary principle and in line
    with the Urban Thematic Strategy.

  3 Natural Common Goods: We will work to...
    (1) reduce primary energy consumption, and increase the share of
      renewable energies.
    (2) improve water quality, save water, and use water more efficiently.
New guidance for all: The international baseline
       „Sustainable Tourism Criteria“

                D.1.3. Energy consumption should be
                measured, sources indicated, and measures to
                decrease overall consumption should be
                adopted, while encouraging the use of
                renewable energy

                D.2.1. Greenhouse gas emissions from all
                sources controlled by the business are
                measured, and procedures are implemented to
                reduce and offset them, as a way to achieve
                climate neutrality.
   Hotels in Europe - no reason to wait longer !
Saving potential = 40 – 60 %!
Energy (per overnight stay)
2-3*: Average: 90 kWh > Benchmark: 45 kWh
4-5*: Average: 76 kWh > Benchmark: 33 kWh

2*: Average: 454 l > Benchmark: 283 l
3*: Average: 424 l > Benchmark: 210 l
4*: Average: 335 l > Benchmark: 201 l
5*: Average: 594 l > Benchmark: 310 l
Swimming pool: ca. 60 l
Waste (hotels in DE, AT)
Average: 2 kg or 6 l > Benchmark: 1 kg or 3 l
                                                Source: IER/ECOTRANS, 2006
Unsorted: 50%, organic: 30%
Hotels: Best practice example
Best Western Premier Hotel Victoria
4* star hotel

Freiburg, Germany
Technologies : Photovoltaics, solar collectors,
wood pellet heating system

„Climate change“

   Input energy: 33        kWh /overnight stay
   Output CO2: 1kg/ overnight stay

(Source: ECOTRANS, 2006)
   Sustainable Tourism in Europe:
Best practice example „ECOCAMPING“
           The ECOCAMPING Organisation

• Who?
  Registered association, 18 regular members
    camping and environmental organisations
• Why?
  Improvement of environmental protection,
  quality and safety on campsites in Europe
• Since?
  1998: project of Lake Constance Foundation
  2002: independent association
• Network of Campsites?
  Currently 185 campsites awarded
  30 campsites are candidates for the award

• Where?
  Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy (South
ECOCAMPING in practice

•   Formation of regional or national working
    groups of 10 to 20 campsites
•   Involvement of qualified partner organisations
•   Two individual on-site consultations with a
    standardised checklist
•   Six basic workshops
•   Introduction of the ECOCAMPING management
•   Awarding the successful campsites
•   International ECOCAMPING network for
    sustainable development of management and
•   Public relation and marketing
Camping causes climate change …

• Traffic by customers and staff                            Emission of greenhouse gases
• Hot water production
• Heating systems                                      16
• Electricity consumption                              12

• Use of products with indirect                        10
  emissions                  kg CO2-equivalent/night
• Infrastructure (buildings, paths…)                    4
                                                              Hotel   Campsite

… and is effected by climate change
 • Floodwater, storms, fire
 • Summer: too rainy or too dry
 • Winter: less snow in skiing-resorts
Possibilities for campsites to contribute to climate
•   Renewable energy (solar, biomass)
•   Increase in energy efficiency
•   Alternative mobility in the destination
    (bicycle, public transport, hiking)
•   Energy recycling (heat pump with
    waste water or ventilation)
•   Energy-saving light-bulbs
•   Recycling of waste materials
    (PET, plastics, metal etc.)
          Good practice example:
Solar Boats Network – Renewable Energies

      Project realised by:
      Global Nature Fund
      Financial support by:
      Bundesministerium für Umwelt
      and Umweltbundesamt (UBA)
      Selling of the special post mark
      „Erneuerbare Energien“
      (renewable energies)
Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!
 Thank you very much for your attention!
   Marion Hammerl, Lake Constance Foundation
                   Further Information
  TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES Davos, Switzerland
• Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges - Advanced
  Summary October 2007
• Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector:
  Frameworks, Tools and Practices
• 20 20 by 2020 Europe's Climate change opportunity, 23.1.2008 COM(2008) 30
• Traveling with Climate in Mind, TIES 2008
• Voluntary Offsetting of Flight Emissions: An effective way to mitigate the
  environmental impacts of long-haul tourism? TIES/ W. Strasdas 2007
• Sustainable Tourism Criteria:
• DestiNet:
• Reisepavillon: International Alternative Tourism Fair
• ECOTRANS: European Network for Sustainable Tourism Development