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					            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

           TOPIC 1: HOMEOSTASIS AND THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY



UNIT : LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

The students will define the characteristics and needs common to all living things, and the
manner in which the human body is organized to accomplish life processes.
        LEARNER OUTCOMES                            INDICATORS OF LEARNING
       Define anatomy and physiology        Lab 1: Scientific Method and Measurements
        and explain their relationship       Lab 2: Body Organization and Terminology
       Describe various levels of
        structural organization within the
        human body, and explain how          TEXT/RESOURCES
        they are related                     Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Define and identify the              Physiology
        importance of homeostasis to
        health and describe an example       Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        of a homeostatic mechanism                                           th
                                             Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
       Use proper anatomical
        terminology to describe              Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        directional terms, body regions,     Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
        planes of reference and body
        cavities                             Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       Identify correct organ systems for   links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        each organ using a human torso       labeling activities)
        model or diagrams
       Identify major body cavities and     Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
        the organs within                    Coloring Workbook (CW)


                                             EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS

                                             Human skeleton

                                             Dissectible torso (manikin
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                                     TOPIC 2: CELLS

UNIT: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

An understanding of cell structure is basic to understanding how cells support life at the
cellular and organismic levels
        LEARNER OUTCOMES                             INDICATORS OF LEARNING
       Describe the structure of the         Lab 3: Care and use of the Compound
        plasma membrane and how               Microscope
        structure relates to function
       Identify the major organelles of a    Lab 4: Cell Structure and Function
        cell, their structure and their
        function                              Lab 5: Movements Through Cell Membranes
       Define the types of movement          (Parts A, B, D)
        through a membrane, including
        osmosis, active transport,            Lab 6: The Cell Cycle
        diffusion, facilitated diffusion,
        filtration, endocytosis, and
        exocytosis
                                              TEXT/RESOURCES
                                              Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Identify and describe the stages
                                              Physiology
        of mitosis and cytokinesis
       Locate, identify and describe the     Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        function of major parts of a                                          th
                                              Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        compound microscope
       Demonstrate proper care and use       Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        of a microscope by examining          Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
        cheek cells
       Distinguish between hypertonic,       Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
        hypotonic and isotonic solutions      links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        and describe their impact on cells    labeling activities)

                                              Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                              Coloring Workbook (CW)
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
Slides of 3 colored threads
Methylene blue stain or iodine-potassium-iodide
stain
Animal cell model
Slides of human tissues
Petri dishes
Potassium permanganate crystals
Thistle tube
Selectively permeable membranes (dialysis
tubing)
Glass funnel
Powdered charcoal
Glucose
Benedict’s Solution
Animal mitosis models
Microscope slides of whitefish mitosis (blastula)
Slide of human chromosomes from leukocytes in
mitosis
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                                   TOPIC 3: TISSUES

UNIT: Levels of Organization

The characteristics of a tissue remain the same regardless of where it occurs in the body.
Knowledge of these characteristics is basic to understanding how a specific tissue contributes
to the function of an organ.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                            INDICATORS OF LEARNING
       Identify the four primary tissue     Lab 7: Epithelial Tissues
        families of the body (epithelial,
        connective, muscular, nervous)       Lab 8: Connective Tissues
        and their chief subcategories.
       Explain how the four major tissue    Lab 9: Muscle and Nervous Tissues
        types differ structurally and
        functionally.
       Discuss the process of tissue        TEXT/RESOURCES
        repair and the inflammatory          Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        response                             Physiology
       Examine and differentiate
        between various kinds of tissue      Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        using a microscope and                                               th
                                             Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        prepared slides including:
         epithelial: squamous, stratified,   Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                 cuboidal, columnar, and     Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
                 transitional
         connective: adipose, blood,         Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
                 cartilage, bone, dense,     links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
                 areolar                     labeling activities)
          nervous: neuron, neuroglia
        muscular: smooth, skeletal,          Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
        cardiac                              Coloring Workbook (CW)
       State the location of the tissue
        types in the body
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
Prepared slides of
-simple squamous epithelium (lung)
-simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)
-simple columnar epithelium (small intestine)
-pseudostatified (ciliated) columnar epithelium
(trachea)
-stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)
-transitional epithelium (bladder)
-loose (areolar) connective tissue
-dense connective tissue
-adipose tissue
-hyaline cartilage
-elastic cartilage
-fibrocartilage
-bone (compact, ground, cross-section)
-blood (human)
-skeletal muscle
-cardiac muscle
-nervous tissue (spinal cord and-or cerebellum)
           HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                      CONTENT STANDARDS

                    TOPIC 4: SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES

UNIT: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

Knowledge of membranes and the integumentary system is essential to understanding how
the body controls interactions between internal and external environments.


      LEARNER OUTCOMES                               INDICATORS OF LEARNING
     List the general functions of each      Lab 10: Integumentary System
      membrane type-cutaneous,
      mucous, serous, and synovial-and
      give its location in the body           TEXT/RESOURCES
     Compare the structure (tissue           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
      makeup)of the major membrane            Physiology
      types
     Summarize the functions of the          Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                              th
      skin and explain how these              Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
      functions are accomplished
      Describe the structure and             Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
      function of the dermis and              Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
      epidermal layers
     Name the factors that determine         Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
      skin color, and describe the            links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
      function of melanin.                    labeling activities)
      Name the glands of the skin, their
                                              Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
      function, and describe the
                                              Coloring Workbook (CW)
      secretions they produce
      (sebaceous, sweat, apocrine,
      eccrine)
      Describe the accessory organs of
                                              EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                              Slides of human scalp or axilla
        the skin and their function (nails,
                                              Forceps
        hair)
      Identify some health disorders of
        the integumentary system and
        their causes such as skin cancer,
        burns, acne
     Distinguish between the
      epidermis, dermis and
      subcutaneous layers of the skin
      using anatomical structures and
      function
     Identify the layers of the skin, hair
      follicles and glands in a prepared
      slide and diagram
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                             TOPIC 5: SKELETAL SYSTEM

UNIT: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

The skeleton is arranged to facilitate support and movement of the body as well as protection of
vital organs. Bones also store essential nutrients.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                              INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       List and explain the function of the   Lab 12: Organization of the Skeleton
        skeletal system
       Differentiate between the basic        Select sections from each of the following labs:
        structure of compact and               Lab 13: The skull
        cancellous bone                        Lab 14: Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
        Identify microscopic bone             Lab 15: Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
        structures including Haversian         Lab 16: Pectoral Girdle and Lower Limb
        systems, osteocytes, osteoclasts,
        osteoblasts, bone matrix,              TEXT/RESOURCES
        periosteum                             Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Explain the process of bone            Physiology
        formation, growth and repair
       List and identify the bones which      Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                               th
        make up the appendicular and           Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        axial skeleton
       Describe some disorders and            Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        diseases affecting the skeletal        Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
        system such as osteomalacia,
        rickets, osteoarthritis,               Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
        rheumatoid arthritis,                  links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        compound/simple fractures,             labeling activities)
        bursitis, osteoporosis
       Distinguish between the axial          Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
        skeleton and the appendicular          Coloring Workbook (CW)
        skeleton
       Locate and name the major bones        EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
        of the human skeleton                  Human long bone, sectioned longitudinally
       Distinguish by examination the         Slide of ground, compact bone
        different types of vertebrae           Human skeleton
       Identify bones and their major         Human skull
        processes from an assembled
        and disarticulated skeleton
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                               TOPIC 6: ARTICULATIONS

UNIT: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT
Movement is a characteristic of living things, and the type of joint dictates the possible motions.


        LEARNER OUTCOMES                              INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       Describe and locate the different      Lab 17: The Joints
        types of joints including synovial,
        fibrous, and cartilaginous, and
        compare the amount of movement
        allowed by each
       Distinguish between the following
        movements: flexion/extension,
        rotation/circumduction,                TEXT/RESOURCES
        abduction/adduction, and               Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        supination/pronation                   Physiology
       compare major categories of
        joints as to their structure and       Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        mobility                                                               th
                                               Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
       Demonstrate or identify the
        various body movements                 Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                               Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)

                                               Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
                                               links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
                                               labeling activities)

                                               Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                               Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                               EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                               Knee joint model
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                            TOPIC 7: MUSCULAR SYSTEM

UNIT: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

Knowledge of muscle characteristics and functions is essential to understanding movement and
posture, as well as providing a foundation for the study of other organ systems.

       LEARNER OUTCOMES                               INDICATORS OF LEARNING

      Describe similarities and               Lab 18: Skeletal Muscle Structure
       differences in the structure and
       function of the three types of          Select sections from each of the following labs:
       muscle tissue, and indicate where       Lab 19: Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck
       they are found in the body              Lab 20: Muscles of the Chest, shoulder, and
      Describe the gross and                  Upper Limb
       microscopic anatomy of skeletal         Lab 21: Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and
       muscle                                  Pelvic Outlet
      Describe how an action potential        Lab 22: Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb
       is initiated in a muscle cell and the
       events of muscle cell contraction       TEXT/RESOURCES
       Describe graded response,              Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       tetanus, isotonic and isometric         Physiology
       contractions, and muscle tone as
       these terms apply to a skeletal         Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                               th
       muscle                                  Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
      Identify some human superficial
       muscles including their name,           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       origin, insertion , antagonist          Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
       muscle group, and primary action
      List and describe some                  Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       problems/diseases of the                links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
       muscular system such as cerebral        labeling activities)
       palsy, muscular dystrophy, and
       the use of anabolic steroids            Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
      Identify and describe each type of      Coloring Workbook (CW)
       muscle tissue microscopically
      Name and locate the major               EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
       structures of a skeletal muscle         Slide of skeletal muscle
       fiber                                   Torso with musculature
      Distinguish between the origin          Model of skeletal muscle fiber
       and insertion of a muscle               Human skull
      Describe the general actions of         Human skeleton
       prime movers, synergists, and           Muscular models of male and female pelvis
       antagonists                             Muscular models of lower and upper limbs
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                             TOPIC 8: NERVOUS SYSTEM

UNIT: REGULATION AND INTEGRATION

The nervous system coordinates and integrates the functions of other body systems so that
they function normally and homeostasis is maintained.

       LEARNER OUTCOMES                               INDICATORS OF LEARNING

      Name and describe the functions         Lab 23: Nervous Tissue and Nerves
       of the two major divisions of the
       nervous system                          Lab 24: The Reflex Arc and Reflexes
      Describe the structure of neurons
       and the function of their               Select sections from each of the following labs:
       components                              Lab 25: the Meninges and spinal Cord
      Explain how a nerve impulse is          Lab 26: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
       conducted along a neuron as well
       as from one neuron to another
       (resting potential, action potential,   TEXT/RESOURCES
       synaptic transmission)                  Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
      List the parts of a reflex arc and      Physiology
       describe its function
      Discuss the meningeal layers of         Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                               th
       the central nervous system              Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
      Name the major parts of the brain
       and spinal cord and state the           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       function of each                        Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
      Discuss the formation of
       cerebrospinal fluid and its             Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       circulation                             links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
      Contrast the structure and              labeling activities)
       function of the autonomic and
       somatic nervous system                  Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                               Coloring Workbook (CW)
   Distinguish between sympathetic       EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
    and parasympathetic divisions of      Neuron model
    the autonomic system                  Prepared slides of
   Identify disorders of the nervous     -spinal cord (smear)
    system and their causes such as       -dorsal root ganglion (section)
    Parkinson’s disease, multiple         -neuroglial cells (astrocytes)
    sclerosis, tetanus, Alzheimer’s,      -peripheral nerve (cross section and longitudinal
    strokes, poliomyelitis                section)
   Distinguish between neurons and       -spinal cord cross section with spinal nerve roots
    neuroglial cells on prepared slides   rubber percussion hammer
   Identify the major parts of a         spinal cord model
    neuron on slides or diagrams          dissectible model of human brain
   Demonstrate several reflex            anatomical charts of human brain
    actions
   Identify important anatomical         [preserved sheep brain, dissecting tray and
    areas on a spinal cord such as        instruments for advanced lab]
    nerve plexuses, connective tissue
    coverings, and white/grey matter
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                     TOPIC 9: SOMATIC AND SPECIAL SENSES

UNIT: REGULATION AND INTEGRATION

The senses allow the body to assess and adjust to the environment in order to support life.


         LEARNER OUTCOMES                              INDICATORS OF LEARNING

         Distinguish between somatic           Lab 28: The Ear and Hearing
          senses and special senses
         Name the five kinds of receptors      Lab 29: The Eye (Procedure A)
          and explain their functions
         Explain the relationship between
          the senses of smell and taste
          and the mechanism for each
         Name the parts of the ear and         TEXT/RESOURCES
          the function of each                  Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
         Name the parts of the eye and         Physiology
          the function of each
         Identify the major ear structures     Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
     
                                                                                th
          Trace the pathway of sound            Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
          vibrations from the tympanic
          membrane to the hearing               Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
          receptors                             Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
         Identify the major eye structures
         List the structures through which     Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
          light passes as it travels from the   links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
          cornea to the retina                  labeling activities)

                                                Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                                Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                                EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                                Dissectible ear model
                                                Dissectible eye model
                                                Rubber hammer

                                                [sheep or beef eye (preserved), dissecting tray
                                                and instruments, snellen eye chart, astigmatism
                                                chart, Ishikawa’s or Ishihara’s color plates for color
                                                blindness-for advanced labs]
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                          TOPIC 10: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

UNIT: REGULATION AND INTEGRATION

The endocrine system controls and regulates metabolic processes to maintain a relatively
constant internal environment and yet meet the changing needs of the body

         LEARNER OUTCOMES                          INDICATORS OF LEARNING

        Name and locate the major          Lab 31: Endocrine System
         endocrine glands and tissues of
         the body from a model or
         diagram
      Differentiate between the effects
         of steroid and non-steroid
         hormones on target cells
      List hormones produced by the        TEXT/RESOURCES
         endocrine glands and the           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
         physiological effects of each      Physiology
      Describe how the hypothalamus
         regulates hormone secretion        Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
         from the pituitary gland                                           th
                                            Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
      Describe pathological
         consequences of hypersecretion     Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
         and hyposecretion of various       Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
         hormones
      Describe and give an example of      Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
         a negative feedback mechanism      links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
         in hormonal production and         labeling activities)
         control
Optional: examine glandular tissue under    Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
a microscope                                Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                            EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                            Human torso model
                                            Prepared slides of
                                            -pituitary gland
                                            -thyroid gland
                                            -parathyroid gland
                                            -adrenal gland
                                            -pancreas
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                                   TOPIC 11: BLOOD

UNIT: TRANSPORT

The structure of blood helps meet the oxygenation needs of the cells, allows recognition and
rejection of foreign protein, and controls the coagulation of blood.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                            INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       List the functions of blood          Lab 32: Blood Cells (Procedure A and B)
       Describe the structure, function
        and life cycle of erythrocytes       Optional: Understanding the Genetics of Blood
       Identify the various types of        Groups Using Neo/Blood (NeoSci #20-2133)
        leukocytes and the role each plays
        in the body
       Describe the components of
        plasma and give their functions      TEXT/RESOURCES
       Describe the major events of         Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        hemostasis                           Physiology
       Explain the basis of ABO and Rh
        incompatibilities                    Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
   
                                                                             th
        Identify various disorders of the    Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        blood such as anemia, leukemia,
        hemophilia, polycythemia             Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Examine blood cells, identifying     Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
        erythrocytes and the five types of
        leukocytes                           Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       Perform a differential white blood   links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        cell count and give examples of      labeling activities)
        disorders that produce abnormal
        blood test values                    Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                             Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                             EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                             Prepared slides of
                                             -human blood (wright’s stain)

                                             [slides of eosinophilia, leukocytosis, leucopenia,
                                             lymphocytosis, leukemia, anemia for advanced
                                             labs]
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                      TOPIC 12: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

UNIT: TRANSPORT

In conjunction with blood and the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system transports
oxygen and nutrients to the cells, and transports wastes away from the cells.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                              INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       Describe the structure and             Lab 35: Structure of the Heart (Procedure A)
        function of the heart
       Describe the flow of blood through     Select sections from the following labs:
        the heart, naming each chamber,        Lab 37: Blood Vessels
        valve, and vessel through which        Lab 38: Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure
        the blood passes                       Lab 39: Major Arteries and Veins
       Explain the structure and function
        of the conduction system of the        TEXT/RESOURCES
        heart                                  Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Distinguish between systemic,          Physiology
        cardiac, and pulmonary circulation
       Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic   Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                               th
        regulation of the heart                Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
       Distinguish between an artery,
        vein, and capillary based on           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        structure, location, and function      Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
       Describe the exchange of material
        across the capillary membrane          Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       Explain the mechanisms of return       links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        of venous blood to the heart           labeling activities)
       Describe how blood pressure is
        created, monitored, and controlled     Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                               Coloring Workbook (CW)
   Identify some major vessels of the   EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
    body and the areas they service      Dissectible human heart model
   Identify various disorders such as   Prepared slides of
    tachycardia, heart murmurs,          -artery cross section
    pericarditis, coronary heart         -vein cross section
    disease, heart failure, aneurysm,    sphygmomanometer
    hypertension, arteriosclerosis       human torso
   Identify major structural features   anatomical charts of cardiovascular system
    of the heart using a model
   Examine pulse, determine pulse       [preserved sheep or other mammalian heart,
    rates                                dissecting tray and instruments, stethoscope, 70%
   If possible, use a stethoscope to    alcohol for advance labs]
    identify cardiac cycle sounds and
    a sphygmomanometer to measure
    blood pressure
   Locate major arteries and veins in
    the pulmonary and systemic
    circuits using a chart or model
   Distinguish between a cross
    section of an artery and vein
    microscopically
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                           TOPIC 13: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

UNIT: PROTECTION

The lymphatic system transports fluid to and from the tissues to maintain fluid balance in the
body’s tissues. It plays a major role in defense against pathogens.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                             INDICATORS OF LEARNING

      Describe the structure and             Lab 40: Lymphatic System
       principal functions of the lymph
       system
     Describe how lymph is formed
       and transported
     Name three lymphatic organs and
       explain the functions of each
      Locate and identify the major          TEXT/RESOURCES
       lymphatic pathways                     Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
      Describe the structure of a lymph      Physiology
        node
      Identify the major microscopic         Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                              th
        structures of a lymph node,           Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        thymus, and spleen
                                              Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                              Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)

                                              Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
                                              links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
                                              labeling activities)

                                              Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                              Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                              EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                              Human torso
                                              Anatomical chart of lymphatic system
                                              Prepared slides of
                                              -lymph node section
                                              -human thymus section
                                              -human spleen section
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                           TOPIC 14: IMMUNE SYSTEM

UNIT: PROTECTION

In conjunction with the lymphatic system, the immune system’s mechanisms defend the body
against specific threats.

       LEARNER OUTCOMES                           INDICATORS OF LEARNING

      Distinguish between innate (non-    SG 120-124
       specific) and adaptive (specific)
       defenses and provide examples of
       each
      Differentiate between antibody
       and antigen
      Compare the functions of the B-
       and T-cell lymphocytes              TEXT/RESOURCES
      Discuss the relationship between    Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       the HIV virus and the immune        Physiology
       system
       diseases, AIDS                      Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                                                           th
                                           Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition

                                           Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
                                           Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)

                                           Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
                                           links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
                                           labeling activities)

                                           Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
                                           Coloring Workbook (CW)

                                           EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
                                           None required
            HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                       CONTENT STANDARDS

                           TOPIC 15: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

UNIT: NUTRIENT AND GAS EXCHANGE

Knowledge of the digestive systems illustrates how fuel is made available for metabolism, which
enables the cells to function, grow, and reproduce.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                            INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       Describe the location and            Lab 41: Organs of the Digestive System
        functions of the organs of the
        alimentary canal
       Explain the difference between       Lab 42: Action of a Digestive Enzyme
        mechanical and enzymatic
        digestion and the organs which
        perform each
       Describe mastication, deglutition,   TEXT/RESOURCES
        and peristalsis                      Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Label the parts of a typical tooth   Physiology
        and describe the functions of the
        different types of teeth             Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Explain the role of the accessory                                    th
                                             Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        organs in the digestive process,
        including the salivary glands,       Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        pancreas, gall bladder, and liver    Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
       Discuss the functions and sources
        of the major enzymes including       Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
        amylase, pepsin, lipase, trypsin,    links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        proteases                            labeling activities)
       List the stomach secretions,
        describe their functions, and        Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
        explain how each is regulated        Coloring Workbook (CW)
   Identify the major components of        EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
    pancreatic secretion, their             Human torso
    functions and how they are              Skull with teeth
    regulated                               Teeth, sectioned
   Describe bile, its source,              Tooth model, sectioned
    composition, function and               Prepared slides of
    regulation                              -parotid gland (salivary gland)
   List the major functions of the liver   -esophagus
   List the anatomical and                 -stomach (fundus)
    histological characteristics of the     -small intestine (jejunum)
    small intestine that account for its    -large intestine
    large surface area                      amylase (sugar free)
   List the anatomical and                 distilled water
    histological characteristics and        pipets-1 ml and 10 ml
    functions of the large intestine        pipet rubber bulbs
   Explain the hepatic portal system       iodine-potassium-iodide solution
    and its relation to the digestive       waterbath
    system                                  porcelain test plate
   Describe the processes of               benedict’s solution
    carbohydrate, lipid, and protein        hot plates
    digestion, absorption, and
    metabolism
   Describe the diseases/disorders
    of the digestive system such as
    heartburn, gastric/duodenal
    ulcers, hepatitis, appendicitis,
    jaundice, cirrhosis, constipation,
    diarrhea
   Locate and identify digestive and
    accessory organs with a model
   Describe the histology of the
    gastrointestinal wall, including the
    four layers, villi, and microvilli
   Investigate the action of
    pancreatic enzymes on
    carbohydrates and/or lipids and
    the effect of temperature on
    enzymatic activity
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                          TOPIC 16: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

UNIT: NUTRIENT AND GAS EXCHANGE

Knowledge of how air is taken into the lungs and oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged, as
well as how this is controlled, is vital to understanding how cells produce energy to sustain life.

        LEARNER OUTCOMES                               INDICATORS OF LEARNING

       Name the structures and describe
        the functions of the upper and         Lab 43: Organs of the Respiratory System
        lower respiratory tracts
       Identify respiratory air volumes
        during normal and forceful
                                               TEXT/RESOURCES
        breathing efforts
                                               Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
       Describe the mechanisms
                                               Physiology
        responsible for inspiration and
        expiration, including pressure
                                               Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        changes, muscular contractions,                                        th
                                               Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
        and nervous control
       Explain how alterations in blood       Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
        carbon dioxide levels, blood pH,       Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
        and blood oxygen levels effect
        respiration                            Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
       Discuss the role of partial            links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
        pressure in the exchange of            labeling activities)
        gasses in lungs and tissues
       Explain the role of hemoglobin in      Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
        the transport of gases                 Coloring Workbook (CW)
       Describe three ways in which
        carbon dioxide is carried in the
        blood                                  EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
       Identify respiratory problems and      Human skull (sagittal section)
        causes of conditions such as           Human torso
        tuberculosis, emphysema,               Larynx model
        asthma, pneumonia, pleurisy, lung      Thoracic organs model
        cancer, hyperventilation, and          Prepared slides of
        cystic fibrosis                        -trachea (cross section)
                                               -lung, human

       Label the major respiratory
        system structures on a diagram or
        model
       Recognize ciliated epithelium and
        lung tissue on a microscopic slide
       Trace the movement of air
        through the respiratory tract
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

                              TOPIC 17: URINARY SYSTEM

UNIT: WASTE REMOVAL

The urinary system helps maintain homeostasis be excreting nitrogenous waste products and
selectively excreting or retaining water and electrolytes.

      LEARNER OUTCOMES                                 INDICATORS OF LEARNING

   List the organs of the urinary system       Lab 45: Structure of the Kidney
    and state a function of each
   Describe the structure and location of      Lab 46: Urinalysis
    the nephron within the kidney and
    explain the functions of its parts
   Trace the path of blood through the
    renal blood vessels
   Explain the production and                  TEXT/RESOURCES
    composition of glomerular filtrate          Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
   Identify principal factors that influence   Physiology
    filtration pressure and explain how
    they affect the rate of filtration          Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
   Trace the path of filtrate through a                                        th
                                                Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
    renal tubule
   Explain tubular reabsorption and            Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
    secretion and how they affect the           Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
    composition of urine
   Explain the regulation of urine             Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
    concentration and volume dealing with       links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
    hormonal, neural, and chemical              labeling activities)
    controls
   Describe the micturition reflex             Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
   Discuss disorders such as renal             Coloring Workbook (CW)
    failure, dialysis, kidney stones, and
    cystitis                                    EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
   Describe the location of the kidneys        Human torso
   Locate and identify the gross               Kidney model
    anatomical features of a kidney using       Urinometer cylinder and hydrometer
    a model or diagram                          Reagent strips (Chemstrip or Multistix) for
   Describe the features of a nephron          presence ofg lucose, ketones, protein, bilirubin,
    and locate them in a model                  hemoglobin/occult blood
   Conduct urinalysis tests and use them       Centrifuge
    to determine the substances present         Centrifuge tubes
    in a urine specimen                         Sedi-stain
                                                Normal and abnormal simulated urine specimens
                                                [preserved pig or sheep kidney, dissecting tray
                                                and instruments, prepared slide of kidney section
                                                for advanced lab]
             HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                        CONTENT STANDARDS

         TOPIC 18: MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

UNIT: REPRODUCTION

Reproductive systems are essential to the survival of the species, but ot to survival of the
individual. Understanding the processes of sexual function provides an enlightened
understanding of humans as sexual beings.

      LEARNER OUTCOMES                                INDICATORS OF LEARNING

   Name the parts of the male and            Lab 47: Male Reproductive System
    female reproductive system and their      Lab 48: Female Reproductive System
    functions
   Describe the structure of the testes
    and ovaries and the formation of
    gametes
   Describe the route sperm cells follow
    from the site of their production to      TEXT/RESOURCES
    outside the body                          Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
   Describe the structure of the penis       Physiology
   Explain the hormonal control of male
    and female reproduction                   Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
   Describe the process of ovulation and                                     th
                                              Physiology Laboratory Manual, 9 edition
    fertilization
   Trace the pathway of an egg after         Glencoe: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy &
    ovulation                                 Physiology Student Study Guide (SG)
   List major events of the menstrual
    cycle                                     Online Learning Center (OLC) (quizzes, website
   Discuss disorders such as breast          links, clinical applications, interactive activities,
    cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease,      labeling activities)
    infertility, prostate cancer, and
    sexually transmitted diseases             Marieb, Elaine N., anatomy and Physiology
   Examine microscopic structures of         Coloring Workbook (CW)
    mammalian ovary and sperm, relating
    structure to function                     EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
   Locate and name the structures of the     Human torso
    male and female reproductive              Models of male and female reproductive systems
    systems using a model or diagram          Anatomical charts of male and female
   Describe the effects of FSH and LH        reproductive systems
    on ovarian and testicular function        Prepared slides of
                                              -epididymis, cross-section
                                              -penis, cross section
                                              -testis section
                                              -ovary with maturing follicles
                                              -uterine tube, cross section
                                              -uterine wall section

				
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