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Medical Word Parts – English-Example
 combining forms,
                                        Meaning                    Terminology
 prefix, suffix                                                                     combining forms,
                                                                                                                        Meaning                     Terminology
 a-                 not, without                              apnea                 prefix, suffix
 ab-                away from                                 abnormal              arter/o            artery
 abdomin/o          abdomen                                   abdominal             arteri/o           artery                                  arteriole
 -ac                pertaining to                             cardiac               arteriol/o         small artery                            arteriole
 acous/o            hearing                                   acoustic              arthr/o            joint                                   arthritis
 acr/o              extremities, top, extreme point           acromegaly            articul/o          joint                                   articular cartilage
                                                                                    -ary               pertaining to                           pulmonary
 acu/o              sharp, severe, sudden                     acupuncture                              abnormal accumulation of fluid in the
                                                                                    ascites                                                    ascites
                                                                                                       abdomen
 ad-                toward                                    adduct                -ase               enzyme                                  liase
 aden/o             gland                                     adenoma               -asthenia          lack of strength                        myasthenia
 adip/o             fat                                       adipose               atel/o             incomplete                              atelectasis
 adren/o            adrenal glands                            adrenopathy
 aer/o              air                                       aerosol               ather/o            plaque (fatty substance)                atherosclerosis
 af-                toward                                                          -ation             process, condition                      constipation
 agglutin/o         clumping, sticking together               agglutination         atri/o             atrium                                  atrium
                                                                                    audit/o            hearing                                 audiometer
 -agon              assemble, gather, together                glucagon              aur/o              ear                                     auricle
                                                                                    auto-              self                                    autopsy
 -agra              excessive pain                            pellagra              azot/o             nitrogen                                azotemia
 -al                pertaining to                             medical               bi-                two                                     bicuspid
 alb/o              white                                                           bi/o               life                                    biology
 albin/o/i          white                                     albinism              bil/i              gall, bile                              biliary
 albumin/o          protein                                                         -blast             immature cell                           osteoblast
 -algesia           excessive sensitivity to pain             analgesia             bol/o              to cast                                 anabolism
                                                                                    brachi/o           arm                                     brachial artery
 -algia             pain                                      myalgia
                                                                                    brady-             slow                                    bradycardia
 all/o              other                                     allergy
                                                                                    bronch/o/i         bronchus                                bronchospasm
 alveol/o           alveolus, air sac                         alveolar
                                                                                    bucc/o             cheek                                   buccal mucosa
 amnesia            loss of memory                            amnesia
                                                                                    cac/o              bad                                     cachexia
 amyl/o             starch                                    amylase
                                                                                    calc/o             calcium                                 calcium
 -an                pertaining to
                                                                                    calci/o            calcium                                 calcitonin
 an-                no, not, without                          anemia
                                                                                    cali/o             calix, calyx                            caliectomy
 an/o               anal                                      anal
                                                                                    capn/o             carbon dioxide                          hypercapnea
 ana-               up                                        anabolic
                                                                                    carcin/o           cancer                                  carcinoma
 andr/o             male                                      androgen
                                                                                    -caries            decay                                   denticaries
 aneurysm/o         widened blood vessel                      aneurysm              carp/o             wrist bones                             carpal
                                                                                    cata-              down                                    catabolism
 angi/o             vessel                                    angioplasty
                                                                                    caus/o             burning                                 causalgia
 anis/o             unequal                                   anisocytosis
                                                                                    cec/o              cecum                                   cecum
 anorexia           an+or+exia                                lack of appetite
                                                                                    -cele              hernia                                  rectocele
 ante-              before, forward                           anteversion
 anter/o            front, before                             anteroir              -centesis          surgical puncture to remove fluid       thoracocentesis
 anthrac/o          black (as coal)                           anthracosis
                                                                                    cephal/o           head                                    cephalic
 anti-              against                                   antidote
                                                                                    cerebr/o           cerebrum                                cerebral
 anxi/o             uneasy, distressed                        anxiolytics
                                                                                    cervic/o           neck of uterus                          cervical
 aort/o             aorta                                     aortic aneurysm
                                                                                    -chalasia          relaxation                              achalasia
                    absence of emotion; lack of interest or
 apathy                                                       apathy                chem/o             drug, chemical                          chemotherapy
                    emotional involvement
 -apheresis         removal, carry away                       plasmapheresis        -chezia            defecation, elimination of waste        hematochezia
 aphth/o            ulcer                                     aphthous stomatitis   chlor/o            green                                   chlorophyll
 apnea              not, without                              apnea                 chol/e             gall, bile                              cholelithiasis
 apo-               off, away                                 apoptosis             cholecyst/o        gallbladder                             cholecystectomy
 append/o/i         appendix                                  appendectomy          chondr/o           cartilage                               chondroma
 aque/o             water                                     aqueous humor         chrom/o            color                                   chromophore
 -ar                pertaining to                             tosillar
                                                                                                                                                                         2
combining forms,
                                     Meaning                      Terminology
prefix, suffix
chron/o            time                                      chronic
                                                                                   combining forms,
cib/o              meals                                     post cibum                                                 Meaning                        Terminology
                                                                                   prefix, suffix
cin/o              movement                                  cineradiography
                                                                                   -ema               condition                                  empyema
cirrh/o            tawny yellow                              cirrhosis
                                                                                   -emesis            vomiting                                   hematemesis
cis/o              to cut                                    incision
                                                                                   -emia              blood condition                            leukemia, uremia
-clast             to break                                  osteoclast
                                                                                                                                                 collection of pus (in
coagul/o           clotting                                  coagulation           empyema            em/py/ema
                                                                                                                                                 the pleural cavity)
-coccus            berry-shape bacterium                     staphylococcus        en-                in, within                                 endoscope
                                                                                   encephal/o         brain                                      encephalopathy
coccyg/o           coccyx (tailbone)                         coccygeal
                                                                                   endo-              in, within                                 endoscope
col/o              colon                                     colonectomy
                                                                                   enter-             intestine                                  enteritis
comat/o            deep sleep                                comatose
                                                                                   eosin/o            red, dawn, rosy                            eosinophil
con-               with, together                            incontinence
                                                                                   epi-               above                                      epidermis
constipation       difficult, delayed elimination of feces                         epiglott/o         epiglottis
contra-            against, opposite                         contraindication      epitaxis           nose blood (เลือดกาเดาไหล)                 epitaxis
cor/o              pupil                                     anisocoria
                                                                                   -er                person                                     radiographer
corne/o            cornea                                    cornea
                                                                                   erg/o              work                                       synergism
coron/o            heart                                     coronary artery
                                                                                   erythr/o           red                                        erythrocyte
cost/o             rib                                       costal
                                                                                   es/o               inward                                     esophagus
crani/o            skull                                     craniotomy
cras/o             mixture                                   idiosyncrasy          -esthesia          nervous sensation (feeling)                anesthesia
crin/o             secrete                                   endocrine
                                                                                   eu-                good, normal                               euphoria
cry/o              cold                                      cryogenic surgery
                                                                                   ex-                out                                        exision
crypt/o            hidden                                    cryptococcal
                                                                                   exo-               out                                        exocrine
cutane/o           skin                                      subcutaneous
                                                                                   faci/o             face                                       facial
cyan/o             blue                                      cyanosis
                                                                                   fibr/o             fibers                                     fibrosarcoma
-cyesis            pregnacy                                  pseudocyesis
                                                                                                      the presence of gas in both the stomach
cyst/o             urinary bladder                           cystitis              flatus                                                        flatulence
                                                                                                      and the intestine
cyt/o              cell                                      cytoplasm
                                                                                   flex/o             to bend                                    reflex
-cyte              cell                                      erythrocyte
                                                                                   follicul/o         small glandular sacs                       follicular
                   abnormal condition of cells (slight
-cytosis                                                     macrocytosis          fracture           sudden braeking of bone                    fracture
                   increase in cell numbers)
dacry/o            tears, tear duct                          dacryoadenitis        fung/o             fungus, mushroom                           fungating tumor
de-                down, lack of                             deficiency            galact/o           milk                                       galactorrhea
dent/i             tooth                                     dental                gastr/i/o          stomach                                    gastritis
derm/o             skin                                      epidermis             -genesis           forming                                    pathogenesis
dermat/o           skin                                      dermatology
-desis             to bind, tie together                     arthrodesis           -genic             pertaining to producing                    carcinogenic
dia-               through, complete                         diagnosis             gingiv/o           gums                                       gingivitis
diaphro/o-         sweat                                     diaphroresis          glauc/o            gray                                       glaucoma
diarrhea           frequent, loose, watery stools            diarrhea              -globin            protein                                    hemoglobin
                                                                                   -globulin          protein                                    gamma globulin
dipl/o             doulble                                   diplopia              gloss/o            tongue                                     hypoglossal
dips/o             thirst                                    polydipsia            gluc/o             sugar                                      glucosuria
dist-              far                                       distal                gnos/i             knowledge                                  diagnosis
dors/o             back                                      dorsal                gon/o              seed                                       gonorrhea
duct/o             to lead, carry                            abduction             gonad/o            sex glands                                 gonadotropin
duoden/o           small intestine                           duodenum              -gram              record                                     electrorncephalogram
dys-               bad, painful, difficult, abnormal         dyspepsia             -graph             instrument for recording                   angiograph
-eal               pertaining to                             peritoneal            -graphy            process of recording
ec-                out, outside                              ectopic pregnancy     gynec/o            woman, female                              gynecomastia
-ectasis           stretching, dilation, dilatation          brochiectasis         hallucin/o         hallucination                              hallucination
                                                                                   hem/o              blood                                      hemolysis
ecto-              out, outside                              ectopic pregnancy
                                                                                   hemat/o            blood                                      hematoma
-ectomy            excision                                  nephrectomy
                                                                                                      bright, fresh, red blood discharged from
electr/o           electricity                               electrocardiography   hematochezia
                                                                                                      the rectum
em-                in                                        empyema
                                                                                                                                                                              3

combining forms,                                                                          combining forms,
                                         Meaning                       Terminology                                              Meaning                        Terminology
prefix, suffix                                                                            prefix, suffix
hemi-              half                                           hemisphere              -lepsy             seizure                                      Epilepsy
                                                                                          lept/o             thin, slender                                Leptomenningitis
hemoptysis         splitting of blood (เป็ นเลือด)                hem/o/ptysis
                                                                                          -leptic            to seize hold of                             neuroleptic drug
hepat/o            liver                                          hepatitis               leth/o             death                                        lethal
herni/o            hernia                                         herniorhaphy            leuk/o             white                                        leukoderma
-hexia             habit                                          cachexia                leuk/o             white                                        leukemia
hidr/o             sweat                                          anhidrosis              lingu/o            tongue                                       sublingual
hist/o             tissue                                         histology               lip/o              fat                                          lipotrophy
home/o             sameness                                       homeostasis             -listhesis         slipping                                     spondylolisthesis
hyper-             excessive                                      hyperplasia             lith/o             stone                                        nephrolithiasis
hypn/o             sleep                                          hypnotic                -logy              study of                                     oncology
hypo-              deficient, below                               hypoglycemia            -lucent            to shine                                     radiolucent
hyster/o           uterus, womb                                   hysterectomy            lute/o             yellow                                       luteum
-ia                condition                                      pneumonia
                                                                                          -lysis             breakdown, destruction, separation
-iac               pertaining to                                  cardiac
-iasis             abnormal condition                             cholelithiasis          macro-             large                                        macroblast
iatr/o             treatment                                      psychiatry              mal-               bad                                          malignant
-ic                pertaining to                                  neurological            -malacia           softening                                    osteomalacia
-ic                pertaining to                                  chronic                 mamm/o             breast                                       mammogram
-ical              pertaining to                                  neurological            mandibul/o         lower jaw, mandible                          mandibular
ichthy/o           scaly, dry (severe)                            ichthyosis
                                                                                          -mania             obsessive preoccupation                      pharmacomania
ile/o              ileum                                          ileostomy
immun/o            protection                                     immunodeficiency        mast/o             breast                                       gynecomastia
in-                into, in                                       incision                megal/o            large                                        megaloblast
in-                not                                            incontinence            -megaly            enlargement                                  acromegaly
-ine               a substance                                    epinephrine             melan/o            black                                        melanocyte
infe-              low, under                                     inferior                melen/o            black                                        melenocyte
infra-             beneath                                        infrapatellar           melena             black, tarry stool; feces containing blood
inter-             between                                        intervertebral
intra-             into, within                                   intravenous injection   men/o              menstruation, menstrual flow                 dysmenorrhea
-ion               process                                        excision
-ior               pertaining to                                  superior                mening/o/i         membrane around brain                        meningitis
is/o               same, equal                                    anisocytosis
                                                                                          ment/o             mind                                         mental
isch/o             to hold back                                   ischemia
                                                                                          meta-              beyond, change                               metabolism
-ism               process                                        embolism
                                                                                          -meter             to measure                                   thermometer
-ist               specialist                                     nephrologist
                                                                                          metr/o             uterus                                       metrorrhagia
-itis              inflammation                                   bronchitis
                                                                                          metri/o            uterus                                       endometriosis
-ium               structure, tissue, thing                       endometrium             mi/o               smaller, less                                miosis
jaund/o            yellow                                         jaundice                micro-             small                                        microcytosis
                   yellow-orange coloration of the skin or                                -mission           to send                                      admission
jaundice           other tissues due to high bilirubin level in   jaundice                mon/o              one, single                                  monocyte
                   the blood                                                              morph/o            shape, form                                  polymorphism
jejun/o            jejunum                                                                mort/o             death                                        mortality
kal/i              potassium                                      hypokalemia             muc/o              mucous                                       mucositis
kerat/o            hard, horny tissue                             keratosis               mucos/o            mucous membrane, mucosa                      mucositis
-kinesia           movement                                       dyskinesia
                                                                                          multi-             many                                         multifactor
-kinesis           movement                                       hyperkinesis
                                                                                          mut/a              genetic change                               mutation
klept/o            steal                                          kleptomania
                                                                                          my/o               muscle                                       myalgia
labi/o             lip                                            labial
                                                                                          myc/o              fungus                                       mycobacterium
lacrim/o           tears                                          lacrimal
                                                                                          mydr/o             widen, enlarge                               mydriasis
lact/o             milk                                           lactation
                                                                                          myel/e             bone marrow, spinal cord                     myelopathy
lapar/o            abdomen, abdiminal wall                        laparoscope
-lapse             to slide, fall, sag                            relapse                 myel/o             bone marrow, spinal cord                     myeloblast
                                                                                                                                                            4

combining forms,                                                          combining forms,
                                     Meaning          Terminology                                               Meaning                       Terminology
prefix, suffix                                                            prefix, suffix
myx/o              mucus                         Myxedema                                                                                leukopenia,
                                                                          -penia             deficiency
narc/o             stupor                        narcotic                                                                                thrombocytopenia
                                                                          -pepsia            digestion                                   dyspepsia
nas/o              nose                          nasogastric intubation
                                                                          per-               through                                     percutaneous
nat/i              birth                         neonatal                 percussion         เคาะ                                        percussion
natr/o             sodium                        hypernatremia            peri-              surrounding                                 pericardium
necr/o             death of cell                 necrosis                 phag/o             eat, swallow                                esophagus
nect/o             to bind                       connective tissue        -phagia            eating, swallowing                          polyphagia
neo-               new                           neonatal
                                                                          pharmac/o          medicine, chemical, drug
nephr/o            kidney                        nephritis
noct/u/i           night                         nocturia                 pharmaceut/o       drug                                        pharmaceutical
norm/o             rule, order                   normoblast               pharyng/o          pharynx                                     oropharyngeal
nyct/o             night                         nyctalopia               -phasia            speech                                      polyphasia
-osmia             smell                                                  phil/o             attraction to                               neutrophil
ocul/o             eye                           intraocular
                                                                          -philia            increase in cell numbers                    eosinophilia
odont/o            tooth                         orthodontist
                                                                          phleb/o            vein                                        phlebitis
odyn/o             pain caused by swallowing     odynophagia
                                                                          -phobia            fear                                        xerophobia
-oid               resembling                    adenoid                  -phoria            feeling, bearing                            euphoria
-ole               little, small                 arteriole                photophobia        fear of light
olig/o             scanty                        oliguria                 phren/o            mind                                        schizophrenia
                                                                          -physis            to grow                                     epiphysis
-oma               tumor, mass, swelling         hepatoma
                                                                          phyt/o             plant                                       dermatophytosis
onc/o              tumor                         oncology                 pil/o              hair                                        pilonidal cyst
onych/o            nail                          onychomycosis
                                                                          plas/o             formation, development                      neoplasm
ophthalm/o         eye                           ophthalmoscope
-opia              vision                        nyctalopia
                                                                          -plasia            formation, development                      hyperplasia
-opsy              process of viewing            biopsy
opt/o              eye                           optic                    -plasm             formation                                   cytoplasm
-or                one who                       doctor                   -plasty            surgical repair                             angioplasty
or/o               oral                          oropharyngeal            ple/o              many, more                                  pleomorphic
orchid/o           testis                        orchiectomy              -plegia            paralysis                                   hemiplegia
-orexia            appetite                      anorexia                 pleur/o            pleura                                         ่
                                                                                                                                         เยือช่องปอด
orth/o             straight,upright              orthopnea                -pnea              breathing                                   apnea
-ose               pertaining to, full of        glucose                  pneum/o            lung                                        pneumonia
                                                                                             accumulation of air or gas gathers in the
-osis              condition, usually abnormal   nephrosis                pneumothorax
                                                                                             lung
oste/o             bone                          osteoporosis             -poesis            formation                                   erythropoesis
ot/o               ear                           otoxicity                -poietin           substance that forms                        erythropoietin
-ous               pertaining to                 mucous                   poli/o             gray                                        polimyelitis
ox/o               oxygen                        hypoxia                  poly-              many, much                                  polydipsia
oxy-               rapid, sharp, acid            oxytocin                 polyp/o            polyp                                       polypoid timor
palat/o            palate                        palatoplasty             -porosis           pore, passage                               osteoporosis
pan-               all                           pancytopenia             post-              back                                        posteria
pancreat/o         pancreas                      pancreatic               prandal            meal                                        postprandal
                                                                          pre-               before, in front of                         precaution
par-               other than, apart from        parenteral
                                                                          pro-               before                                      prognosis
para-              near, beside, abnormal        parathyroid              proct/o            anus and rectum                             proctologist
                                                                          prostat/o          prostate gland                              prostatitis
-paresis           slight paralysis              hemiparesis              prote/o            protein                                     protease
paroxysmal         sudden                        paroxysmal               prox-              close                                       proximal
-partum            birth, labor                                           prurit/o           itching                                     antipruritic
path/o             disease                       pathogenesis             pseudo-            false                                       pseudocyesis
-pathy             disease condition             adenopathy               psych/o            mind                                        psychomotor
pector/o           chest                         expectoration
ped/o              child                         pediatric                -ptosis            drooping, sagging, prolapse                 apoptosis
                                                                                                                                                               5

combining forms,                                                                combining forms,
                                     Meaning                   Terminology                                           Meaning             Terminology
prefix, suffix                                                                  prefix, suffix
pulmon/o           lungs                                  pulmonary             suppression        to stop
py/o               pus                                    pyuria                supra-             above, upper
pyel/o             renal pelvis                           pyelonephrotis        syn-, sym-         together, with                   synergist
radi/o             x-rays                                 radiology             syncop/o           to cut off, cut short            syncope
re-                back, again                            resection             tachy-             fast                             tachycardia
rect/o             rectum                                 rectocele             tax/o              order, coordination              ataxia
ren/o              kidney                                 renal ischemia        tel/o              complete                         atelectasis
retro-             behind, backward                       retroperitoneal       ten/o              tendon
rheumat/o          watery flow                            rhumatoid arthritis   tendin/o           tendon
rhin/o             nose                                   rhinitis              thec/o             sheath                           intrathecal injection
                                                                                -therapy           treatment                        chemotherapy
-rrhage            bursting forth of blood                hemorrhage
                                                                                -thorax            chest                            hemothorax
-rrhea             flow, discharge                        menorrhea             thromb/o           clot                             thrombocyte
sagittal           lateral                                sagittal              -thymia            mind                             cyclothymia
sarc/o             flesh                                  sarcoma               -tic               pertaining to                    necrotic
schiz/o            split                                  schizophrenia         tin/o              hold                             incontinence
scirrh/o           hard                                   scirrhous             -tomy              process of cutting               esteotomy
-sclerosis         hardening                              areriosclerosis       tox/o              poison                           toxin
-scope             instrument to visully examining        endoscope             trache/o           trachea                          tracheostomy
                                                                                trans-             across                           transplant
-scopy             prcess of visual examination           laparoscopy           tri-               three                            tricuspid
                                                                                trich/o            hair                             trichomycosis
                   sebum (oily secretion from sebaceous
seb/o                                                     seborrhea             -trophy            nourishment, development         hypertrophy
                   gland)
sect/o             to cut                                 resection             -ule               little, small                    venule
sep/o              infection                              sepsis                ultra-             beyond, excess                   ultrasound
sial/o             saliva, salivary                       sialolith
sider/o            iron                                   sideropenia           -um                structure, tissue, thing         pericardium
sigmoid/o          sigmoid colon                                                ungu/o             nail                             subungual
sinus/o            sinus, cavity                          sinusitis             uni-               one                              uniform
-sis               state of                               prognosis             ur/o               urinary tract, urine             uremia
somat/o            body                                   somatotropin          ureter             ท่อไต
-somes             bodies                                 chromosomes           urethra            ท่อปั สสาวะ
somn/o             sleep                                  somnolence                                                                anuria, hemauria,
                                                                                -uria              urinaion; urine condition
son/o              sound                                  sonogram                                                                  gylcosuria
                   sudden, involuntary contraction of                           vas/o              vessel                           vasoconstriction
-spasm                                                    bronchospasm
                   muscles                                                      vascul/o           vessel                           vascular
spher/o            round                                  spherocytosis         ven/o              vein                             intravenous injection
sphygm/o           pulse                                  sphygmomanometer
                                                                                ventricul/o        ventricle, lower heart chamber   ventricular fibrillation
spir/o             breathing                              expiration
splen/o            spleen                                 splenomegaly          vesic/o            urinary bladder                  perivesical
spondyl/o          vertebra                               spondylitis
                                                                                vesicle            small blister on the skin
squam/o            scale-like                             squamous
stomat/o           oral                                   stomatitis            viscer/o           internal organs                  visceral
staphyl/o          cluster                                staphylococcus        vit/o              life                             vitamin
-stasis            stop, control, place                   homeostasis           vitr/o             glass                            in vitro
steat/o            fat                                    steatorrhea           viv/o              life                             in vivo
                                                                                xanth/o            yellow                           xanthoma
-stenosis          tightening, stricture, narrowing       pyloric stenosis
                                                                                xer/o              dry (mild)                       xerophobia
ster/o             solid structure                        steroid               -y                 condition, process               acromegaly
steth/o            chest                                  stethoscope
-stomy             opening to form a mouth                colostomy
strept/o           twisted chain                          streptococcal
sub-               below, under                           subtherapeutic
super-             over, above                            superior

				
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